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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33348794

RESUMO

Chronic pain is common among refugees, and often related to mental health problems. Its management, however, is often challenging. A randomized waitlist-controlled trial was designed to study the effect of group physiotherapy activity and awareness intervention (PAAI) on reducing pain disorders, and secondarily improving mental health, among Syrian refugees. A total of 101 adult Syrian refugees suffering from chronic pain were randomized to either the intervention group or the control group, which thereafter also received PAAI after a waiting period. Pain intensity measured by the Brief Pain Inventory (BPI) was the primary outcome. Scores from the Impact of Events Scale-Revised (IES-R 22) and the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) were secondary outcomes. Intention-to-treat analyses (ITT) showed no effect of the intervention on either pain levels (regression coefficient [B {95% CI} of 0.03 {-0.91, 0.96}], IESR scores [4.8 {-3.7, 13.4}] or GHQ-12 scores [-0.4 {-3.1, 2.3}]). Yet, participants highly appreciated the intervention. Despite the negative findings, our study contributes to the evidence base necessary to plan targeted and effective health care services for refugees suffering from chronic pain and highlights the challenge of evaluating complex interventions adapted to a specific group.


Assuntos
Transtornos Mentais/terapia , Modalidades de Fisioterapia , Refugiados , Transtornos Somatoformes/terapia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos , Adulto , Humanos , Saúde Mental , Modalidades de Fisioterapia/normas , Inquéritos e Questionários , Síria , Resultado do Tratamento
2.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(39): e22352, 2020 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32991450

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Antiretroviral therapy for HIV in sub-Saharan Africa has transformed the highly infectious virus to a stable chronic condition, with the advent of Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). The longterm effects of HAART on the oral health of children are understudied. OBJECTIVE: To compare the effect of lopinavir-ritonavir and lamivudine on oral health indicators (dental caries, gingivitis, tooth eruption, and oral health related quality of life) in 5 to 7 year old HIV-1 exposed uninfected children from the ANRS 12174 trial. METHODS: This study used data collected in 2017 among children aged 5 to 7 years from the Ugandan site of the ANRS 12174 randomized trial (ClinicalTrials.gov no: NCT00640263) implemented between 2009 and 2012 in Mbale district, Eastern Uganda. The intervention was lopinavir-ritonavir or lamuvudine treatment to prevent vertical HIV-1 transmission. One hundred thirty-seven and 139 children were randomized to receive lopinavir-ritonavir or lamivudine treatment at day 7 postpartum to compare efficacy of prevention of vertical HIV-1 transmission. At follow up, the children underwent oral examination using the World Health Organization methods for field conditions. The oral health related quality of life was assessed using the early childhood oral health impact scale. Negative binomial and logistic regression were used for the analysis of data. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Dental caries, gingivitis, tooth eruption, and oral health related quality of life) in 5 to 7 year old HIV-1 exposed uninfected children. RESULTS: The prevalence of dental caries was 48% in the study sample: 49% in the lopinavir-ritonavir arm and 48% in the lamivudine treatment group. The corresponding mean decayed missing filled teeth and standard deviation was 1.7 (2.4) and 2.3 (3.7) The mean number (standard deviation) of erupted permanent teeth was 3.8 (3.7) and 4.6 (3.9) teeth in the lopinavir- and lamivudine group, respectively. The prevalence of reported impacts on oral health was 7% in the lopinavir-ritonavir and 18% in the lamivudine group. Gingivitis had a prevalence of 7% in the lopinavir-ritonavir and 14% lamivudine treatment group. The regression analysis revealed 70% less reported impacts on oral health in lopinavir-ritonavir group than the lamivudine treatment group with an incidence rate ratio of 0.3 (95% confidence interval: 0.1-0.9). CONCLUSIONS: HIV exposed uninfected infants in the lopinavir-ritonavir group reported less impacts on oral health than the lamivudine treatment group. Dental caries, gingivitis, and tooth eruption were not significantly affected by the treatment lopinavir-ritonavir or lamivudine. TRIAL REGISTRATION CLINICALTRIALS. GOV IDENTIFIER: NCT00640263.


Assuntos
Antirretrovirais/uso terapêutico , Terapia Antirretroviral de Alta Atividade/métodos , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Saúde Bucal/estatística & dados numéricos , Fármacos Anti-HIV/farmacologia , Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Cárie Dentária/tratamento farmacológico , Cárie Dentária/epidemiologia , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Gengivite/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Infecções por HIV/transmissão , HIV-1/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Lamivudina/farmacologia , Lamivudina/uso terapêutico , Lopinavir/farmacologia , Lopinavir/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Prevalência , Qualidade de Vida , Ritonavir/farmacologia , Ritonavir/uso terapêutico , Erupção Dentária/efeitos dos fármacos , Uganda/epidemiologia
3.
BMJ Open ; 10(8): e036355, 2020 08 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32847908

