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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33772638

RESUMO

The dopaminergic system of zebrafish is complex and the numerous pathways and receptors in the central nervous system (CNS) are being extensively studied. A critical factor for the synthesis, activation and release of catecholamines (CAs) is the presence of tyrosine hydroxylase, an enzyme which converts L-tyrosine into levodopa. Levodopa thus is the intermediary in the synthesis of dopamine (DA) and norepinephrine (NE) and promotes its release; therefore, CAs play an important role in the CNS with hormonal functions. Here, we use levodopa/carbidopa to clarify the involvement of the dopaminergic pathway in the stress response in zebrafish submitted to an acute stress challenge. Acute stress was induced by chasing fish with a net for 2 min and assessed by measuring whole-body cortisol levels. Two experiments were carried out, the first with exposure to levodopa/carbidopa and the second with exposure to AMPT and levodopa/carbidopa. Levodopa/carbidopa balances the stress response through its action on the zebrafish hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Changes in cortisol levels suggest that DA was related to the balance of the stress response and that NE decreased this response. These effects were specific to stress since levodopa/carbidopa did not induce changes in cortisol in non-stressed fish.

2.
Arch Environ Contam Toxicol ; 77(3): 443-451, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31190101

RESUMO

Environmental contamination caused by the human occupancy and economic activities that generate a wide range of contaminated effluents that reach natural water resources, is a current reality. Residues of agrichemicals used in plant production were detected in different environments and in different countries. Among these agrochemicals, we studied a glyphosate-based herbicide (GBH), a fipronil-based insecticide (FBI), and their mixtures (GBH + FBI). Zebrafish exposed to 3 and 5 mg/L of GBH spend more time in the top zone and less time in the bottom zone. Fish exposed to 0.009 and 0.018 mg/L of FBI spent less time in the bottom zone, whereas zebrafish exposed to the three GBH + FBI mixtures spend more time in the top zone compared with unexposed control fish. This clear anxiolytic pattern, in an environmental context, can directly impair the ability of fish to avoid or evade predators. We concluded that both glyphosate-based herbicide and fipronil-based insecticide and their mixtures alter zebrafish behavior, which may result in significant repercussions on the maintenance of the species as well as on the food chain and the ecosystem.


Assuntos
Glicina/análogos & derivados , Praguicidas/toxicidade , Pirazóis/toxicidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Peixe-Zebra/fisiologia , Animais , Comportamento Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Ecossistema , Feminino , Glicina/toxicidade , Humanos , Masculino , Comportamento Predatório
3.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 13908, 2018 09 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30224742

RESUMO

Here we show that the novel object recognition test can discriminate between high (HRN, neophobic) and low (LRN, neophilic) novelty responders in zebrafish populations. Especially when we observe the latency to the first entry in the novel object zone, zebrafish did not maintain these behavioral phenotypes in sequential tests and only the HRN group returned to their initial responsive behavior when exposed to fluoxetine. Our results have important implications for behavioral data analysis since such behavioral differences can potentially increase individual response variability and interfere with the outcomes obtained from various behavioral tasks. Our data reinforce the validity of personality determination in zebrafish since we show clear differences in behavior in response to fluoxetine.


Assuntos
Comportamento Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Fluoxetina/farmacologia , Peixe-Zebra/fisiologia , Animais , Masculino
4.
PeerJ ; 6: e5343, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30090692

RESUMO

Here we show that the feeding regimen modulates zebrafish (Danio rerio) behavior. With regard to the time elapsed between feeding and behavioral evaluation, fish fed 3 h before behavioral evaluation in the novel tank test (NTT) showed decreased activity and a trend toward an anxiolytic reaction (increased use of the upper section of the aquarium) in comparison to fish fed 0.5, 6, 12, 24 or 48 h before testing, although differences were not statistically significant for all comparisons. Activity and use of the upper section of the aquarium did not differ significantly among the other treatments. Regarding feeding frequency, fish fed once a day showed higher anxiety-like behavior (decreased use of the upper section of the aquarium) in comparison to fish fed twice a day, but feeding four or six times per day or only every second day did not result in differences from feeding twice a day. Feeding frequency had no effect on activity level. Metabolically, fish fed once a day presented decreased levels of glucose and glycogen and increased lactate when compared to the regular feeding (fish fed twice a day), suggesting that feeding regimen may modulate carbohydrate metabolism. Mechanistically, we suggest that the metabolic changes caused by the feeding regimen may induce behavioral changes. Our results suggest that the high variability of the results among different laboratories might be related to different feeding protocols. Therefore, if issues pertaining to the feeding regimen are not considered during experiments with zebrafish, erroneous interpretations of datasets may occur.

