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Diabetes Care ; 37(5): 1480-3, 2014 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24595630


OBJECTIVE: Adjunctive-to-insulin therapy with sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibition may improve glycemic control in type 1 diabetes (T1D). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We evaluated the glycemic efficacy and safety of empagliflozin 25 mg daily in 40 patients treated for 8 weeks in a single-arm open-label proof-of-concept trial (NCT01392560). RESULTS: Mean A1C decreased from 8.0 ± 0.9% (64 ± 10 mmol/mol) to 7.6 ± 0.9% (60 ± 10 mmol/mol) (P < 0.0001), fasting glucose from 9.0 ± 4.3 to 7.0 ± 3.2 mmol/L (P = 0.008), symptomatic hypoglycemia (<3.0 mmol/L) from 0.12 to 0.04 events per patient per day (P = 0.0004), and daily insulin dose from 54.7 ± 20.4 to 45.8 ± 18.8 units/day (P < 0.0001). Mean urinary excretion of glucose increased from 19 ± 19 to 134 ± 61 g/day (P < 0.0001). Weight decreased from 72.6 ± 12.7 to 70.0 ± 12.3 kg (P < 0.0001), and waist circumference decreased from 82.9 ± 8.7 to 79.1 ± 8.0 cm (P < 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: This proof-of-concept study strongly supports a randomized clinical trial of adjunctive-to-insulin empagliflozin in patients with T1D.

Compostos Benzidrílicos/uso terapêutico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/tratamento farmacológico , Glucosídeos/uso terapêutico , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Insulina/uso terapêutico , Inibidores do Transportador 2 de Sódio-Glicose , Adulto , Glicemia/análise , Peso Corporal , Feminino , Humanos , Hipoglicemia/diagnóstico , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
Circulation ; 129(5): 587-97, 2014 Feb 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24334175


BACKGROUND: The primary objective of this mechanistic open-label, stratified clinical trial was to determine the effect of 8 weeks' sodium glucose cotransporter 2 inhibition with empagliflozin 25 mg QD on renal hyperfiltration in subjects with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1D). METHODS AND RESULTS: Inulin (glomerular filtration rate; GFR) and paraaminohippurate (effective renal plasma flow) clearances were measured in individuals stratified based on having hyperfiltration (T1D-H, GFR ≥ 135 mL/min/1.73m(2), n=27) or normal GFR (T1D-N, GFR 90-134 mL/min/1.73m(2), n=13) at baseline. Renal function and circulating levels of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system mediators and NO were measured under clamped euglycemic (4-6 mmol/L) and hyperglycemic (9-11 mmol/L) conditions at baseline and end of treatment. During clamped euglycemia, hyperfiltration was attenuated by -33 mL/min/1.73m(2) with empagliflozin in T1D-H, (GFR 172±23-139±25 mL/min/1.73 m(2), P<0.01). This effect was accompanied by declines in plasma NO and effective renal plasma flow and an increase in renal vascular resistance (all P<0.01). Similar significant effects on GFR and renal function parameters were observed during clamped hyperglycemia. In T1D-N, GFR, other renal function parameters, and plasma NO were not altered by empagliflozin. Empagliflozin reduced hemoglobin A1c significantly in both groups, despite lower insulin doses in each group (P≤0.04). CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, short-term treatment with the sodium glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitor empagliflozin attenuated renal hyperfiltration in subjects with T1D, likely by affecting tubular-glomerular feedback mechanisms. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION URL: Unique identifier: NCT01392560.

Compostos Benzidrílicos/uso terapêutico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/tratamento farmacológico , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular/fisiologia , Glucosídeos/uso terapêutico , Hemodinâmica/fisiologia , Rim/fisiologia , Inibidores do Transportador 2 de Sódio-Glicose , Transportador 2 de Glucose-Sódio/fisiologia , Adulto , Compostos Benzidrílicos/farmacologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular/efeitos dos fármacos , Técnica Clamp de Glucose/métodos , Glucosídeos/farmacologia , Hemodinâmica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
Clin Drug Investig ; 23(3): 181-91, 2003.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23340924


INTRODUCTION: Ipratropium bromide (IB) is an established and effective first-line maintenance treatment for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). A new IB metered-dose inhaler (MDI) using hydrofluoroalkane 134a propellant (IB HFA) has been developed as an alternative to the MDI containing chlorofluorocarbon (IB CFC). OBJECTIVE: To compare the long-term safety and efficacy of IB HFA and IB CFC in patients with COPD. STUDY DESIGN: This was a randomised, open-label, parallel-group, 1-year, multi-centre trial. Primary endpoints included adverse events (AEs) and vital signs. Secondary endpoints included therapeutic response (>15% increase in forced expiratory volume in 1 second [FEV(1)] peak change from baseline), FEV(1) area under the response-time curve (AUC). PATIENTS AND INTERVENTIONS: Patients (n = 456) with moderate-to-severe COPD, who received either IB HFA (n = 305) or IB CFC (n = 151 ), both 42µg four times daily. RESULTS: There were no significant differences in the incidences of individual AEs between groups over the short and long term; respiratory disorders were the most common. The incidence of anticholinergic AEs possibly related to treatment was low (1.3% IB HFA, 0.7% IB CFC). Serious AEs occurred in 19.0% and 20.5%, and discontinuations due to AEs in 7.2% and 7.3%, of patients receiving IB HFA and IB CFC, respectively. Therapeutic bronchodilatory responses were achieved in 76-81% and 72-84% of patients, and AUC ranged from 0.117-0.148L and 0.117-0.174L, in patients receiving IB HFA and IB CFC, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: IB HFA had similar efficacy and tolerability to IB CFC over 1 year, supporting a seamless transition from the CFC MDI to the HFA MDI in both short- and long-term treatment.