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: We aimed to calculate cumulative hepatitis C virus (HCV) treatment coverage among individuals enrolled in opioid agonist therapy (OAT) in Norway between 2013 and 2017 and to document the treatment transition to direct-acting antiviral (DAA) agents. Moreover, we aimed to describe adherence to DAAs in the same cohort. DESIGN: Prospective cohort, registry data. SETTING: Specialist healthcare service (secondary) PARTICIPANTS AND OUTCOMES: This observational study was based on data from The Norwegian Prescription Database. We studied dispensed OAT and HCV treatment annually to calculate the cumulative frequency, and employed secondary sources to calculate prevalence, incidence and HCV treatment coverage from 2013 to 2017, among the OAT population. Factors associated with adherence to DAAs were identified a priori and subject to logistic regression. RESULTS: 10 371 individuals were identified with dispensed OAT, 1475 individuals of these were identified with dispensed HCV treatment. Annual HCV treatment coverage increased from 3.5% (95% CI: 3.2 to 4.4) in 2013 to 17% (95% CI: 17 to 20) in 2017, giving a cumulative HCV coverage among OAT patients in Norway of 38.5%. A complete shift to interferon-free treatment regimens occurred, where DAAs accounting for 32% of HCV treatments in 2013 and 99% in 2017. About two-thirds of OAT patients were considered adherent to their DAA regimens across all genotypes. High level of OAT continuity was associated with improved adherence to DAAs (adjusted OR 1.4, 95% CI: 1 to 2, p=0.035). CONCLUSIONS: A large increase in HCV treatment coverage attributed by a complete shift to interferon-free regimens among the Norwegian OAT population has been demonstrated. However, treatment coverage is inadmissibly too low and a further substantial scale-up in HCV treatment is required to reach the universal targets of controlling and eliminating the HCV endemic.

5.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 423, 2020 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32228542

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Very few studies consider the oral health status and quality of life in HIV-1 exposed uninfected (HEU) children. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of caries in primary teeth and its oral health related quality of life impacts in HEU children compared to HIV-unexposed-uninfected (HUU) children, whilst adjusting for confounding covariates. METHODS: This study uses data from the Ugandan site of the ANRS 121741 PROMISE- PEP trial (ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00640263) conducted in 2009-2013 that recruited mothers with HIV-1 and their uninfected children. Of 244 HEU-children-caretaker pairs available at the end of the one-year trial, 166 were re-enrolled in the ANRS 12341 PROMISE-PEP M&S study at 5-7 years and 164 were included in this study. These were age and sex-matched with 181 HUU children-caretaker comparators. Caries experience was recorded using World Health Organization's Decayed, Missed and Filled teeth (dmft/DMFT) indices. The Early Childhood Oral health Impact Scale (ECOHIS) was used for assessment of oral health related quality of life. Mixed effects logistic regression was conducted with dmft and ECOHIS scores as outcomes and HIV-1 exposure status as the main exposure. RESULTS: Forty-eight percent of HEU children and 60% of HUU had dmft> 0. Corresponding figures for ECOHIS> 0 were 12% of HEU and 22% of HUU. The crude analysis showed differences related to HIV-1 exposure in caries experience and oral health related quality of life. Mixed effect logistic regression analyses were not significant when adjusted for use of dental care and toothache. If caregivers' DMFT> 0, the adjusted odds ratio for caries experience (dmft> 0) was 1.6 (95% CI: 1.0-2.8) while if dmft> 0 the adjusted odds ratio for quality of life impacts (ECOHIS> 0) was 4.6 (95% CI: 2.0-10.6). CONCLUSION: The prevalence of untreated caries in primary teeth and quality of life impacts was high in this study population. HIV-1 exposed uninfected children were not more likely than HUU children to experience dental caries or have impaired oral health related quality of life. Given the global expansion of the HEU child population, the present findings indicating no adverse effect of pre- and post-natal HIV-1 exposure on caries in deciduous teeth are reassuring.


Assuntos
Cárie Dentária/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/complicações , HIV-1 , Saúde Bucal/estatística & dados numéricos , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/virologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Estudos de Coortes , Cárie Dentária/virologia , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/virologia , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Gravidez , Prevalência , Qualidade de Vida , Uganda/epidemiologia
6.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 341, 2020 Mar 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32183773

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The health of forcibly displaced individuals changes along their migration path and estimates of disease burden are essential to develop health care policies and practices adequately corresponding to their health care needs. This study aims to describe the health status and use of medication among Syrian refugees in two different migration phases: in a transit setting and in a recipient country. Further, we aim to investigate the associations between migration related exposures and both chronic pain and mental health among Syrian refugees. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study based on survey data collected among 827 adult Syrian refugees in Lebanon and Norway during 2017-2018. The survey instrument included items measuring somatic status (including chronic pain), mental health (using the HSCL-10 and HTQ items), use of medication and migration related exposures. We used descriptive statistics to calculate standardised prevalence proportions and regression analyses to study associations between migration related exposures and health outcomes. RESULTS: The response rate was 85%. The mean age in the sample was 33 years and 41% were women. Half of the participants reported that they had never had any health problems. The prevalence of non-communicable diseases was 12%. Headache and musculoskeletal complaints were the most prevalent conditions reported, with 30% reporting chronic pain lasting for more than six months. Symptoms indicating anxiety and/or depression were presented by 35%, while 7% revealed symptoms compatible with post-traumatic stress disorder. Among those reporting non-communicable diseases a substantial share did not seem to receive adequate treatment. Trauma experiences were associated with both chronic pain and anxiety/depression symptoms, and the latter were also associated with migrating without family members. CONCLUSIONS: Migrant-friendly public health policies and practises should acknowledge migration related risks, address discontinuity in care of chronic conditions and target common complaints such as chronic pain and mental health problems among forcibly displaced individuals.


