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1.
Cancers (Basel) ; 13(5)2021 Mar 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33800346

RESUMO

Breast cancer (BC) remains complex for women both physically and psychologically. The objectives of this study were to (1) assess the evolution of the main sequelae and treatment two and five years after diagnosis in women with early-stage breast cancer, (2) explore patterns of sequelae associated with given sociodemographic, clinical, and lifestyle factors. The current analysis was based on 654 localized BC patients enrolled in the French nationwide longitudinal survey "vie après cancer" VICAN (January-June 2010). Information about study participants was collected at enrollment, two and five years after diagnosis. Changes over time of the main sequelae were analyzed and latent class analysis was performed to identify patterns of sequelae related to BC five years after diagnosis. The mean age (±SD) of study participants at inclusion was 49.7 (±10.5) years old. Six main classes of sequelae were identified two years and five years post-diagnosis (functional, pain, esthetic, fatigue, psychological, and gynecological). A significant decrease was observed for fatigue (p = 0.03) and an increase in cognitive sequelae was reported (p = 0.03). Two latent classes were identified-functional and esthetic patterns. Substantial sequelae remain up to five years after BC diagnosis. Changes in patient care pathways are needed to identify BC patients at a high risk.

2.
Soc Sci Med ; 276: 113812, 2021 Mar 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33752102

RESUMO

We investigate the effects of early-life exposure to war on adult health outcomes including cancer, hypertension, angina, infarction, diabetes and obesity. We combine data from the French prospective cohort study E3N on women employed in the French National Education with historical data on World War II. To identify causal effects, we exploit exogenous spatial and temporal variation in war exposure related to the German invasion of France during the Battle of France. The number of French military casualties at the level of the postcode area serves as main measure of exposure. Our results suggest that exposure to the war during the first 5 years of life has significant adverse effects on health in adulthood. A 10 percent increase in the number of deaths per 100,000 inhabitants in the individual's postcode area of birth increases the probability of suffering from any of the health conditions considered in this study by 0.08 percentage points. This is relative to a mean of 49 percent for the sample as a whole.

3.
Environ Int ; 152: 106467, 2021 Mar 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33711762

RESUMO

Due to the large number of chemical food contaminants, consumers are exposed simultaneously to a wide range of chemicals which can interact and have a negative impact on health. Nevertheless, due to the multitude of possible chemical combinations it is unrealistic to test all combined toxicological effects. It is therefore essential to identify the most relevant mixtures to which the population is exposed through the diet and investigate their impact on heath. The present study aims to identify and describe the main chemical mixtures to which women enrolled in the E3N study, a large French prospective cohort, are chronically exposed through the diet. 74522 women who had answered a validated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire in 1993, were included in the present study. Dietary exposure to chemical contaminates was estimated based on the food contamination measured in 186 core food in France collected between 2007 and 2009 by the French agency for food, environment and occupational health, and safety (ANSES) in the framework of the second French total diet study (2TDS). The sparse non-negative matrix under-approximation (SNMU) was used to identify mixtures of chemical substances. A k-means clustering classification of the whole study population was then performed to define clusters with similar co-exposure profiles. Overall, 8 mixtures which explained 83% of the total variance, were retained. The first mixture, entitled "Minerals, inorganic contaminants, and furans", explained the highest proportion of the total variance (38%), and was correlated in particular with the consumption of "Offal" (rho = 0.22), "Vegetables except roots" (rho = 0.20), and "Eggs" (rho = 0.19). The other seven mixtures explained between 17% and 1% of the variance. Finally, 5 clusters were identified based on the adherence to the 8 mixtures. This study, being the largest ever conducted to identify dietary exposure to chemical mixtures, represents a concrete attempt to prioritize mixtures for which it is essential to investigate combined health effects based on exposure.

