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1.
Viral Immunol ; 35(2): 150-158, 2022 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35319970

RESUMO

New strategies to increase the immune response to HIV-1 vaccine using immunological adjuvants such as Toll-like receptor agonists are needed. In this study, HIV-1 p24-Nef and conjugated form of the vaccine candidate to type-A flagellin (FLA) were injected in the BALB/c mice in different routes. Two weeks after the last immunization, lymphocyte proliferation was measured by the BrdU method. The IL-4 and IFN-γ levels, as well as the total IgG antibody and its isotypes titer, were evaluated by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method. The IFN-γ ELISPOT was also performed. Our data showed that the HIV-1 p24-Nef alone and conjugated to type-A flagellin (FLA) significantly increased lymphocyte proliferation responses as well as higher levels of cytokines and IFN-γ producing lymphocytes and the level of humoral immune responses compared with the control groups. The cell-mediated immune responses through the subcutaneous route and humoral immune responses through the intramuscular route were significantly higher in the conjugated form than in the mere vaccine candidate. In conclusion, when the FLA as an adjuvant is constructed in the HIV-1 vaccine candidate, it could effectively improve both humoral and cellular immune responses. Furthermore, modification in the vaccine formulation could change the optimal route of vaccine inoculation.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra a AIDS , HIV-1 , Adjuvantes Imunológicos , Animais , Flagelina , Proteína do Núcleo p24 do HIV , Imunização , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Pseudomonas aeruginosa
2.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 10(2)2022 Jan 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35214658

RESUMO

Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) is an opportunistic pathogen that causes various inflammatory local infections, from those of the skin to postinfectious glomerulonephritis. These infections could result in serious threats, putting the life of the patient in danger. Antibiotic-resistant S. aureus could lead to dramatic increases in human mortality. Antibiotic resistance would explicate the failure of current antibiotic therapies. So, it is obvious that an effective vaccine against S. aureus infections would significantly reduce costs related to care in hospitals. Bacterial vaccines have important impacts on morbidity and mortality caused by several common pathogens, however, a prophylactic vaccine against staphylococci has not yet been produced. During the last decades, the efforts to develop an S. aureus vaccine have faced two major failures in clinical trials. New strategies for vaccine development against S. aureus has supported the use of multiple antigens, the inclusion of adjuvants, and the focus on various virulence mechanisms. We aimed to present a compressive review of different antigens of S. aureus and also to introduce vaccine candidates undergoing clinical trials, from which can help us to choose a suitable and effective candidate for vaccine development against S. aureus.

3.
Chem Biol Drug Des ; 99(4): 585-602, 2022 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34914204

RESUMO

Seven types of Coronaviruses (CoVs) have been identified that can cause infection in humans, including HCoV-229E, HCoV-NL63, HCoV-OC43, HCoV-HKU1, SARS-CoV, HCoV-MERS, and SARS-CoV-2. In this study, we investigated the genetic structure, the homology of the structural protein sequences, as well as the investigation of the active site of structural proteins. The active site of structural proteins was determined based on the previous studies, and the homology of their amino acid sequences and structure was compared. Multiple sequence alignment of Spike protein of HCoVs showed that the receptor-binding domain of SARS-CoV-2, SARS-CoV, and MERS-CoV was located at a similar site to the S1 subunit. The binding motif of PDZ (postsynaptic density-95/disks large/zona occludens-1) of the envelope protein, was conserved in SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2 according to multiple sequence alignment but showed different changes in the other HCoVs. Overall, spike protein showed the most variation in its active sites, but the other structural proteins were highly conserved. In this study, for the first time, the active site of all structural proteins of HCoVs as a drug target was investigated. The binding site of these proteins can be suitable targets for drugs or vaccines among HCoVs.