Assuntos
Emigração e Imigração , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Doenças não Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Refugiados/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Ansiedade/etnologia , Dor Crônica/epidemiologia , Dor Crônica/etnologia , Dor Crônica/psicologia , Estudos Transversais , Depressão/epidemiologia , Depressão/etnologia , Feminino , Nível de Saúde , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Líbano/epidemiologia , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/etnologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doenças não Transmissíveis/etnologia , Noruega/epidemiologia , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/etnologia , Prevalência , Refugiados/psicologia , Análise de Regressão , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/epidemiologia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/etnologia , Síria/etnologia
7.
Subst Abuse Treat Prev Policy ; 14(1): 58, 2019 12 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31864396

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: For people with opioid dependence in Norway, chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections contribute to high mortality and high morbidity. Around 50% of patients in medically assisted rehabilitation (MAR) have been shown to have HCV, and the current prevention and control efforts have been mostly unsuccessful. Thus, there is a need for new strategies for people-centred service delivery and innovative methods to improve health outcomes. METHODS: Over the last few years, the city of Bergen, Norway, has developed a cross-sector collaboration with substantial peer involvement in research and health provision related to substance use. User group representatives for people receiving MAR, addiction medicine health personnel, infectious disease specialists, policy makers in the municipality, low-threshold health care centres for people with substance use disorders in Bergen Municipality and researchers in the INTRO-HCV project have made concerted efforts in this regard. We will present here some of the strategies and steps we have taken. RESULTS: We have established an integrated HCV treatment scheme for people who inject drugs or who have opioid dependence. More than 800 persons have been tested for HCV within these frames, and more than 250 persons have been given treatment for HCV within the project. The integrated treatment of HCV is offered both in MAR outpatient clinics, municipal low-threshold healthcare centres, and local and regional prisons. The preliminary results indicate an increase in HCV treatment uptake among those receiving integrated treatment (96% initiating treatment compared to 75%). The user group organisation ProLAR Nett has established an outreach service to screen for HCV, increase awareness and reduce the proportion of people unknowingly living with HCV while informing and motivating people to receive treatment. Together with the other stake holders, peer user group, health care, research planning, concert events, and policy panels have been held. CONCLUSIONS: Peer involvement seems to have increased testing rates for HCV and acknowledgment of its importance. This seems to have improved health care for people with opioid dependence in Bergen over the last few years, particularly relating to the treatment of HCV. These experiences might be helpful in the planning of integrated policies in other settings that seek to eliminate the HCV endemic.


Assuntos
Prestação Integrada de Cuidados de Saúde , Hepatite C/complicações , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/complicações , Grupo Associado , Abuso de Substâncias por Via Intravenosa/complicações , Hepatite C/terapia , Humanos , Noruega , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/terapia , Centros de Tratamento de Abuso de Substâncias , Abuso de Substâncias por Via Intravenosa/terapia
8.
Trials ; 20(1): 784, 2019 Dec 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31881990

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is a high prevalence of pain and post-traumatic symptoms among refugees and feasible interventions to manage these are needed. However, knowledge about the effect of physiotherapy and psychological group interventions among refugees is scarce. Our aim is to determine whether two different interventions, the Physiotherapy Activity and Awareness Intervention (PAAI) and Teaching Recovery Techniques (TRT), reduce pain and post-traumatic symptoms among refugees from Syria living in Norway. METHODS/DESIGN: Syrian adults with either pain disorders or post-traumatic symptoms, or both, will be recruited to this randomized control trial. The trial will include two separate interventions: participants with dominating pain symptoms will be assigned to the PAAI; and those with a predominance of post-traumatic symptoms will be assigned to the TRT intervention. Participants will be randomized to either the immediate intervention group or the delayed intervention group, for each of the interventions (PAAI and TRT). A minimum of 68 participants will be recruited for the PAAI and 78 participants for TRT, in order to detect clinically and statistically significant symptom improvement, assuming 25-30% attrition after recruitment. The main outcomes for the analyses will be pain intensity measured by the Brief Pain Inventory questionnaire and the scores of the Impact of Events Scale - Revised. The effect will be evaluated at the end of interventions lasting 8 weeks (PAAI) and 6 weeks (TRT) using the same instruments after the end of the intervention, and again 4-6 weeks later. Additionally, a qualitative evaluation will be conducted through an embedded process evaluation and personal interviews with participants after each of the interventions is finished. DISCUSSION: Our study will determine the feasibility of the implementation of two different interventions and the effect of these interventions among refugees from Syria with pain disorders and/or post-traumatic symptoms. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinical Trials.gov, NCT03951909. Retrospectively registered on 19 February 2019.