4.
BMJ Open ; 11(2): e040671, 2021 Feb 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33574143

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: More than one-third of the world population uses at least one form of social media. Since their advent in 2005, health-oriented research based on social media data has largely increased as discussions about health issues are broadly shared online and generate a large amount of health-related data. The objective of this scoping review is to provide an evidence map of the various uses of social media for health research purposes, their fields of applications and their analysis methods. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This scoping review will follow the Arksey and O'Malley methodological framework (2005) as well as the Joanna Briggs Institute Reviewer's manual. Relevant publications will be first searched on the PudMed/MEDLINE database and then on Web of Science. We will focus on literature published between January 2005 and April 2020. All articles related to the use of social media or networks for health-oriented research purposes will be included. A first search will be conducted with some keywords in order to identify relevant articles. After identifying the research strategy, a two-part study selection process will be systematically applied by two reviewers. The first part consists of screening titles and abstracts found, thanks to the search strategy, to define the eligibility of each article. In the second part, the full texts will be screened and only relevant articles will be kept. Data will finally be extracted, collated and charted to summarise all the relevant methods, outcomes and key findings in the articles. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: This scoping review will provide an extensive overview of the use of social media for health research purposes. Opportunities as well as future ethical, methodological and technical challenges will also be discussed based on our findings to define a new research agenda. Results will be disseminated through a peer-reviewed publication.

5.
Nutrients ; 13(1)2020 Dec 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33374992

RESUMO

Metabolic syndrome (MetS) characteristics include chronic inflammation and elevated oxidative stress. This study assessed associations between circulating concentrations of micronutrients/phytochemicals and inflammatory/oxidative stress markers with MetS and MetS components. Adults (N = 606) from the European Health Examination Survey in Luxembourg (2013-2015) were randomly selected. We performed a multivariable logistic regression model using the least absolute shrinkage and selection operator to identify MetS-associated variables. Participants with MetS had higher concentrations of C-reactive protein (CRP), 8-iso-prostaglandin F2α, leptin, insulin, and vitamins E/A, but lower concentrations of adiponectin, beta-carotene, and oxidized low-density lipoprotein. A one-unit increase in log-CRP was associated with 51% greater odds of MetS (OR = 1.51 (95% CI: 1.16, 1.98)). Adults with a one-unit increase in log-leptin were 3.1 times more likely to have MetS (3.10 (2.10, 4.72)). Women with a one-unit increase in vitamin A were associated with 3% increased odds of MetS (1.03 (1.01, 1.05)), while those with a one-unit increase in log-adiponectin were associated with 82% decreased odds (0.18 (0.07, 0.46)). Chronic inflammation best characterized adults with MetS, as CRP, adiponectin, and leptin were selected as the main MetS determinants. Micronutrients did not seem to affect MetS, except for vitamin A in women.

6.
BMJ Open ; 10(11): e041834, 2020 11 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33234656

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: A few major clinical factors such as sex, obesity or comorbidities have already been associated with COVID-19 severity, but there is a need to identify new epidemiological, clinical, digital and biological characteristics associated with severity and perform deep phenotyping of patients according to severity. The objectives of the Predi-COVID study are (1) to identify new determinants of COVID-19 severity and (2) to conduct deep phenotyping of patients by stratifying them according to risk of complications, as well as risk factors for infection among household members of Predi-COVID participants (the Predi-COVID-H ancillary study). METHODS AND ANALYSIS: Predi-COVID is a prospective, hybrid cohort study composed of laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 cases in Luxembourg who will be followed up remotely for 1 year to monitor their health status and symptoms. Predi-COVID-H is an ancillary cohort study on household members of index cases included in Predi-COVID to monitor symptoms and household clusters in this high-risk population. A subcohort of up to 200 Predi-COVID and 300 Predi-COVID-H participants with biological samples will be included. Severity of infection will be evaluated by occurrence and duration of hospitalisation, admission and duration of stay in intensive care units or equivalent structures, provision of and duration of supplemental oxygen and ventilation therapy, transfer to another hospital, as well as the impact of infection on daily activities following hospital discharge. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The study has been approved by the National Research Ethics Committee of Luxembourg (study number 202003/07) in April 2020. An informed consent is signed by study participants. Scientific articles will be submitted to international peer-reviewed journals, along with press releases for lay audience for major results. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT04380987.