Assuntos
Coronavirus , Vírus da SARS , SARS-CoV-2 , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus , Domínio Catalítico , Coronavirus/química , Humanos , Vírus da SARS/química , SARS-CoV-2/química , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/química
4.
Biologicals ; 73: 8-15, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34376341

RESUMO

Staphylococcus aureus is an important human opportunistic pathogen that can have a major influence on public health. Here, we aimed to evaluate different aspects of the immune response to a novel multi-epitope fusion protein (HMS) based on HlaH35L, MntC, and SACOL0723 proteins in comparison to the individual antigens. For this purpose, specific total IgG, IgG1, and IgG2a isotypes and the cytokines related to Th1, Th2, and Th17 were assessed. The Bio-efficiency of the fusion protein was evaluated by opsonic killing activity. The HMS fusion protein elicited a high specific IgG level and also induced a higher level of Th1, Th2, and Th17-related cytokines which were more polarized towards the Th1 and Th17 compared to individual antigens. The HMS-specific antisera also significantly promoted phagocytosis of S. aureus COL strain by mouse macrophages. In conclusion, the fusion protein might be an effective vaccine for potential protective immunity against a lethal infection of S. aureus in mice.


Assuntos
Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina , Infecções Estafilocócicas/prevenção & controle , Vacinas Antiestafilocócicas/imunologia , Animais , Anticorpos Antibacterianos/imunologia , Citocinas/imunologia , Epitopos/imunologia , Imunoglobulina G/imunologia , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/imunologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Infecções Estafilocócicas/imunologia , Linfócitos T/imunologia
5.
J Immunol Methods ; 494: 113055, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33857474

RESUMO

To develop a suitable and effective vaccine against Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), we selected the Hla-MntC-SACOL0723 (HMS) recombinant protein with two different formulations of alum and Monophosphoryl lipid A (MPL) adjuvants. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the potentials of alum and MPL adjuvants in stimulating the immune response of HMS vaccine candidate against S. aureus. To evaluate the type of induced immune response, anti-HMS total IgG, IgG1, IgG2a, and IFN-γ, IL-2, IL-4, and IL-17 cytokines were determined after vaccination of mice with HMS-alum, HMS-MPL candidates. Mice were challenged with Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) was isolated from pressure sores and evaluated for bacterial load in the kidney homogenates and survival rate. It was observed that total IgG and isotypes (IgG1 and IgG2a), IL-4, and IL-17 were significantly increased in the group that received HMS-alum vaccine compared with the group that received HMS-MPL formulation. On the other hand, the levels of IFN-γ and IL-2 cytokines in the group that received HMS-MPL were higher than the group that received HMS-alum formulation. Bacterial load in the mice who received HMS protein formulated with alum adjuvant was reduced more than the mice who received HMS protein formulated with MPL adjuvant. Histopathological analysis showed more pathological changes in kidney tissues of the group received of HMS-MPL compared with the HMS-alum formulation. The survival rate was equal in both groups of immunized with HMS-alum and HMS-MPL formulations. Finally, it could be concluded that both adjuvants of alum and MPL are suitable immune response enhancers to HMS vaccine candidate.


Assuntos
Rim/patologia , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/fisiologia , Proteínas Periplásmicas de Ligação/genética , Sepse/imunologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/imunologia , Vacinas Antiestafilocócicas/imunologia , Staphylococcus aureus/fisiologia , Compostos de Alúmen , Animais , Feminino , Antígenos HLA/genética , Imunoglobulina G/metabolismo , Interleucina-17/metabolismo , Interleucina-4/metabolismo , Lipídeo A/análogos & derivados , Lipídeo A/imunologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/genética , Sepse/prevenção & controle , Regulação para Cima
6.
J Biomol Struct Dyn ; 39(8): 2857-2872, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32295479

RESUMO

At present, novel Coronavirus (2019-nCoV, the causative agent of COVID-19) has caused worldwide social and economic disruption. The disturbing statistics of this infection promoted us to develop an effective vaccine candidate against the COVID-19. In this study, bioinformatics approaches were employed to design and introduce a novel multi-epitope vaccine against 2019-nCoV that can potentially trigger both CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell immune responses and investigated its biological activities by computational tools. Three known antigenic proteins (Nucleocapsid, ORF3a, and Membrane protein, hereafter called NOM) from the virus were selected and analyzed for prediction of the potential immunogenic B and T-cell epitopes and then validated using bioinformatics tools. Based on in silico analysis, we have constructed a multi-epitope vaccine candidate (NOM) with five rich-epitopes domain including highly scored T and B-cell epitopes. After predicting and evaluating of the third structure of the protein candidate, the best 3 D predicted model was applied for docking studies with Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and HLA-A*11:01. In the next step, molecular dynamics (MD) simulation was used to evaluate the stability of the designed fusion protein with TLR4 and HLA-A*11:01 receptors. MD studies demonstrated that the NOM-TLR4 and NOM-HLA-A*11:01 docked models were stable during simulation time. In silico evaluation showed that the designed chimeric protein could simultaneously elicit humoral and cell-mediated immune responses. Communicated by Ramaswamy H. Sarma.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Vacinologia , Biologia Computacional , Epitopos de Linfócito B , Epitopos de Linfócito T/genética , Humanos , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , SARS-CoV-2 , Vacinas de Subunidades
7.
Microb Pathog ; 150: 104656, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33253858