Assuntos
Manejo da Dor , Modalidades de Fisioterapia , Psicoterapia de Grupo/métodos , Refugiados/psicologia , Transtornos Somatoformes , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos , Adulto , Humanos , Noruega , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Manejo da Dor/métodos , Manejo da Dor/psicologia , Medição da Dor/métodos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Transtornos Somatoformes/psicologia , Transtornos Somatoformes/terapia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/fisiopatologia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/terapia , Síria/etnologia
9.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 943, 2019 Nov 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31703669

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A large proportion of people who inject drugs (PWID) living with hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection have not been treated. It is unknown whether inclusion of HCV diagnostics and treatment into integrated substance use disorder treatment and care clinics will improve uptake and outcome of HCV treatment in PWID. The aim is to assess the efficacy of integrating HCV treatment to PWID and this paper will present the protocol for an ongoing trial. METHODS: INTRO-HCV is a multicentre, randomised controlled clinical trial that will compare the efficacy of integrated treatment of HCV in PWID with the current standard treatment. Integrated treatment includes testing for HCV, assessing liver fibrosis with transient elastography, counselling, treatment delivery, follow-up and evaluation provided by integrated substance use disorder treatment and care clinics. Most of these clinics for PWID provide opioid agonist therapy while some clinics provide low-threshold care without opioid agonist therapy. Standard care involves referral to further diagnostics, treatment and treatment follow-up given in a hospital outpatient clinic with equivalent medications. The differences between the delivery platforms in the two trial arms involve use of a drop-in approach rather than specific appointment times, no need for additional travelling, less blood samples taken during treatment, and treatment given from already known clinicians. The trial will recruit approximately 200 HCV infected individuals in Bergen and Stavanger, Norway. The primary outcomes are time to treatment initiation and sustained virologic response, defined as undetectable HCV RNA 12 weeks after end of treatment. Secondary outcomes are cost-effectiveness, treatment adherence, changes in quality of life, fatigue and psychological well-being, changes in drug use, infection related risk behaviour, and risk of reinfection. The target group is PWID with HCV diagnosed receiving treatment and care within clinics for PWID. DISCUSSION: This study will inform on the effects of an integrated treatment program for HCV in clinics for PWID compared to standard care aiming to increase access to treatment and improving treatment adherence. If the integrated treatment model is found to be safe and efficacious, it can be considered for further scale-up. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov.no. NCT03155906.


Assuntos
Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Prestação Integrada de Cuidados de Saúde/métodos , Hepacivirus/genética , Hepatite C/tratamento farmacológico , Tratamento de Substituição de Opiáceos , Abuso de Substâncias por Via Intravenosa/tratamento farmacológico , Assistência ao Convalescente , Análise Custo-Benefício , Aconselhamento , Feminino , Hepatite C/etiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Noruega , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Qualidade de Vida , Recidiva , Abuso de Substâncias por Via Intravenosa/complicações , Resposta Viral Sustentada , Cooperação e Adesão ao Tratamento
11.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 108(5): 1069-1091, 2018 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30475962

RESUMO

Background: High dietary intake or blood concentrations (as biomarkers of dietary intake) of vitamin C, carotenoids, and vitamin E have been associated with reduced risk of cardiovascular disease, cancer, and mortality, but these associations have not been systematically assessed. Objective: We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective studies of dietary intake and blood concentrations of vitamin C, carotenoids, and vitamin E in relation to these outcomes. Design: We searched PubMed and Embase up to 14 February 2018. Summary RRs and 95% CIs were calculated with the use of random-effects models. Results: Sixty-nine prospective studies (99 publications) were included. The summary RR per 100-mg/d increment of dietary vitamin C intake was 0.88 (95% CI: 0.79, 0.98, I2 = 65%, n = 11) for coronary heart disease, 0.92 (95% CI: 0.87, 0.98, I2 = 68%, n = 12) for stroke, 0.89 (95% CI: 0.85, 0.94, I2 = 27%, n = 10) for cardiovascular disease, 0.93 (95% CI: 0.87, 0.99, I2 = 46%, n = 8) for total cancer, and 0.89 (95% CI: 0.85, 0.94, I2 = 80%, n = 14) for all-cause mortality. Corresponding RRs per 50-µmol/L increase in blood concentrations of vitamin C were 0.74 (95% CI: 0.65, 0.83, I2 = 0%, n = 4), 0.70 (95% CI: 0.61, 0.81, I2 = 0%, n = 4), 0.76 (95% CI: 0.65, 0.87, I2 = 56%, n = 6), 0.74 (95% CI: 0.66, 0.82, I2 = 0%, n = 5), and 0.72 (95% CI: 0.66, 0.79, I2 = 0%, n = 8). Dietary intake and/or blood concentrations of carotenoids (total, ß-carotene, α-carotene, ß-cryptoxanthin, lycopene) and α-tocopherol, but not dietary vitamin E, were similarly inversely associated with coronary heart disease, stroke, cardiovascular disease, cancer, and/or all-cause mortality. Conclusions: Higher dietary intake and/or blood concentrations of vitamin C, carotenoids, and α-tocopherol (as markers of fruit and vegetable intake) were associated with reduced risk of cardiovascular disease, total cancer, and all-cause mortality. These results support recommendations to increase fruit and vegetable intake, but not antioxidant supplement use, for chronic disease prevention.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/administração & dosagem , Ácido Ascórbico/administração & dosagem , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Carotenoides/administração & dosagem , Dieta , Neoplasias/prevenção & controle , Vitamina E/administração & dosagem , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Doenças Cardiovasculares/sangue , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Carotenoides/sangue , Causas de Morte , Comportamento Alimentar , Humanos , Neoplasias/sangue , Neoplasias/etiologia , Neoplasias/mortalidade , Estado Nutricional , Vitamina E/sangue , alfa-Tocoferol/administração & dosagem , alfa-Tocoferol/sangue
12.
Lancet Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 2(10): 738-746, 2017 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28690131