5.
Sci Rep ; 7(1): 14121, 2017 10 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29074994

RESUMO

The ability to avoid and escape from predators are clearly relevant behaviors from the ecological perspective and directly interfere with the survival of organisms. Detected in the aquatic environment, risperidone can alter the behavior of exposed species. Considering the risk of exposure in the early stages of life, we exposed zebrafish embryos to risperidone during the first 5 days of life. Risperidone caused hyperactivity in exposed larvae, which in an environmental context, the animals may be more vulnerable to predation due to greater visibility or less perception of risk areas.


Assuntos
Comportamento Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Resíduos de Drogas/farmacologia , Larva/efeitos dos fármacos , Psicotrópicos/farmacologia , Risperidona/farmacologia , Poluentes Químicos da Água/farmacologia , Peixe-Zebra , Animais , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga
6.
Gen Comp Endocrinol ; 252: 236-238, 2017 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28716505

RESUMO

In this article, we show that the tyrosine hydroxylase inhibitor α-Methyl-l-tyrosine (AMPT) decreased the responsiveness of the zebrafish stress axis to an acute stressful challenge. These effects were specific for responses to stimulation, since unstimulated (basal) cortisol levels were not altered by AMPT. Moreover, AMPT decreased the stress response 15min after stimulation, but not after that time period. To our knowledge, this is the first report about the effects of AMPT on the neuroendocrine axis of adult zebrafish in acute stress responses. Overall, these results suggest a mechanism of catecholamine-glucocorticoid interplay in neuroendocrine responses of fish, pointing an interesting avenue for physiological research, as well as an important endpoint that can be disrupted by environmental contamination. Further experiments will unravel the mechanisms by which AMPT blocked the cortisol response.


Assuntos
Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Estresse Fisiológico/efeitos dos fármacos , Tirosina 3-Mono-Oxigenase/antagonistas & inibidores , Peixe-Zebra/fisiologia , alfa-Metiltirosina/farmacologia , Animais , Feminino , Hidrocortisona/sangue , Masculino , Tirosina 3-Mono-Oxigenase/metabolismo , Peixe-Zebra/sangue
7.
Environ Toxicol ; 32(7): 1964-1972, 2017 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28371364

RESUMO

The glucocorticoid cortisol, the end product of hypothalamus-pituitary-interrenal axis in zebrafish (Danio rerio), is synthesized via steroidogenesis and promotes important physiological regulations in response to a stressor. The failure of this axis leads to inability to cope with environmental challenges preventing adaptive processes in order to restore homeostasis. Pesticides and agrichemicals are widely used, and may constitute an important class of environmental pollutants when reach aquatic ecosystems and nontarget species. These chemical compounds may disrupt hypothalamus-pituitary-interrenal axis by altering synthesis, structure or function of its constituents. We present evidence that organophosphorus exposure disrupts stress response by altering the expression of key genes of the neural steroidogenesis, causing downregulation of star, hsp70, and pomc genes. This appears to be mediated via muscarinic receptors, since the muscarinic antagonist scopolamine blocked these effects.