RESUMO

Staphylococcus aureus is a powerful pathogen that causes a wide range of infectious diseases and results in a high mortality rate in humans. Treating S. aureus-related infections is extremely difficult because of its ability to resist many antibiotics; therefore, developing an effective vaccine against this infection can be an alternative and promising approach. In this study, we evaluated the protective effects of a Hla-MntC-SACOL0723 multi-epitope protein (HMS) compared with HMS conjugated to polysaccharides 5 and 8 (CP5 and CP8) of S. aureus and CP5 and CP8 in a mouse sepsis model. To evaluate the type of induced immune response, specific IgG, and antibody isotypes (IgG1 and IgG2a) were determined using the ELISA method. The functional activity of these vaccine candidates was assessed by opsonophagocytosis. Mice were infected with S. aureus COL strain and evaluated for bacterial load in the kidney and spleen homogenates. Th1, Th2, and Th17-related cytokines in the spleen cell supernatants were assessed by flow cytometry. The therapeutic effect of specific anti-HMS protein IgG antibodies against S. aureus COL strain infection was evaluated by passive immunization. HMS recombinant protein induced a higher level of Th1, Th2, and Th17-related cytokines compared with conjugated molecules. Also, mice immunized with the HMS protein reduced the bacterial load in the kidney and spleen more than the one that received the conjugated molecules. Our study suggests that the HMS fusion protein and conjugate molecule vaccine candidates could be suitable candidates for the removal of S. aureus in the mouse sepsis model but HMS protein can be a more effective candidate.


Assuntos
Infecções Estafilocócicas , Staphylococcus aureus , Animais , Anticorpos Antibacterianos , Imunidade , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Proteínas Recombinantes , Infecções Estafilocócicas/prevenção & controle , Vacinas Conjugadas
8.
IUBMB Life ; 72(2): 226-236, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31573748

RESUMO

Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most common pathogens in the hospital and the community. The emergence of broad-spectrum antibiotic resistance in S. aureus has made the treatment process more difficult. Therefore, it is obvious that an effective prevention strategy against the pathogen could significantly reduce costs related to care in hospitals. In this report, we describe a simple approach to conjugate S. aureus capsular polysaccharide 5 (CP5) from S. aureus Reynolds strain and 8 (CP8) from S. aureus Becker strain to a fusion protein (Hla-MntC-SACOL0723) and investigation of its bioactivity. The conjugation was done by using ADH (as a bridge) and EDAC (as a coupling agent). The immunoconjugates were characterized by routine polysaccharide/protein contents assays followed by reverse phase chromatography and FTIR spectroscopy. The groups of mice were immunized with conjugate vaccines, capsular polysaccharides, and phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) as a control group. The functional activity of the vaccine candidates was evaluated by ELISA, opsonophagocytosis tests, and determination of bacterial load in challenge study. The results showed that the specific antibody (total IgG) titers raised against conjugate molecules were higher than those of the nonconjugated capsular polysaccharides. The opsonic activity of the conjugate vaccines antisera was significantly higher than polysaccharides alone (58% reduction in the number of bacteria versus 16.3% at 1:2 dilution, p < .05), Further, the conjugate vaccine group had a significant reduction in bacterial load after challenge with S. aureus COL strain cells as compared to the PBS and nonconjugated controls. In conclusion, the immunoconjugates could be developed as a potential vaccine candidate against S. aureus.