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Studies have shown wide variation in the prevalence of lactose malabsorption across the world, but no systematic reviews or meta-analyses have recently assessed the prevalence of lactose malabsorption in different geographical areas. We aimed to present an updated systematic review and meta-analysis on the prevalence of lactose malabsorption in adults, by countries and regions, and to assess the variation between different testing methods. METHODS: Studies reporting on prevalence of lactose malabsorption and lactase persistence were identified by searching MEDLINE and Embase from database inception to Nov 2, 2016. We evaluated studies presenting lactose malabsorption or lactase persistence prevalence data in adults and children aged 10 years or older, including cross-sectional and prospective studies, using genotyping, hydrogen breath tests, lactose tolerance tests, and other testing methods. We excluded studies in children younger than 10 years, studies using self-reported data, and studies including inpatients and outpatients at gastroenterological wards. Studies were screened by two authors (CLS and SKF) and data values were extracted by two authors (CLS and SKF) independently. The primary outcome was the prevalence of lactose malabsorption. This study is registered with PROSPERO, number CRD42017064802. FINDINGS: We screened 2665 records, and 306 study populations from 116 full-text articles were included (primary sources); data for 144 additional study populations from 59 articles were obtained from review articles, because full-text primary articles could not be obtained (secondary sources). Of the 450 study populations included, 231 were assessed by genotyping, 83 by hydrogen breath tests, 101 by lactose tolerance tests, and 35 by other methods or methods that were not described sufficiently. The studies included 62 910 participants from 89 countries (covering 84% of the world's population). When standardising for country size, the global prevalence estimate of lactose malabsorption was 68% (95% CI 64-72), ranging from 28% (19-37) in western, southern, and northern Europe to 70% (57-83) in the Middle East. When assessing the global prevalence using genotyping data only, the estimate was 74% (69-80), whereas prevalence was 55% (46-65) using lactose tolerance test data, and 57% (46-67) using hydrogen breath test data. Risk of bias was assessed based on ten indicators; 12 of the articles had a score of ten, indicating low risk of bias, 76 had a score of nine, 26 a score of eight, and two articles a score of seven (indicating higher risk of bias). There was substantial heterogeneity between studies within most of the assessed countries. INTERPRETATION: Lactose malabsorption is widespread in most of the world, with wide variation between different regions and an overall frequency of around two-thirds of the world's population. Acknowledging regional patterns of lactose malabsorption is important to guide management of gastrointestinal symptoms. FUNDING: None.


Assuntos
Carga Global da Doença , Intolerância à Lactose/epidemiologia , Adulto , Testes Respiratórios , Genótipo , Humanos , Intolerância à Lactose/diagnóstico , Intolerância à Lactose/genética , Teste de Tolerância a Lactose , Prevalência
13.
Community Dent Oral Epidemiol ; 45(6): 512-521, 2017 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28631283

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To estimate the effect of distal and proximal early life-course factors on early childhood caries (ECC) in 5-year-old Ugandan children, particularly focusing on the causal effect of exclusive breast feeding (EBF) on ECC using directed acyclic graphs (DAGs) for confounder selection. METHODS: This study had a nested prospective cohort design, focusing on 5 years of follow-ups of caregiver-children pairs from the PROMISE-EBF trial (ClinicalTrials.gov no: NCT00397150) conducted in 2011 in Eastern Uganda. Data were from recruitment interviews, 24-week, 2-year and 5-year follow-ups of a cohort of 417 mother-children pairs. Trained research assistants performed interviews with caregivers in the local language and ECC was recorded under field conditions using the World Health Organization's (WHO) decayed missing or filled teeth (dmft) index. Early life-course factors in terms of socio-demographic characteristics, EBF and other feeding habits were assessed at the various follow-ups. The outcome (ECC; dmft>0) was assessed at the 5-year follow-up. Causal diagrams as DAGs were constructed to guide the selection of confounding and collider variables to be included in or excluded from the final multivariable analysis. Negative binomial regression analyses were performed based on two comparative DAGs representing different causal models. RESULTS: Model 1 based on DAG 1, showed EBF to be a protective factor against ECC, with an IRR and 95% CI of 0.62 (0.43-0.91). According to Model 2 based on DAG 2, EBF and having both parents living together had protective effects: the corresponding IRRs and 95% CI were 0.60 (0.41-0.88) and 0.48 (0.25-0.90), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Both plausible models indicated that being exclusively breastfed for 24 weeks had a protective causal effect against ECC. Further research, examining the unmeasured variables included in the DAGs is necessary to strengthen the present finding and allow stronger causal claims.