Assuntos
Disruptores Endócrinos/toxicidade , Inseticidas/toxicidade , Metil Paration/toxicidade , Receptores Muscarínicos/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Peixe-Zebra/metabolismo , Animais , Proteínas de Choque Térmico HSP72/genética , Proteínas de Choque Térmico HSP72/metabolismo , Hidrocortisona/metabolismo , Locomoção/efeitos dos fármacos , Antagonistas Muscarínicos/farmacologia , Fosfoproteínas/genética , Fosfoproteínas/metabolismo , Pró-Opiomelanocortina/genética , Pró-Opiomelanocortina/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-fos/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Escopolamina/farmacologia , Proteínas de Peixe-Zebra/genética , Proteínas de Peixe-Zebra/metabolismo
8.
Zebrafish ; 14(1): 51-59, 2017 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27672711

RESUMO

In this study, we show that an adaptation of the spinning test can be used as a model to study the exercise-exhaustion-recovery paradigm in fish. This forced swimming test promotes a wide range of changes in the hypothalamus-pituitary-interrenal axis functioning, intermediary metabolism, as well in fish behavior at both exercise and recovery periods. Our results pointed that this adapted spinning test can be considered a valuable tool for evaluating drugs and contaminant effects on exercised fish. This can be a suitable protocol both to environmental-to evaluate contaminants that act in fish energy mobilization and recovery after stressors-and translational perspectives-effects of drugs on exercised or stressed humans.


Assuntos
Glucose/análise , Hidrocortisona/análise , Condicionamento Físico Animal/métodos , Natação , Peixe-Zebra/fisiologia , Animais , Comportamento Animal , Creatina Quinase/análise , Metabolismo Energético , Modelos Animais , Estresse Fisiológico , Peixe-Zebra/sangue
9.
Sci Rep ; 6: 37612, 2016 11 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27874070

RESUMO

Here we provide, at least to our knowledge, the first evidence that aripiprazole (APPZ) in the water blunts the stress response of exposed fish in a concentration ten times lower than the concentration detected in the environment. Although the mechanism of APPZ in the neuroendocrine axis is not yet determined, our results highlight that the presence of APPZ residues in the environment may interfere with the stress responses in fish. Since an adequate stress response is crucial to restore fish homeostasis after stressors, fish with impaired stress response may have trouble to cope with natural and/or imposed stressors with consequences to their welfare and survival.


Assuntos
Aripiprazol/toxicidade , Estresse Fisiológico/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Peixe-Zebra/fisiologia , Animais , Feminino , Hidrocortisona/metabolismo , Masculino
10.
Endocr J ; 63(5): 495-505, 2016 May 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27052122

RESUMO

Serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) levels increase with age. This elevation has been associated with better outcomes in very elderly subjects; however, little is known about the relationship between TSH below the lower limit of the reference range and health-related outcomes. Here, we investigated the association between cognitive impairment or depressive symptoms and low-normal serum TSH (<1.0 µIU/mL, in the reference range) in elderly subjects and whether the use of methimazole in subjects without dementia but with low-normal TSH could affect cognition or depressive symptoms. From 293 healthy adults ≥65 years old with normal TSH included in the sectional phase, only subjects without dementia were prospectively analyzed: 1) TSH ≥1.0 µIU/mL (observation; untreated); 2) TSH <1.0 µIU/mL (observation; untreated); and 3) TSH <1.0 µIU/mL (methimazole therapy). Cognition was assessed, using the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) and depressive symptoms (at MMSE ≥ 13) by the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS). Age >80 years was the sole independent factor associated with dementia (OR=2.89; confidence interval [CI] 1.72-4.86; p<0.01). Prospectively, 93 completed follow-up, with 7.5% (7) receiving methimazole intervention. Untreated subjects with lower TSH showed the greatest declines in MMSE scores during follow-up that was not observed in those with serum TSH ≥1.0 µIU/mL. Lower MMSE score reductions were associated with elderly subjects receiving methimazole. There were no significant changes in depressive symptoms and GDS scores among those with serum TSH <1.0 µIU/mL. In this study, low-normal TSH was not associated with higher prevalence of dementia. However, in elderly subjects without dementia, low TSH was associated with worsening cognition.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/sangue , Transtornos Cognitivos/sangue , Transtornos Cognitivos/tratamento farmacológico , Cognição , Metimazol/uso terapêutico , Tireotropina/sangue , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Cognição/efeitos dos fármacos , Estudos Transversais , Depressão/sangue , Feminino , Avaliação Geriátrica , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Projetos Piloto , Valores de Referência , Testes de Função Tireóidea/normas
11.
Environ Toxicol Pharmacol ; 41: 89-94, 2016 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26667671