7.
Sci Data ; 7(1): 393, 2020 11 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33188205

RESUMO

Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a global public health challenge. Whilst the advent of genome-wide association studies has identified >400 genetic variants associated with T2D, our understanding of its biological mechanisms and translational insights is still limited. The EPIC-InterAct project, centred in 8 countries in the European Prospective Investigations into Cancer and Nutrition study, is one of the largest prospective studies of T2D. Established as a nested case-cohort study to investigate the interplay between genetic and lifestyle behavioural factors on the risk of T2D, a total of 12,403 individuals were identified as incident T2D cases, and a representative sub-cohort of 16,154 individuals was selected from a larger cohort of 340,234 participants with a follow-up time of 3.99 million person-years. We describe the results from a genome-wide association analysis between more than 8.9 million SNPs and T2D risk among 22,326 individuals (9,978 cases and 12,348 non-cases) from the EPIC-InterAct study. The summary statistics to be shared provide a valuable resource to facilitate further investigations into the genetics of T2D.

8.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 9(23): e015121, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33190573

RESUMO

Background High body mass index (BMI) and low physical activity are associated with increased risk of hypertension. Few studies have assessed their joint impact or the relation of physical activity and hypertension among individuals within a healthy BMI range. The objective of this study was to investigate the associations between physical activity and hypertension across strata of BMI. Methods and Results We used data from the E3N (Etude Epidémiologique de femmes de la Mutuelle Générale de l´Education) cohort, a French prospective study of women aged 40 to 65 years. We included participants who completed a diet history questionnaire and who did not have prevalent hypertension at baseline, resulting in a total of 41 607 women. Questionnaires assessed time spent undertaking various types of physical activity. Hypertension cases were self-reported. Cox models were used to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) for physical activity. Associations were assessed over strata of BMI. Among the 41 607 included women, 10 182 cases of hypertension were identified in an average follow-up time of 14.5 years. Total physical activity was associated with a lower hypertension risk in women within the high-normal BMI range (BMI, 22.5-24.9) (HRQuartile 1-Quartile 4, 0.89; 95% CI, 0.79-0.99). An inverse relationship was observed between sports (HRsports >2 hours, 0.87; 95% CI, 0.83-0.93), walking (HRwalk >6.5 hours, 0.94; 95% CI, 0.90-1.00), and gardening (HRgardening >2.5 hours, 0.94; 95% CI, 0.89-0.99). Sports were associated with a reduced risk of hypertension in women with a healthy weight, but evidence was weaker in overweight/obese or underweight women. Conclusions Women with a healthy weight were those who could benefit most from practicing sports, and sports provided the largest risk reduction compared with other types of activity.

9.
Diabetes Care ; 2020 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33203707

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Higher plasma vitamin C levels are associated with lower type 2 diabetes risk, but whether this association is causal is uncertain. To investigate this, we studied the association of genetically predicted plasma vitamin C with type 2 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We conducted genome-wide association studies of plasma vitamin C among 52,018 individuals of European ancestry to discover novel genetic variants. We performed Mendelian randomization analyses to estimate the association of genetically predicted differences in plasma vitamin C with type 2 diabetes in up to 80,983 case participants and 842,909 noncase participants. We compared this estimate with the observational association between plasma vitamin C and incident type 2 diabetes, including 8,133 case participants and 11,073 noncase participants. RESULTS: We identified 11 genomic regions associated with plasma vitamin C (P < 5 × 10-8), with the strongest signal at SLC23A1, and 10 novel genetic loci including SLC23A3, CHPT1, BCAS3, SNRPF, RER1, MAF, GSTA5, RGS14, AKT1, and FADS1. Plasma vitamin C was inversely associated with type 2 diabetes (hazard ratio per SD 0.88; 95% CI 0.82, 0.94), but there was no association between genetically predicted plasma vitamin C (excluding FADS1 variant due to its apparent pleiotropic effect) and type 2 diabetes (1.03; 95% CI 0.96, 1.10). CONCLUSIONS: These findings indicate discordance between biochemically measured and genetically predicted plasma vitamin C levels in the association with type 2 diabetes among European populations. The null Mendelian randomization findings provide no strong evidence to suggest the use of vitamin C supplementation for type 2 diabetes prevention.