Assuntos
Causalidade , Cárie Dentária/epidemiologia , Aleitamento Materno , Pré-Escolar , Fatores de Confusão Epidemiológicos , Índice CPO , Diagnóstico Bucal , Feminino , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Uganda/epidemiologia
14.
Int J Epidemiol ; 46(3): 1029-1056, 2017 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28338764

RESUMO

Background: Questions remain about the strength and shape of the dose-response relationship between fruit and vegetable intake and risk of cardiovascular disease, cancer and mortality, and the effects of specific types of fruit and vegetables. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to clarify these associations. Methods: PubMed and Embase were searched up to 29 September 2016. Prospective studies of fruit and vegetable intake and cardiovascular disease, total cancer and all-cause mortality were included. Summary relative risks (RRs) were calculated using a random effects model, and the mortality burden globally was estimated; 95 studies (142 publications) were included. Results: For fruits and vegetables combined, the summary RR per 200 g/day was 0.92 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.90-0.94, I 2 = 0%, n = 15] for coronary heart disease, 0.84 (95% CI: 0.76-0.92, I 2 = 73%, n = 10) for stroke, 0.92 (95% CI: 0.90-0.95, I 2 = 31%, n = 13) for cardiovascular disease, 0.97 (95% CI: 0.95-0.99, I 2 = 49%, n = 12) for total cancer and 0.90 (95% CI: 0.87-0.93, I 2 = 83%, n = 15) for all-cause mortality. Similar associations were observed for fruits and vegetables separately. Reductions in risk were observed up to 800 g/day for all outcomes except cancer (600 g/day). Inverse associations were observed between the intake of apples and pears, citrus fruits, green leafy vegetables, cruciferous vegetables, and salads and cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality, and between the intake of green-yellow vegetables and cruciferous vegetables and total cancer risk. An estimated 5.6 and 7.8 million premature deaths worldwide in 2013 may be attributable to a fruit and vegetable intake below 500 and 800 g/day, respectively, if the observed associations are causal. Conclusions: Fruit and vegetable intakes were associated with reduced risk of cardiovascular disease, cancer and all-cause mortality. These results support public health recommendations to increase fruit and vegetable intake for the prevention of cardiovascular disease, cancer, and premature mortality.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Dieta , Frutas , Neoplasias/mortalidade , Verduras , Humanos , Mortalidade , Estudos Prospectivos , Comportamento de Redução do Risco
15.
BMJ Open ; 7(2): e014641, 2017 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28148537

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Morbidity, use of healthcare and medication use have been reported to vary across groups of migrants and according to the different phases of migration, but little is known about children with immigrant background. In this study, we investigate whether the immigrant children's age of arrival predicts differences in usage of primary healthcare (PHC) and in use of prescribed medication. METHODS: This nationwide, population-based study used information for children under 18 years of age in 2008 from three linked registers in Norway. Use of medication was assessed with logistic regression analyses presented with ORs with 95% CIs. RESULTS: Of 1 168 365 children, 119 251 had immigrant background. The mean number of PHC visits among children aged 10-18 years, was 1.19 for non-immigrants, 1.17 among second generation immigrants, 1.12, 1.05 and 0.83 among first immigrant children who were <5, 5-9 and ≥10 years at arrival in Norway, respectively. Patterns were similar for younger immigrants, and were confirmed with regression models adjusting for age and sex. First generation immigrant children used less of nearly all groups of prescribed medication compared to non-immigrants when adjusting for age and sex (overall OR 0.48 (0.47 to 0.49)), and medication was also generally less used among second generation immigrant children (overall OR 0.92 (0.91 to 0.94)). CONCLUSIONS: Age of arrival predicted PHC usage among children among first-generation children. First-generation immigrant children, particularly those arriving later in adolescence, used PHC less than age corresponding non-immigrant children. Immigrant children used less prescribed medication compared to non-immigrants after adjustment for age and sex.


Assuntos
Prescrições de Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Emigrantes e Imigrantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Visita a Consultório Médico/estatística & dados numéricos , Atenção Primária à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Fatores Etários , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Características da Família , Feminino , Testes Hematológicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Noruega , Sistema de Registros , Tradução
16.
J Pediatr ; 182: 127-132.e1, 2017 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27974166

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To estimate the abilities of weight and length velocities vs attained growth measures to predict stunting, wasting, and underweight at age 2 years. STUDY DESIGN: We analyzed data from a community-based cohort study (The Etiology, Risk Factors, and Interactions of Enteric Infections and Malnutrition and the Consequences for Child Health and Development study [MAL-ED] study) in Bhaktapur, Nepal. A total of 240 randomly selected children were enrolled at birth and followed up monthly up to age 24 months. Linear and logistic regression models were used to predict malnutrition at 2 years of age with growth velocity z scores at 0-3, 0-6, 3-6, 6-9, 6-12, and 9-12 months (using the World Health Organization Growth Standards) or attained growth at 0, 3, 6, and 12 months as predictors. RESULTS: At age 2 years, 4% of the children were wasted, 13% underweight, and 21% stunted. Children who were malnourished at age 2 years had lower mean growth z scores already at birth and throughout the study period. Anthropometric indicators in infancy were significant predictors for growth at the age of 2 years during most periods and at most ages in infancy. Weight-for-age z score, length-for-age z score, and weight-for-length z score at age 12 months had excellent areas under the curve (91-95) to predict the value of the same indicator at age 24 months. Maximum area under the curve values for weight and length velocity were somewhat lower (70-84). CONCLUSIONS: Growth measured at one time point in infancy was better correlated with undernutrition at age 2 years than growth velocity.


