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ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 12(44): 50024-50032, 2020 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33086781


Nature has inspired the design of next-generation lightweight architectured structural materials, for example, nacre-bearing extreme impact and paw-pad absorbing energy. Here, a bioinspired functional gradient structure, consisting of an impact-resistant hard layer and an energy-absorbing ductile layer, is applied to additively manufacture ultrahigh-molecular-weight polyethylene (UHMWPE). Its crystalline graded and directionally solidified structure enables superior impact resistance. In addition, we demonstrate nonequilibrium processing, ultrahigh strain rate pulsed laser shock wave peening, which could trigger surface hardening for enhanced crystallinity and polymer phase transformation. Moreover, we demonstrate the paw-pad-inspired soft- and hard-fiber-reinforced composite structure to absorb the impact energy. The bioinspired design and nonequilibrium processing of graded UHMWPE shed light on lightweight engineering polymer materials for impact-resistant and threat-protection applications.

J Clin Med ; 9(5)2020 May 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32370195


Optimal control theory is branch of mathematics that aims to optimize a solution to a dynamical system. While the concept of using optimal control theory to improve treatment regimens in oncology is not novel, many of the early applications of this mathematical technique were not designed to work with routinely available data or produce results that can eventually be translated to the clinical setting. The purpose of this review is to discuss clinically relevant considerations for formulating and solving optimal control problems for treating cancer patients. Our review focuses on two of the most widely used cancer treatments, radiation therapy and systemic therapy, as they naturally lend themselves to optimal control theory as a means to personalize therapeutic plans in a rigorous fashion. To provide context for optimal control theory to address either of these two modalities, we first discuss the major limitations and difficulties oncologists face when considering alternate regimens for their patients. We then provide a brief introduction to optimal control theory before formulating the optimal control problem in the context of radiation and systemic therapy. We also summarize examples from the literature that illustrate these concepts. Finally, we present both challenges and opportunities for dramatically improving patient outcomes via the integration of clinically relevant, patient-specific, mathematical models and optimal control theory.

J Mech Phys Solids ; 1392020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32394987


We develop a general class of thermodynamically consistent, continuum models based on mixture theory with phase effects that describe the behavior of a mass of multiple interacting constituents. The constituents consist of solid species undergoing large elastic deformations and compressible viscous fluids. The fundamental building blocks framing the mixture theories consist of the mass balance law of diffusing species and microscopic (cellular scale) and macroscopic (tissue scale) force balances, as well as energy balance and the entropy production inequality derived from the first and second laws of thermodynamics. A general phase-field framework is developed by closing the system through postulating constitutive equations (i.e., specific forms of free energy and rate of dissipation potentials) to depict the growth of tumors in a microenvironment. A notable feature of this theory is that it contains a unified continuum mechanics framework for addressing the interactions of multiple species evolving in both space and time and involved in biological growth of soft tissues (e.g., tumor cells and nutrients). The formulation also accounts for the regulating roles of the mechanical deformation on the growth of tumors, through a physically and mathematically consistent coupled diffusion and deformation framework. A new algorithm for numerical approximation of the proposed model using mixed finite elements is presented. The results of numerical experiments indicate that the proposed theory captures critical features of avascular tumor growth in the various microenvironment of living tissue, in agreement with the experimental studies in the literature.