10.
J Med Internet Res ; 22(11): e17247, 2020 Nov 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33141087

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Gastrointestinal (GI) discomfort is prevalent and known to be associated with impaired quality of life. Real-world information on factors of GI discomfort and solutions used by people is, however, limited. Social media, including online forums, have been considered a new source of information to examine the health of populations in real-life settings. OBJECTIVE: The aims of this retrospective infodemiology study are to identify discussion topics, characterize users, and identify perceived determinants of GI discomfort in web-based messages posted by users of French social media. METHODS: Messages related to GI discomfort posted between January 2003 and August 2018 were extracted from 14 French-speaking general and specialized publicly available online forums. Extracted messages were cleaned and deidentified. Relevant medical concepts were determined on the basis of the Medical Dictionary for Regulatory Activities and vernacular terms. The identification of discussion topics was carried out by using a correlated topic model on the basis of the latent Dirichlet allocation. A nonsupervised clustering algorithm was applied to cluster forum users according to the reported symptoms of GI discomfort, discussion topics, and activity on online forums. Users' age and gender were determined by linear regression and application of a support vector machine, respectively, to characterize the identified clusters according to demographic parameters. Perceived factors of GI discomfort were classified by a combined method on the basis of syntactic analysis to identify messages with causality terms and a second topic modeling in a relevant segment of phrases. RESULTS: A total of 198,866 messages associated with GI discomfort were included in the analysis corpus after extraction and cleaning. These messages were posted by 36,989 separate web users, most of them being women younger than 40 years. Everyday life, diet, digestion, abdominal pain, impact on the quality of life, and tips to manage stress were among the most discussed topics. Segmentation of users identified 5 clusters corresponding to chronic and acute GI concerns. Diet topic was associated with each cluster, and stress was strongly associated with abdominal pain. Psychological factors, food, and allergens were perceived as the main causes of GI discomfort by web users. CONCLUSIONS: GI discomfort is actively discussed by web users. This study reveals a complex relationship between food, stress, and GI discomfort. Our approach has shown that identifying web-based discussion topics associated with GI discomfort and its perceived factors is feasible and can serve as a complementary source of real-world evidence for caregivers.

11.
J Diabetes ; 2020 Nov 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33145935

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In many populations the incidence of type 2 diabetes is higher in men than in women. This may be explained by exposure to female gonadal hormones, but so far, there is no consensus on their role over the life course in type 2 diabetes etiology. METHODS: Data are from 83 799 French women from the E3N (Etude Épidémiologique de Femmes de la Mutuelle Générale de l'Education Nationale) cohort study, followed for 22 years. Multivariable Cox models including classical risk factors were used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) between gonadal hormonal factors and incident type 2 diabetes. RESULTS: Older age at menarche, more menstrual cycles, older age at menopause, longer duration of exposure to gonadal hormones and breastfeeding were inversely associated with incident type 2 diabetes cases (n = 4806). While a longer duration of menstrual cycles (HR = 1.23 [95% CI: 1.07-1.41] comparing ≥32 vs ≤24 days) and use of contraceptive pills (HR = 1.33 [1.25-1.42]) were associated with a greater risk of type 2 diabetes. CONCLUSIONS: In women, a longer exposure to endogenous gonadal hormones with a later menopause as well as breastfeeding were associated with a lower risk of developing type 2 diabetes, independently of classical diabetes risk factors. In contrast, the use of contraceptive agents was associated with incident diabetes, but the influence of each type of contraception and of exposure duration remain to be investigated.