RESUMO

The contamination of rivers and other natural water bodies, including underground waters, is a current reality. Human occupation and some economic activities generate a wide range of contaminated effluents that reach these water resources, including psychotropic drug residues. Here we show that fluoxetine, diazepam and risperidone affected the initial development of zebrafish. All drugs increased mortality rate and heart frequency and decreased larvae length. In addition, risperidone and fluoxetine decreased egg hatching. The overall results points to a strong potential of these drugs to cause a negative impact on zebrafish initial development and, since the larvae viability was reduced, promote adverse effects at the population level. We hypothesized that eggs and larvae absorbed the drugs that exert its effects in the central nervous system. These effects on early development may have significant environmental implications.


Assuntos
Embrião não Mamífero/efeitos dos fármacos , Desenvolvimento Embrionário/efeitos dos fármacos , Psicotrópicos/toxicidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Peixe-Zebra/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais , Diazepam/toxicidade , Feminino , Fluoxetina/toxicidade , Larva/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Mortalidade , Risperidona/toxicidade , Peixe-Zebra/embriologia
12.
Chemosphere ; 112: 85-91, 2014 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25048892

RESUMO

We studied the stress response of Rhamdia quelen fingerlings at 45, 90, 135 and 180 d following acute exposure to agrichemicals. Herein, we report the novel observation that acute exposure of fingerling-aged fish to a methyl parathion-based insecticide (MPBI) and to a tebuconazole-based fungicide (TBF) induced chronic inhibition of the stress response. In contrast, fish exposed to an atrazine-simazine-based herbicide (ASBH) recovered the stress response on day 45, and fish exposed to a glyphosate-based herbicide (GBH) did not present stress response inhibition. Additionally, fish exposed to MPBI, GBH and ASBH showed lower survival rates and attained lower final weights. In the case of TBF, the presence of the stressful stimulus more strongly influenced the changes in the performance parameters than did the agrichemical exposure itself. An impairment of the cortisol response may seriously hamper the adaptive response and the ability to promote the necessary metabolic and ionic adjustments to respond to environmental stress.


Assuntos
Peixes-Gato/fisiologia , Hidrocortisona/antagonistas & inibidores , Praguicidas/toxicidade , Estresse Fisiológico/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Animais , Metil Paration/toxicidade , Taxa de Sobrevida , Fatores de Tempo
13.
Physiol Behav ; 128: 232-6, 2014 Apr 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24548683

RESUMO

We investigated a group of Rhamdia quelen females during their entire first reproductive cycle and beginning of the 2nd cycle by evaluating the stress response at different phases of gonadal maturation. In mammals, including humans, pubertal development modulates stress response reactivity due to the maturation of the neuroendocrine stress axis. These shifts in the stress reactivity were also detected in salmonid fishes. This effect comes from changes in the sensitivity of the stress axis glands or in the capacity of the adrenal tissue to synthesise glucocorticoids. Here, for the first time, we show that similar to mammals and salmonid fishes, pre-pubertal female R. quelen exhibit a protracted stress response compared to adult fish, pointing to puberty as a key event on HPI axis modulation.


Assuntos
Peixes-Gato/fisiologia , Maturidade Sexual/fisiologia , Estresse Fisiológico/fisiologia , Animais , Estradiol/sangue , Feminino , Hidrocortisona/sangue , Reprodução/fisiologia , Testosterona/sangue
14.
PLoS One ; 8(10): e75780, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24116073

RESUMO

The effects of ethanol exposure on Danio rerio have been studied from the perspectives of developmental biology and behavior. However, little is known about the effects of ethanol on the prey-predator relationship and chemical communication of predation risk. Here, we showed that visual contact with a predator triggers stress axis activation in zebrafish. We also observed a typical stress response in zebrafish receiving water from these conspecifics, indicating that these fish chemically communicate predation risk. Our work is the first to demonstrate how alcohol effects this prey-predator interaction. We showed for the first time that alcohol exposure completely blocks stress axis activation in both fish seeing the predator and in fish that come in indirect contact with a predator by receiving water from these conspecifics. Together with other research results and with the translational relevance of this fish species, our data points to zebrafish as a promising animal model to study human alcoholism.