Assuntos
Cápsulas Bacterianas/imunologia , Vacinas Bacterianas/administração & dosagem , Imunoconjugados/administração & dosagem , Infecções Estafilocócicas/tratamento farmacológico , Staphylococcus aureus/imunologia , Vacinas Conjugadas/administração & dosagem , Animais , Anticorpos Antibacterianos , Feminino , Imunoconjugados/imunologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Coelhos , Infecções Estafilocócicas/imunologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/microbiologia , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos , Vacinas Conjugadas/imunologia
9.
Mol Immunol ; 114: 88-99, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31351414

RESUMO

Staphylococcus aureus infections are now one of the most common causes of surgical drainage, bacteremia, and hospital-acquired infections. The emergence of antibiotic resistance has increased mortality and costs of treatment. The design of a new vaccine against S. aureus would have a great beneficial impact on public health. In the current report, we design and introduce a novel epitope-based fusion protein (Hla, MntC and SACOL0723) and investigate its biological activities. Three known antigenic proteins from S. aureus were analyzed for the prediction of immunogenic B and T-cell epitopes and validated using bioinformatics tools. The affinity and the map of interactions between the receptor and ligand were evaluated via docking protocols. Functional activity of the recombinant protein was assessed by western blot and opsonophagocytosis tests and determining the bacterial burden from the infected tissues. To determine the type of induced immunity, cytokines profile and isotyping ELISA was performed. Based on in silico analysis, seven epitopes rich domain including highly scored T and B-cell epitopes were selected. The study results indicated that the high titer of specific antibodies raised against the vaccine candidate could opsonize the bacteria and decrease the viable bacterial cells. The fusion protein was able to elicit a mixture of Th1, Th2, and Th17 immune responses more towards Th1 and Th17. In conclusion, the fusion protein formulated with alum could be considered as a potential vaccine candidate for protection against S. aureus in the near future.


Assuntos
Epitopos de Linfócito B/imunologia , Epitopos de Linfócito T/imunologia , Proteínas Recombinantes/imunologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/imunologia , Vacinas Antiestafilocócicas/imunologia , Staphylococcus aureus/imunologia , Imunidade Adaptativa/imunologia , Animais , Anticorpos Antibacterianos/imunologia , Citocinas/imunologia , Humanos , Células Th17/imunologia
10.
Iran J Basic Med Sci ; 22(1): 58-64, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30944709

RESUMO

Objectives: Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections such as keratitis are considered among the major health problems worldwide due to the complexity of pathogenesis and antibiotic resistance crisis, thus, finding new effective approaches for prevention and treatment of the infections seem to be still vital. In this report, we aimed to investigate the therapeutic effects of topical administration of the antibodies against type a and b-flagellin (FLA and FLB) in Pseudomonas keratitis model of infection in mice. Materials and Methods: Scratched corneas of mice were treated with approximately 107 CFUs/eye of PAK and/or PAO1 strains of P. aeruginosa. Specific IgG to FLA, FLB or divalent flagellin were topically applied to the infected corneas for 20 min, 24, and 36 hr post-infection. The bacterial burden and myeloperoxidase activity (as a marker for polymorphonuclears (PMNs) infiltration) were determined in the corneas. The biological activity of the anti-FLA and FLB IgG was evaluated in vitro by opsonophagocytosis test. Results: Compared to other treated corneas, divalent anti-flagellin IgG treatment showed a significant decrease in the bacterial CFUs and myeloperoxidase activity in the infected corneas (P<0.05). Results of opsonophagocytosis revealed that the specific antibodies raised against FLA and FLB had more potent opsonic killing activity on their homologous strains as compared with control group (P<0.05). Conclusion: It appears that in P. aeruginosa keratitis, topical administration of the combined antibodies likely via decreasing the bacterial load, and PMNs infiltration as well as increasing opsonophagocytosis could lead to dramatic improvement of the infected corneas.