12.
Syst Rev ; 9(1): 259, 2020 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33160413

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Physical activity (PA) is a complex multidimensional human behaviour. Currently, there is no standardised approach for measuring PA using wearable accelerometers in health research. The total volume of PA is an important variable because it includes the frequency, intensity and duration of activity bouts, but it reduces them down to a single summary variable. Therefore, analytical approaches using accelerometer raw time series data taking into account the way PA are accumulated over time may provide more clinically relevant features of physical behaviour. Advances on these fields are highly needed in the context of the rapid development of digital health studies using connected trackers and smartwatches. The objective of this review will be to map advanced analytical approaches and their multidimensional summary variables used to provide a comprehensive picture of PA behaviour. METHODS: This scoping review will be guided by the Arksey and O'Malley methodological framework. A search for relevant publications will be undertaken in MEDLINE (PubMed), Embase and Web of Science databases. The selection of articles will be limited to studies published in English from January 2010 onwards. Studies including analytical methods that go beyond total PA volume, average daily acceleration and the conventional cut-point approaches, involving tri-axial accelerometer data will be included. Two reviewers will independently screen all citations, full-text articles and extract data. The data will be collated, stored and charted to provide a descriptive summary of the analytical methods and outputs, their strengths and limitations and their association with different health outcomes. DISCUSSION: This protocol describes a systematic method to identify, map and synthesise advanced analytical approaches and their multidimensional summary variables used to investigate PA behaviour and identify potentially clinically relevant features. The results of this review will be useful to guide future research related to analysing PA patterns, investigate their association with health conditions and suggest appropriate recommendations for changes in PA behaviour. The results may be of interest to sports scientists, clinical researchers, epidemiologists and smartphone application developers in the field of PA assessment. SCOPING REVIEW REGISTRATION: This protocol has been registered with the Open Science Framework (OSF): https://osf.io/yxgmb .

13.
PLoS Med ; 17(10): e1003394, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33064751

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prior research suggested a differential association of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) metabolites with type 2 diabetes (T2D), with total 25(OH)D and 25(OH)D3 inversely associated with T2D, but the epimeric form (C3-epi-25(OH)D3) positively associated with T2D. Whether or not these observational associations are causal remains uncertain. We aimed to examine the potential causality of these associations using Mendelian randomisation (MR) analysis. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We performed a meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies for total 25(OH)D (N = 120,618), 25(OH)D3 (N = 40,562), and C3-epi-25(OH)D3 (N = 40,562) in participants of European descent (European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition [EPIC]-InterAct study, EPIC-Norfolk study, EPIC-CVD study, Ely study, and the SUNLIGHT consortium). We identified genetic variants for MR analysis to investigate the causal association of the 25(OH)D metabolites with T2D (including 80,983 T2D cases and 842,909 non-cases). We also estimated the observational association of 25(OH)D metabolites with T2D by performing random effects meta-analysis of results from previous studies and results from the EPIC-InterAct study. We identified 10 genetic loci associated with total 25(OH)D, 7 loci associated with 25(OH)D3 and 3 loci associated with C3-epi-25(OH)D3. Based on the meta-analysis of observational studies, each 1-standard deviation (SD) higher level of 25(OH)D was associated with a 20% lower risk of T2D (relative risk [RR]: 0.80; 95% CI 0.77, 0.84; p < 0.001), but a genetically predicted 1-SD increase in 25(OH)D was not significantly associated with T2D (odds ratio [OR]: 0.96; 95% CI 0.89, 1.03; p = 0.23); this result was consistent across sensitivity analyses. In EPIC-InterAct, 25(OH)D3 (per 1-SD) was associated with a lower risk of T2D (RR: 0.81; 95% CI 0.77, 0.86; p < 0.001), while C3-epi-25(OH)D3 (above versus below lower limit of quantification) was positively associated with T2D (RR: 1.12; 95% CI 1.03, 1.22; p = 0.006), but neither 25(OH)D3 (OR: 0.97; 95% CI 0.93, 1.01; p = 0.14) nor C3-epi-25(OH)D3 (OR: 0.98; 95% CI 0.93, 1.04; p = 0.53) was causally associated with T2D risk in the MR analysis. Main limitations include the lack of a non-linear MR analysis and of the generalisability of the current findings from European populations to other populations of different ethnicities. CONCLUSIONS: Our study found discordant associations of biochemically measured and genetically predicted differences in blood 25(OH)D with T2D risk. The findings based on MR analysis in a large sample of European ancestry do not support a causal association of total 25(OH)D or 25(OH)D metabolites with T2D and argue against the use of vitamin D supplementation for the prevention of T2D.

