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1.
Int J Infect Dis ; 79: 37-43, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30292891

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends the use of adjunctive urine lipopolysaccharide lipoarabinomannan (LAM) testing in hospitalized HIV-infected persons with suspected tuberculosis (TB) and a CD4 count <100cells/ml. However, the recommendation is conditional, and uptake by individual treatment programmes depends on perceived additional benefit. The aim of this study was to determine whether adjunctive LAM testing has additional clinical benefits including a reduction in healthcare-related use of resources. METHODS: A post hoc analysis was performed of a published multicentre, multi-country, randomized controlled trial that showed an approximate 20% mortality benefit in HIV-infected hospitalized patients who underwent adjunctive LAM testing as part of their diagnostic workup. In that parent study, adult HIV-infected hospitalized patients with suspected TB (n=2528) were randomly allocated to either routine diagnostics (smear microscopy, Xpert MTB/RIF, and culture; n=1271), or routine diagnostics plus adjunctive urine LAM testing (n=1257). Data were further analyzed to determine whether there were other potential benefits of LAM usage based on CD4 count and illness severity. Aspects evaluated included: (1) the reduction in number of diagnostic sputum samples tested, (2) the utilization of additional imaging, (3) disease resolution based on follow-up signs and symptoms of illness severity, and (4) the reduction in hospital readmission. RESULTS: Adjuvant LAM did not reduce the number of diagnostic sputum samples requested, the need for additional imaging, or the hospital readmission rate. However, adjunctive LAM was associated with a more rapid rate of disease resolution (dyspnoea) in the severely ill subgroup. Higher LAM grade (grades 4 and 5), compared to lower grade positivity (≤3), was associated with lower use of ultrasound, lower Karnofsky performance score, lower CD4 cell count, and shorter time to culture positivity. CONCLUSIONS: Although, adjunct LAM was associated with a mortality benefit in the parent study, no benefit could be demonstrated in the secondary analysis with respect to the number of diagnostic sputum samples requested, the use of additional imaging, or hospital readmission rates. However, given the limitations of the present study, further appropriately designed studies are required to determine the effect of adjunct urine LAM on the utilization of healthcare resources.


Assuntos
Coinfecção , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Lipopolissacarídeos/urina , Tuberculose/diagnóstico , Adulto , Contagem de Linfócito CD4 , Utilização de Instalações e Serviços , Hospitalização , Humanos , Tuberculose/complicações , Tuberculose/diagnóstico por imagem , Tuberculose/mortalidade
2.
Eur Respir J ; 51(5)2018 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29700106

RESUMO

Optimal treatment regimens for patients with extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB) remain unclear. Long-term prospective outcome data comparing XDR-TB regimens with and without bedaquiline from an endemic setting are lacking.We prospectively followed-up 272 South African patients (49.3% HIV-infected; median CD4 count 169 cells·µL-1) with newly diagnosed XDR-TB between 2008 and 2017. Outcomes were compared between those who had not received bedaquiline (pre-2013; n=204) and those who had (post-2013; n=68; 80.9% received linezolid in addition).The 24-month favourable outcome rate was substantially better in the bedaquiline versus the non-bedaquiline group (66.2% (45 out of 68) versus 13.2% (27 out of 204); p<0.001). In addition, the bedaquiline group exhibited reduced 24-month rates of treatment failure (5.9% versus 26.0%; p<0.001) and default (1.5% versus 15.2%; p<0.001). However, linezolid was withdrawn in 32.7% (18 out of 55) of patients in the bedaquiline group because of adverse events. Admission weight >50 kg, an increasing number of anti-TB drugs and bedaquiline were independent predictors of survival (the bedaquiline survival effect remained significant in HIV-infected persons, irrespective of CD4 count).XDR-TB patients receiving a backbone of bedaquiline and linezolid had substantially better favourable outcomes compared to those not using these drugs. These data inform the selection of XDR-TB treatment regimens and roll-out of newer drugs in TB-endemic countries.


Assuntos
Antituberculosos/uso terapêutico , Diarilquinolinas/administração & dosagem , Tuberculose Extensivamente Resistente a Medicamentos/tratamento farmacológico , Tuberculose Extensivamente Resistente a Medicamentos/mortalidade , Linezolida/administração & dosagem , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Antituberculosos/efeitos adversos , Diarilquinolinas/efeitos adversos , Tuberculose Extensivamente Resistente a Medicamentos/complicações , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Humanos , Linezolida/efeitos adversos , Assistência de Longa Duração , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Estudos Prospectivos , África do Sul/epidemiologia , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Suspensão de Tratamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
3.
Eur Respir J ; 49(5)2017 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28529205

RESUMO

Large studies on bedaquiline used to treat multidrug-resistant (MDR-) and extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB) are lacking. This study aimed to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of bedaquiline-containing regimens in a large, retrospective, observational study conducted in 25 centres and 15 countries in five continents.428 culture-confirmed MDR-TB cases were analysed (61.5% male; 22.1% HIV-positive, 45.6% XDR-TB). MDR-TB cases were admitted to hospital for a median (interquartile range (IQR)) 179 (92-280) days and exposed to bedaquiline for 168 (86-180) days. Treatment regimens included, among others, linezolid, moxifloxacin, clofazimine and carbapenems (82.0%, 58.4%, 52.6% and 15.3% of cases, respectively).Sputum smear and culture conversion rates in MDR-TB cases were 63.6% and 30.1%, respectively at 30 days, 81.1% and 56.7%, respectively at 60 days; 85.5% and 80.5%, respectively at 90 days and 88.7% and 91.2%, respectively at the end of treatment. The median (IQR) time to smear and culture conversion was 34 (30-60) days and 60 (33-90) days. Out of 247 culture-confirmed MDR-TB cases completing treatment, 71.3% achieved success (62.4% cured; 8.9% completed treatment), 13.4% died, 7.3% defaulted and 7.7% failed. Bedaquiline was interrupted due to adverse events in 5.8% of cases. A single case died, having electrocardiographic abnormalities that were probably non-bedaquiline related.Bedaquiline-containing regimens achieved high conversion and success rates under different nonexperimental conditions.


Assuntos
Antituberculosos/uso terapêutico , Diarilquinolinas/uso terapêutico , Tuberculose Extensivamente Resistente a Medicamentos/tratamento farmacológico , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Carbapenêmicos/uso terapêutico , Clofazimina/uso terapêutico , Estudos de Coortes , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Humanos , Linezolida/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Segurança do Paciente , Estudos Retrospectivos , Escarro/metabolismo , Resultado do Tratamento
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