11.
Iran J Pharm Res ; 18(Suppl1): 157-168, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32802096

RESUMO

Recently, antimicrobial peptides have been introduced as potent antibiotics with a wide range of antimicrobial activities. They have also exhibited other biological activities, including anti-inflammatory, growth stimulating, and anti-cancer activities. In this study, an analog of Magainin II was designed and produced as a recombinant fusion protein. The designed sequence contained 24 amino acid residues (P24), in which Lys, His, Ser residues were substituted with Arg and also, hydrophobic Phe was replaced with Trp. Recombinant production of P24 in Escherichia coli (E. coli) BL21 using pTYB21, containing chitin binding domain and intein sequence at the N-terminus of the peptide gene, resulted in 1 µg mL-1 product from culture. Chitin column chromatography, followed by online peptide cleavage with thiol reducing agent was applied to purify the peptide. Antimicrobial activity was evaluated using five bacteria strains including Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Klebsiella pneumonia, E. coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Designed AMP exhibited promising antimicrobial activities with low minimum inhibitory concentration, in the range of 64-256 µg/mL. P24 showed potent antimicrobial activity preferably against Gram-positive bacteria, and more potent than pexiganan as a successful Magainin II analog for topical infections. In general, further modification can be applied to improve its therapeutic index.

12.
3 Biotech ; 9(1): 1, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30555767

RESUMO

In the present study, we aimed to extract, purify, analyze monosaccharide composition of  exopolysaccharide (EPS) produced by Halorubrum sp. TBZ112 (KCTC 4203 and IBRC-M 10773) and also to evaluate its possible antiproliferative activity against human gastric cancer (MKN-45) cell line and its biocompatibility effect on normal cells using human dermal fibroblast (HDF) cell line. Average molecular weight and monosaccharide composition were determined by high-pressure size exclusion chromatography (HPSEC) with multi-angle laser light scattering (MALLS) and high-pressure anion exchange chromatography (HPAEC), respectively. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy was used for the partial characterization of the EPS. The EPS effect on the cell proliferation and viability of MKN-45 and HDF cells was assessed using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay and trypan blue dye exclusion, respectively. Strain TBZ112 excreted 480 mg.l-1 of the EPS under optimal growth conditions. The EPS had a molecular weight of 5.052 kDa and was a heteropolysaccharide containing ten moieties mainly composed of mannose (19.95%), glucosamine (15.55%), galacturonic acid (15.43%), arabinose (12.24%), and glucuronic acid (12.05%). No significant difference of the EPS treatments on the proliferation activity of MKN-45 and HDF cells were observed (P > 0.05). For the first time, the EPS from Halorubrum sp. TBZ112, an extremely halophilic archaeon related to Halorubrum genus, was isolated and chemically characterized. The EPS from Halorubrum sp. TBZ112 possesses a relatively low molecular weight and might be applied as a biocompatible compound. More investigations are needed to determine other biological activities of the EPS along with further details of its chemical structure.

13.
Microb Pathog ; 123: 426-432, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30075242

RESUMO

Considering the increased antibiotic resistance of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, the evaluation of immune response against the antigens of this bacterium seems necessary. In this study, the protective efficacy and immunological properties of P. aeruginosa recombinant PilQ (r-PilQ) and type b-flagellin (FLB) proteins was evaluated in the burn mouse model of infection. The inbred BALB/c mice were immunized with r-PilQ and FLB antigens. To investigate the type of induced immune response, sera were analyzed by ELISA for total IgG, IgG1, and IgG2a isotypes. After the final immunization, the IL-4, IFN-γ, and IL-17 cytokines level were examined in the spleen of non-challenged mice. Fifty days after lethal challenge, the survival rate and bacterial burden in the skin and other internal organs of experimental mice were assessed. The in vivo administration of r-PilQ, FLB and combined antigen resulted in a significant increase in the survival of mice (66%, 75%, and 83%, respectively) infected by the PAO1 strain of P. aeruginosa in the burn model of infection. Immunization of mice with r-PilQ and FLB mixture induced high titers of IL-4 and IL-17 cytokines compared to control groups (P < 0.05). The high titer of antisera raised against combined antigen was able to inhibit the systemic spread of the PAO1 strain from the site of infection to the internal organs. We concluded that the parallel role of IL-4 and IL-17 is necessary for elimination of the bacteria and promotion of survival in the immunized burn mice.