14.
Diabetes Care ; 43(11): 2660-2667, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32868270

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: There is sparse evidence for the association of suitable food substitutions for red and processed meat on the risk of type 2 diabetes. We modeled the association between replacing red and processed meat with other protein sources and the risk of type 2 diabetes and estimated its population impact. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: The European Prospective Investigation into Cancer (EPIC)-InterAct case cohort included 11,741 individuals with type 2 diabetes and a subcohort of 15,450 participants in eight countries. We modeled the replacement of self-reported red and processed meat with poultry, fish, eggs, legumes, cheese, cereals, yogurt, milk, and nuts. Country-specific hazard ratios (HRs) for incident type 2 diabetes were estimated by Prentice-weighted Cox regression and pooled using random-effects meta-analysis. RESULTS: There was a lower hazard for type 2 diabetes for the modeled replacement of red and processed meat (50 g/day) with cheese (HR 0.90, 95% CI 0.83-0.97) (30 g/day), yogurt (0.90, 0.86-0.95) (70 g/day), nuts (0.90, 0.84-0.96) (10 g/day), or cereals (0.92, 0.88-0.96) (30 g/day) but not for replacements with poultry, fish, eggs, legumes, or milk. If a causal association is assumed, replacing red and processed meat with cheese, yogurt, or nuts could prevent 8.8%, 8.3%, or 7.5%, respectively, of new cases of type 2 diabetes. CONCLUSIONS: Replacement of red and processed meat with cheese, yogurt, nuts, or cereals was associated with a lower rate of type 2 diabetes. Substituting red and processed meat by other protein sources may contribute to the prevention of incident type 2 diabetes in European populations.

15.
BMJ ; 370: m2194, 2020 07 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32641421

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association of plasma vitamin C and carotenoids, as indicators of fruit and vegetable intake, with the risk of type 2 diabetes. DESIGN: Prospective case-cohort study. SETTING: Populations from eight European countries. PARTICIPANTS: 9754 participants with incident type 2 diabetes, and a subcohort of 13 662 individuals from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort of 340 234 participants: EPIC-InterAct case-cohort study. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Incident type 2 diabetes. RESULTS: In a multivariable adjusted model, higher plasma vitamin C was associated with a lower risk of developing type 2 diabetes (hazard ratio per standard deviation 0.82, 95% confidence interval 0.76 to 0.89). A similar inverse association was shown for total carotenoids (hazard ratio per standard deviation 0.75, 0.68 to 0.82). A composite biomarker score (split into five equal groups), comprising vitamin C and individual carotenoids, was inversely associated with type 2 diabetes with hazard ratios 0.77, 0.66, 0.59, and 0.50 for groups 2-5 compared with group 1 (the lowest group). Self-reported median fruit and vegetable intake was 274 g/day, 396 g/day, and 508 g/day for participants in categories defined by groups 1, 3, and 5 of the composite biomarker score, respectively. One standard deviation difference in the composite biomarker score, equivalent to a 66 (95% confidence interval 61 to 71) g/day difference in total fruit and vegetable intake, was associated with a hazard ratio of 0.75 (0.67 to 0.83). This would be equivalent to an absolute risk reduction of 0.95 per 1000 person years of follow up if achieved across an entire population with the characteristics of the eight European countries included in this analysis. CONCLUSIONS: These findings indicate an inverse association between plasma vitamin C, carotenoids, and their composite biomarker score, and incident type 2 diabetes in different European countries. These biomarkers are objective indicators of fruit and vegetable consumption, and suggest that diets rich in even modestly higher fruit and vegetable consumption could help to prevent development of type 2 diabetes.