Assuntos
Antropometria/métodos , Estatura , Peso Corporal , Desnutrição/diagnóstico , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Nepal , Análise de Regressão
17.
BMC Med ; 14(1): 207, 2016 Dec 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27916000

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although nut consumption has been associated with a reduced risk of cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality, data on less common causes of death has not been systematically assessed. Previous reviews missed several studies and additional studies have since been published. We therefore conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of nut consumption and risk of cardiovascular disease, total cancer, and all-cause and cause-specific mortality. METHODS: PubMed and Embase were searched for prospective studies of nut consumption and risk of cardiovascular disease, total cancer, and all-cause and cause-specific mortality in adult populations published up to July 19, 2016. Summary relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using random-effects models. The burden of mortality attributable to low nut consumption was calculated for selected regions. RESULTS: Twenty studies (29 publications) were included in the meta-analysis. The summary RRs per 28 grams/day increase in nut intake was for coronary heart disease, 0.71 (95% CI: 0.63-0.80, I2 = 47%, n = 11), stroke, 0.93 (95% CI: 0.83-1.05, I2 = 14%, n = 11), cardiovascular disease, 0.79 (95% CI: 0.70-0.88, I2 = 60%, n = 12), total cancer, 0.85 (95% CI: 0.76-0.94, I2 = 42%, n = 8), all-cause mortality, 0.78 (95% CI: 0.72-0.84, I2 = 66%, n = 15), and for mortality from respiratory disease, 0.48 (95% CI: 0.26-0.89, I2 = 61%, n = 3), diabetes, 0.61 (95% CI: 0.43-0.88, I2 = 0%, n = 4), neurodegenerative disease, 0.65 (95% CI: 0.40-1.08, I2 = 5.9%, n = 3), infectious disease, 0.25 (95% CI: 0.07-0.85, I2 = 54%, n = 2), and kidney disease, 0.27 (95% CI: 0.04-1.91, I2 = 61%, n = 2). The results were similar for tree nuts and peanuts. If the associations are causal, an estimated 4.4 million premature deaths in the America, Europe, Southeast Asia, and Western Pacific would be attributable to a nut intake below 20 grams per day in 2013. CONCLUSIONS: Higher nut intake is associated with reduced risk of cardiovascular disease, total cancer and all-cause mortality, and mortality from respiratory disease, diabetes, and infections.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Dieta , Mortalidade , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Nozes , Adulto , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Neoplasias/mortalidade , Neoplasias/prevenção & controle , Estudos Prospectivos , Risco
18.
BMJ Open ; 6(10): e012101, 2016 10 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27737883

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Health status, disease spectrum and use of healthcare have been reported to vary across groups of migrants and according to the different phases of migration. However, most studies are conducted among adults. This study assesses usage of primary healthcare (PHC) by children with immigrant background compared with non-immigrant children in Norway and describes their relative morbidity burden. DESIGN: Population-based retrospective cohort study. SETTING: This study used 3 linked population-based registers in Norway for children under 18 years of age in 2008. MAIN EXPOSURE AND OUTCOME MEASURES: Immigrants were defined as children with both parents born abroad, and further classified into first and second generation, and according to the World Bank income categories of their parents' country of origin. Usage and morbidity were assessed with negative binomial regression and logistic regression analyses, respectively. Further, population-attributable fraction analyses on PHC visits were conducted to estimate the impact on the primary health system. PARTICIPANTS: 1 168 365 children including 119 251 with immigrant background. RESULTS: The mean number of visits to PHC for non-immigrant children was 1.40 compared with 1.19 for immigrants from high-income countries (HIC) and 1.76 for immigrants from low-income countries (LIC). Compared with non-immigrants, first generation immigrants used PHC significantly less after adjusting for age and sex (incidence risk ratio (IRR) 0.70 (HIC) to 0.93 (LIC)) while second generation immigrant children generally used PHC more (IRR 1.03 (HIC) to 1.43 (LIC)); however, the median number of visits were similar between all groups. The morbidity spectrum also varied between the groups. CONCLUSIONS: Compared with non-immigrants, the excess number of consultations attributable to immigrant groups corresponds to around 1.3% of PHC visits among children.