Assuntos
Vacinas Bacterianas/imunologia , Queimaduras/imunologia , Proteínas de Fímbrias/imunologia , Flagelina/imunologia , Infecções por Pseudomonas/imunologia , Infecções por Pseudomonas/prevenção & controle , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/imunologia , Infecção dos Ferimentos/imunologia , Animais , Anticorpos Antibacterianos/sangue , Anticorpos Antibacterianos/imunologia , Antígenos de Bactérias/genética , Antígenos de Bactérias/imunologia , Queimaduras/microbiologia , Citocinas/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Proteínas de Fímbrias/administração & dosagem , Proteínas de Fímbrias/genética , Flagelina/administração & dosagem , Flagelina/genética , Imunidade Humoral , Imunização , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Imunoglobulina G/imunologia , Fatores Imunológicos/metabolismo , Interferon gama/metabolismo , Interleucina-4/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/genética , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/patogenicidade , Proteínas Recombinantes , Baço/imunologia , Taxa de Sobrevida , Infecção dos Ferimentos/microbiologia , Infecção dos Ferimentos/prevenção & controle
14.
Avicenna J Med Biotechnol ; 10(1): 34-40, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29296265

RESUMO

Background: Type 4 pili (T4P) is an important virulence factor of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa). T4P pass the outer membrane through a large oligomeric channel made of a single PilQ protein that is most highly conserved at their C-termini. To develop a functional vaccine that can be used in clinical application, the secretin domain of the PilQ (PilQ380-706) was produced as a recombinant protein. Methods: A 981 bp fragment of C-terminal of the pilQ secretin (pilQ1138-2118) from was designed into the prokaryotic expression vector pET28a. The presence of the pilQ1138-2118 gene in the recombinant construct (pET28a/pilQ) was assessed by double digestion and PCR. After transformation, expression of the recombinant PilQ was induced by addition of IPTG. The expressed recombinant protein was purified by a modified method using a HisTrap affinity column and finally confirmed by SDS-PAGE. The functional activities of the produced PilQ380-706 confirmed by Western blot analysis and twitching inhibition assay. Results: The PCR and enzymatic digestion results showed the presence of the pilQ1138-2118 gene in the construct. The protein electrophoresis showed that the molecular weight of the recombinant PilQ380-706 is approximately 37 kDa. The Western blot analysis confirmed the specificity of specific IgG against the PilQ380-706 protein. The PilQ380-706 protein showed high biological activity in all of these standard assays. Conclusion: Since, the PilQ380-706 protein plays an important role in the biogenesis of pili; and thus, the primary establishment of P. aeruginosa; it seems that it can be used as a candidate vaccine or an adjuvant in the future studies.

15.
J Infect Dev Ctries ; 12(2): 109-114, 2018 Feb 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31825912

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Leptospirosis is a widespread zoonotic disease which is endemic in Guilan province, Iran. Besides economic losses in the dairy industry, leptospirosis is also considered an important public health problem. This study aimed to evaluate two serological techniques, MAT and IgM-ELISA for detection of leptospiral antibodies. METHODOLOGY: A total of 185 samples were collected from individuals in Guilan province suspected of having leptospirosis from April 2016 to December 2016. Sera from participants were analyzed for Leptospira IgM antibodies using an available ELISA test and the MAT method. The specificity and sensitivity of the tests were calculated and compared. RESULTS: Of the 185 serum samples examined 114 (61.6%) and 94 (50.8%) samples were determined to be positive by MAT and IgM-ELISA, respectively. The results also showed that 17.5% of the sera that reacted positive in MAT were negative by IgM-ELISA, and 20.2% of IgM-ELISA positive sera were negative by MAT. We also showed that the MAT had specificity and sensitivity of 100%, when compared to leptospirosis-positive and negative serum samples. The specificity and sensitivity of IgM-ELISA was calculated as 78.8% and 82.4% respectively when compared with MAT. Bivariate analysis showed high correlation between the season, community of residence, possible reasons of pollution and leptospirosis (P < 0.1). CONCLUSION: Rural areas of Guilan, especially rice farming areas, are endemic for leptospirosis. Rice farmers have a high risk of infection with leptospirosis; infection is associated with direct exposure to rodent urine, gender (male) and season (spring).