Assuntos
Ácido Ascórbico/sangue , Carotenoides/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/prevenção & controle , Frutas , Verduras , Biomarcadores/sangue , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Dieta , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos
16.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 112(3): 631-643, 2020 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32619242

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: High carbohydrate intake raises blood triglycerides, glucose, and insulin; reduces HDLs; and may increase risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). Epidemiological studies indicate that high dietary glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL) are associated with increased CHD risk. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to determine whether dietary GI, GL, and available carbohydrates are associated with CHD risk in both sexes. METHODS: This large prospective study-the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition-consisted of 338,325 participants who completed a dietary questionnaire. HRs with 95% CIs for a CHD event, in relation to intake of GI, GL, and carbohydrates, were estimated using covariate-adjusted Cox proportional hazard models. RESULTS: After 12.8 y (median), 6378 participants had experienced a CHD event. High GL was associated with greater CHD risk [HR 1.16 (95% CI: 1.02, 1.31) highest vs. lowest quintile, p-trend 0.035; HR 1.18 (95% CI: 1.07, 1.29) per 50 g/day of GL intake]. The association between GL and CHD risk was evident in subjects with BMI (in kg/m2) ≥25 [HR: 1.22 (95% CI: 1.11, 1.35) per 50 g/d] but not in those with BMI <25 [HR: 1.09 (95% CI: 0.98, 1.22) per 50 g/d) (P-interaction = 0.022). The GL-CHD association did not differ between men [HR: 1.19 (95% CI: 1.08, 1.30) per 50 g/d] and women [HR: 1.22 (95% CI: 1.07, 1.40) per 50 g/d] (test for interaction not significant). GI was associated with CHD risk only in the continuous model [HR: 1.04 (95% CI: 1.00, 1.08) per 5 units/d]. High available carbohydrate was associated with greater CHD risk [HR: 1.11 (95% CI: 1.03, 1.18) per 50 g/d]. High sugar intake was associated with greater CHD risk [HR: 1.09 (95% CI: 1.02, 1.17) per 50 g/d]. CONCLUSIONS: This large pan-European study provides robust additional support for the hypothesis that a diet that induces a high glucose response is associated with greater CHD risk.


Assuntos
Doença da Artéria Coronariana/epidemiologia , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/etiologia , Índice Glicêmico , Carga Glicêmica , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Medição de Risco
17.
Nutrients ; 12(7)2020 Jun 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32610657

RESUMO

Most studies on dietary polyphenol intake and type 2 diabetes (T2D) risk have focused on total or specific subclasses of polyphenols. Since polyphenols are often consumed simultaneously, the joint effect of an intake of multiple subclasses should be explored. We aimed to identify profiles of the dietary polyphenol subclasses intake associated with T2D. A total of 60,586 women from the Etude Epidémiologique auprès de femmes de l'Education Nationale (E3N) cohort study were followed for 20 years between 1993 and 2014. T2D cases were identified and validated. The individual energy-adjusted daily intakes of 15 subclasses of polyphenols were estimated at baseline using a food frequency questionnaire and the PhenolExplorer database. We used Bayesian profile regression to perform the clustering of the covariates by identifying exposure profiles of polyphenol intakes and, simultaneously, link these to T2D risk by using multivariable Cox regression models. We validated 2740 incident T2D cases during follow-up, and identified 15 distinct clusters with different intake profiles and T2D risk. When compared to the largest cluster (n = 6298 women), higher risks of T2D were observed in three of those clusters, which were composed of women with low or medium intakes of anthocyanins, dihydroflavonols, catechins, flavonols, hydroxybenzoic acids, lignans, and stilbenes. One cluster (n = 4243), characterized by higher intakes of these polyphenol subclasses, exhibited lower T2D risk when compared to the reference cluster. These results highlight the importance of a varied diet of polyphenol-rich foods such as nuts, fruits, and vegetables to prevent T2D risk.