Assuntos
Emigrantes e Imigrantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Morbidade/tendências , Atenção Primária à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Revisão da Utilização de Recursos de Saúde , Adolescente , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Tempo de Internação , Masculino , Noruega/epidemiologia , Sistema de Registros , Estudos Retrospectivos
19.
BMC Public Health ; 16: 555, 2016 07 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27405396

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Breastfeeding promotion is regarded as one of the most effective interventions to improve child health, and could reduce under-5-mortality by 8 % globally. Few studies have assessed the health outcomes beyond infancy of interventions promoting exclusive breastfeeding. METHODS: This study assessed growth in under-five children who participated in a cluster-randomised trial in Eastern Uganda (ClinicalTrials.gov.no.NCT00397150). In the intervention arm, peer counsellors promoted exclusive breastfeeding during the first 6 months of infancy. There were no interventions after 6 months of age. Mother-infant pairs were interviewed at visits scheduled at 3, 6, 12 and 24 weeks after birth and follow-up visits at 2 and 5 years, with 765 included in the analyses. RESULTS: The mean length/height-for-age and weight-for-age-z-score (HAZ, WAZ) decreased with increasing age in both the intervention and control arms. At the three weeks visit, HAZ in the intervention was -0.45 (-0.68;-0.21) and -0.32 (-0.56;-0.07) in the control arm. At the 2 year follow-up, the mean HAZ in the intervention was -1.85 (95 % CI -1.97;-1.73) compared to -1.61 (-1.87;-1.34) in the control. Similarly, at the 5 year follow-up, the mean HAZ in the intervention was -1.78 (-2.08;-1.47) compared to -1.53 (-1.79;-1.28) in the control arm. At the 2 year follow-up visit, 139 (45 %) were stunted (HAZ<-2) in the intervention compared to 109 (37 %) in the control arm, odds ratio (OR) 1.7 (1.1;2.4). Underweight (WAZ<-2) was also more common in the intervention arm than in the control at the five years follow-up (OR 1.7 (1.0;2.8)), with a mean WAZ of -1.28 (-1.47;-1.08) and -1.06 (-1.19;-0.92) in the intervention and control arm, respectively. CONCLUSION: While stunting was widespread at 2 and 5 years of age in both arms, it was more common in the intervention arm. It is questionable whether community-based support from lay people with short training and focussing only on exclusive breastfeeding, is an appropriate strategy to improve child health and development. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov.no. NCT00397150 . Registered 7th of November 2006.


Assuntos
Aleitamento Materno/estatística & dados numéricos , Transtornos do Crescimento/prevenção & controle , Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Síndrome de Emaciação/prevenção & controle , Peso Corporal , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Mães , Uganda , Ganho de Peso
20.
BMJ ; 353: i2716, 2016 Jun 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27301975

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE:  To quantify the dose-response relation between consumption of whole grain and specific types of grains and the risk of cardiovascular disease, total cancer, and all cause and cause specific mortality. DATA SOURCES:  PubMed and Embase searched up to 3 April 2016. STUDY SELECTION:  Prospective studies reporting adjusted relative risk estimates for the association between intake of whole grains or specific types of grains and cardiovascular disease, total cancer, all cause or cause specific mortality. DATA SYNTHESIS:  Summary relative risks and 95% confidence intervals calculated with a random effects model. RESULTS:  45 studies (64 publications) were included. The summary relative risks per 90 g/day increase in whole grain intake (90 g is equivalent to three servings-for example, two slices of bread and one bowl of cereal or one and a half pieces of pita bread made from whole grains) was 0.81 (95% confidence interval 0.75 to 0.87; I(2)=9%, n=7 studies) for coronary heart disease, 0.88 (0.75 to 1.03; I(2)=56%, n=6) for stroke, and 0.78 (0.73 to 0.85; I(2)=40%, n=10) for cardiovascular disease, with similar results when studies were stratified by whether the outcome was incidence or mortality. The relative risks for morality were 0.85 (0.80 to 0.91; I(2)=37%, n=6) for total cancer, 0.83 (0.77 to 0.90; I(2)=83%, n=11) for all causes, 0.78 (0.70 to 0.87; I(2)=0%, n=4) for respiratory disease, 0.49 (0.23 to 1.05; I(2)=85%, n=4) for diabetes, 0.74 (0.56 to 0.96; I(2)=0%, n=3) for infectious diseases, 1.15 (0.66 to 2.02; I(2)=79%, n=2) for diseases of the nervous system disease, and 0.78 (0.75 to 0.82; I(2)=0%, n=5) for all non-cardiovascular, non-cancer causes. Reductions in risk were observed up to an intake of 210-225 g/day (seven to seven and a half servings per day) for most of the outcomes. Intakes of specific types of whole grains including whole grain bread, whole grain breakfast cereals, and added bran, as well as total bread and total breakfast cereals were also associated with reduced risks of cardiovascular disease and/or all cause mortality, but there was little evidence of an association with refined grains, white rice, total rice, or total grains. CONCLUSIONS:  This meta-analysis provides further evidence that whole grain intake is associated with a reduced risk of coronary heart disease, cardiovascular disease, and total cancer, and mortality from all causes, respiratory diseases, infectious diseases, diabetes, and all non-cardiovascular, non-cancer causes. These findings support dietary guidelines that recommend increased intake of whole grain to reduce the risk of chronic diseases and premature mortality.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Dieta , Neoplasias/mortalidade , Grãos Integrais , Causas de Morte , Humanos , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco
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