16.
Int J Mol Cell Med ; 6(2): 96-108, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28890886

RESUMO

Type IV pili (T4P) are major virulence factors of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) that are associated with primary adhesion, biofilm formation and twitching motility. This study focuses on the introduction of a novel biologically active subunit vaccine derived from the disulfide loop (DSL) of P. aeruginosa pilin. We investigated the expression of the novel PilA in-frame with pET26b vector, which contains three domains, that each domain contains three tandem repeats. The flexible (GGGGS) and (GGGGS)3 linkers were linked between the three tandem repeats and each pilA domain, respectively. The recombinant construct (pET26b/pilA) was transformed and expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3). The reactivity of specific antiserum against PilA was assessed by ELISA method. The biological activities of this candidate vaccine were evaluated by western blotting, opsonophagocytosis and twitching inhibition assays. The pET26b/pilA plasmid was confirmed by enzymatic digestion. The purified PilA protein was confirmed by immunoblot analysis. The checkerboard titration showed that the optimal dilution of the antibody to react with antigen was 1:8. The results of opsonophagocytosis assay revealed that the antibodies raised against PilA promoted phagocytosis of the PAO1 and 6266E strains to some extent (17.5% and 16.3%, respectively), so the twitching inhibition test confirmed this result. Taken together, these are the preliminary results based on a first chimerical structure failure to induce antibodies that promote the opsonization and eradication of the pathogen. Therefore, the biological activity of the PilA protein showed that it should be introduced with other proteins or target antigens against P. aeruginosa in the future studies.

17.
Iran J Basic Med Sci ; 20(5): 458-466, 2017 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28656079

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Infection with Pseudomonas aeruginosa has been a long-standing obstacle for clinical therapy due to the complexity of the genetics and pathogenesis, as well for widespread resistance to antibiotics, thus attaching great importance to explore effective vaccines for prevention and treatment. This paper focuses on the introduction of novel Pseudomonas aeruginosa type IV pili (T4P)-based fusion protein containing the secretin domain of PilQ and tandem PilA-related peptides. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We surveyed the expression of the PilQ380-705-PilA fusion protein in-frame with pET26b vector in which a rigid linker was used between two polypeptides and flexible linkers were inserted between the three tandem repeats and each pilA domains. The transformants were expressed in Escherichia coli BL21. The reactivity of specific antisera to the fusion protein was assessed by ELISA. The biological activities of this candidate vaccine were evaluated by western blotting, opsonophagocytosis, and twitching inhibition assays. RESULTS: The fusion protein was purified in high yield by osmotic shock method using HisTrap affinity column. The protein was confirmed by immunoblot analysis. The checkerboard titration showed that the optimal dilution of the antibody to react with antigen is 1:128. Results of opsonophagocytosis assay revealed that the antibodies elevated to the fusion protein promoted phagocytosis of the PAO1 and 6266E strains, so that the twitching immobilization test confirmed these results. CONCLUSION: Due to excellent killing activity mediated by opsonic antibodies and efficient immobilization of the strains, it seems that PilQ380-705-PilA fusion protein could be a reliable candidate vaccine against P. aeruginosa infection.

18.
Biologicals ; 47: 11-17, 2017 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28404459

RESUMO

Mucoid strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa are closely associated with chronic pulmonary infections. In this report we describe a straightforward approach to conjugate high molecular weight alginate to type b-flagellin (FLB) and investigation of its bioactivity. The conjugation process was performed by using ADH and EDAC. The endotoxin was eliminated from the candidate vaccine by LPS removal resin followed by LAL test. The bioconjugate molecules were verified by simultaneously determination of polysaccharide/protein content followed by gel filtration chromatography and FTIR spectroscopy. Groups of eight BALB/c mice were injected intranasally with 5 µg (per each nostril) of purified alginate, FLB and conjugated alginate-FLB with two week intervals. The functional activity of the vaccine was evaluated by ELISA and opsonophagocytosis tests. Vaccination with the alginate-FLB conjugate induced a significant (P = 0.0033) rise in alginate specific IgG in mice. At all dilution ranges, the opsonic activity of the conjugate vaccine antisera was significantly higher than alginate alone (61.9% vs. 17.3% at 1:4 dilution; P = 0.0067). The alginate-FLB conjugate could elicit high specific antibodies titer against alginate by improving its immunogenicity. In addition, the antisera raised against conjugate vaccine act as a suitable opsonin for phagocytosis of the mucoid strains of P. aeruginosa.