18.
J Med Internet Res ; 22(6): e15619, 2020 06 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32554383

RESUMO

Food intake and usual dietary intake are among the key determinants of health to be assessed in medical research and important confounding factors to be accounted for in clinical studies. Although various methods are available for gathering dietary data, those based on innovative technologies are particularly promising. With combined cost-effectiveness and ease of use, it is safe to assume that mobile technologies can now optimize tracking of eating occasions and dietary behaviors. Yet, choosing a dietary assessment tool that meets research objectives and data quality standards remains challenging. In this paper, we describe the purposes of collecting dietary data in medical research and outline the main considerations for using mobile dietary assessment tools based on participant and researcher expectations.

19.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0235009, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32569307

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is a need to identify priority zones for cardiometabolic prevention. Disease mapping in countries with high heterogeneity in the geographic distribution of the population is challenging. Our goal was to map the cardiometabolic health and identify hotspots of disease using data from a national health survey. METHODS: Using Chile as a case study, we applied a Bayesian hierarchical modelling. We performed a cross-sectional analysis of the 2009-2010 Chilean Health Survey. Outcomes were diabetes (all types), obesity, hypertension, and high LDL cholesterol. To estimate prevalence, we used individual and aggregated data by province. We identified hotspots defined as prevalence in provinces significantly greater than the national prevalence. Models were adjusted for age, sex, their interaction, and sampling weight. We imputed missing data. We applied a joint outcome modelling approach to capture the association between the four outcomes. RESULTS: We analysed data from 4,780 participants (mean age (SD) 46 (19) years; 60% women). The national prevalence (percentage (95% credible intervals) for diabetes, obesity, hypertension and high LDL cholesterol were 10.9 (4.5, 19.2), 30.0 (17.7, 45.3), 36.4 (16.4, 57.6), and 13.7 (3.4, 32.2) respectively. Prevalence of diabetes was lower in the far south. Prevalence of obesity and hypertension increased from north to far south. Prevalence of high LDL cholesterol was higher in the north and south. A hotspot for diabetes was located in the centre. Hotspots for obesity were mainly situated in the south and far south, for hypertension in the centre, south and far south and for high LDL cholesterol in the far south. CONCLUSIONS: The distribution of cardiometabolic risk factors in Chile has a characteristic pattern with a general trend to a north-south gradient. Our approach is reproducible and demonstrates that the Bayesian approach enables the accurate identification of hotspots and mapping of disease, allowing the identification of areas for cardiometabolic prevention.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Teorema de Bayes , Chile , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Mapeamento Geográfico , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco
20.
J Med Internet Res ; 22(6): e19284, 2020 06 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32501804

RESUMO

The coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic has created an urgent need for coordinated mechanisms to respond to the outbreak across health sectors, and digital health solutions have been identified as promising approaches to address this challenge. This editorial discusses the current situation regarding digital health solutions to fight COVID-19 as well as the challenges and ethical hurdles to broad and long-term implementation of these solutions. To decrease the risk of infection, telemedicine has been used as a successful health care model in both emergency and primary care. Official communication plans should promote facile and diverse channels to inform people about the pandemic and to avoid rumors and reduce threats to public health. Social media platforms such as Twitter and Google Trends analyses are highly beneficial to model pandemic trends as well as to monitor the evolution of patients' symptoms or public reaction to the pandemic over time. However, acceptability of digital solutions may face challenges due to potential conflicts with users' cultural, moral, and religious backgrounds. Digital tools can provide collective public health benefits; however, they may be intrusive and can erode individual freedoms or leave vulnerable populations behind. The COVID-19 pandemic has demonstrated the strong potential of various digital health solutions that have been tested during the crisis. More concerted measures should be implemented to ensure that future digital health initiatives will have a greater impact on the epidemic and meet the most strategic needs to ease the life of people who are at the forefront of the crisis.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Mídias Sociais , Telemedicina/métodos , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Saúde Global , Humanos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Medição de Risco
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