Assuntos
Flagelina , Imunoconjugados , Infecções por Pseudomonas/prevenção & controle , Vacinas contra Pseudomonas , Pseudomonas aeruginosa , Animais , Feminino , Flagelina/química , Flagelina/imunologia , Flagelina/farmacologia , Imunoconjugados/química , Imunoconjugados/imunologia , Imunoconjugados/farmacologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Infecções por Pseudomonas/imunologia , Infecções por Pseudomonas/patologia , Vacinas contra Pseudomonas/química , Vacinas contra Pseudomonas/imunologia , Vacinas contra Pseudomonas/farmacologia , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/química , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/imunologia
19.
Int J Mol Cell Med ; 5(1): 37-48, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27386437

RESUMO

Pseudomonas aeruginosa as an opportunistic pathogen is a significant cause of acute and chronic infections in patients with compromised defenses. This bacterium is motile via a single polar flagellum made of polymerized flagellin subunits differentiated into two major serotypes: A and B. flagellin plays an important role as a virulence factor in the adhesion, colonization and invasion of P. aeruginosa into host epithelial cells. To develop a functional vaccine that can be used in practical application to prevent and treat infection, type B-flagellin was produced as recombinant protein. In this work, the fliC gene was introduced into a pET28a vector and expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3). The expressed recombinant protein was purified by a modified method without sonication using a HisTrap affinity column. The functional activities of produced flagellin were confirmed by ELISA, western blot analysis, motility inhibition assay and opsonophagocytosis test. The purification process of the type B-flagellin was lead to a high yield. The produced recombinant type B-flagellin showed high biological activity in all of these standard assays. In conclusions, this report provides the new protocol to efficiently obtain the type B-flagellin with high biological activity and immunogenicity. This immunogen can be introduced as an adjuvant or vaccine in the future study.

20.
Pathog Glob Health ; 110(2): 39-47, 2016 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26403975

RESUMO

In the present study we used a fusion peptide from HIV-1 p24 and Nef as vaccine model and adjuvant activity of Naloxone/alum mixture was evaluated in a peptide vaccine model. HIV-1 p24-Nef fusion peptide was synthesized. Female BALB/c mice were divided into five groups. The first group immunized subcutaneously with the p24-Nef fusion peptide adjuvanted with Naloxone/alum mixture and boosted with same protocol. The second was immunized with fusion peptide adjuvanted in alum. The control groups were injected with NLX (Group 3), Alum (Group 4), or PBS (Groups 5) under the same conditions. To determine the type of induced immune response, sera and splenocytes were analyzed by commercial ELISA method for total IgG and isotypes and cytokine secretion (IL-4 & IFN-γ), respectively. We have also used the ELISPOT assay to monitor changes in the frequency of IFN-γ-producing T cells. The proliferation of T cells was assessed using Brdu method and T-cell cytotoxicity was assessed with CFSE method. Immunization of mice with HIV-1 p24-Nef fusion peptide formulated in Naloxone/alum mixture significantly increased lymphocyte proliferation and shifted cytokine responses toward Th1 profile compared to all other groups. Analysis of humoral immune responses revealed that administration of HIV-1 p24-Nef fusion peptide with Naloxone/alum mixture significantly increased specific IgG responses and also increased IgG1,IgG2a, IgG2b, IgG3, and IgM vs. alum-adjuvanted vaccine groups. Naloxone/alum mixture as an adjuvant could improve cellular and humoral immune response for HIV vaccine model and this adjuvant maybe useful for HIV vaccine model in human clinical trial.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra a AIDS/imunologia , Adjuvantes Imunológicos/administração & dosagem , Compostos de Alúmen/administração & dosagem , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , HIV-1/imunologia , Naloxona/administração & dosagem , Animais , Proliferação de Células , Citocinas/sangue , Feminino , Proteína do Núcleo p24 do HIV/administração & dosagem , Proteína do Núcleo p24 do HIV/imunologia , Infecções por HIV/virologia , Humanos , Imunidade Humoral , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Imunoglobulina M/sangue , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão , Produtos do Gene nef do Vírus da Imunodeficiência Humana/administração & dosagem , Produtos do Gene nef do Vírus da Imunodeficiência Humana/imunologia
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