Assuntos
Comunicação Animal , Comportamento Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Etanol/farmacologia , Comportamento Predatório/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Hidrocortisona/metabolismo , Comportamento Predatório/fisiologia , Estresse Fisiológico/fisiologia , Peixe-Zebra/metabolismo
15.
Neotrop. ichthyol ; 11(2): 453-457, jun. 2013. graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-679353

RESUMO

Fish repeatedly experience stressful situations under experimental and aquaculture conditions, even in their natural habitat. Fish submitted to sequential stressors can exhibit accumulation or habituation on its cortisol response. We posed a central question about the cortisol response profiles after exposure to successive acute stressors of a similar and different nature in Rhamdia quelen. We have shown that successive acute stressors delivered with 12-h, 48-h, and 1-week intervals provoked similar cortisol responses in juvenile R. quelen, without any habituation or accumulation. The cumulative stress response is more associated to short acute stressors with very short intervals of minutes to hours. In our work, we used an interval as short as 12h, and no cumulative response was found. However, if the length of time between stressors is of a day or week as used in our work the most common and an expected phenomenon is the attenuation of the response. Thus, also, the absence of both accumulation of the stress response and the expected habituation is an intriguing result. Our results show that R. quelen does not show habituation or accumulation in its stress responses to repeated stressors, as reported for other fish species.


Os peixes, tanto em condições de cultivo quanto em condições experimentais ou na natureza, podem experimentar situações de estresse. Peixes submetidos a estressores sequenciais podem apresentar acumulação de sua resposta de cortisol com aumento dos níveis desse hormônio em cada resposta sucessiva ou habituação da resposta do cortisol, com redução dos níveis de cortisol em cada resposta sequencial. Abordamos a questão central de como é o perfil de resposta do cortisol de R. quelen após a exposição a estressores agudos sucessivos de natureza semelhante e diferente. Os dados mostraram que sucessivos estressores agudos com intervalos de 12 e 48h e de uma semana, provocaram respostas de cortisol semelhantes em juvenis de R. quelen, sem qualquer habituação ou acumulação. No presente trabalho usamos intervalos tão curtos quanto 12h e não verificamos qualquer tipo de acumulação da resposta. No entanto, se o intervalo entre estressores forem de um dia ou semana, o fenômeno mais comum e esperado é o da atenuação da resposta. Assim, tanto a ausência de acumulação da resposta ao estresse quanto à ausência da habituação esperada são resultados interessantes. Nossos resultados mostraram que juvenis de R. quelen não mostram habituação ou acumulação em suas respostas de estresse a estressores repetidos, como relatado para outras espécies de peixes.


Assuntos
Animais , Estresse Fisiológico/fisiologia , Hidrocortisona/efeitos adversos , Peixes-Gato/fisiologia , Teste de Esforço/veterinária
16.
Physiol Behav ; 107(3): 397-400, 2012 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23017664

RESUMO

In many vertebrate species, including humans, the developmental stage directly influences an organism's reactivity to stress. For instance, fishes appear to exhibit "stress insensitive" periods early in development, which contributes to important alterations in stress responses. This phenomenon raises the important question of whether size or age influences fish stress responses, as there may be large discrepancies in size at any stage of ontogeny. We therefore posed the following question: what key role does the age and/or weight/length of fish play in contributing to different stress levels? To address this question, we conducted 2 simple experiments to compare the cortisol response to stress in the fish Rhamdia quelen. In the first experiment, we compared the cortisol response of fish of 2 different age groups (3 vs. 12 months) with the same body size, whereas in the second experiment we compared 2 groups of the same age (3 months) but with different body sizes. The results showed a similar stress response in fish of the same age but different size, but a large difference in the stress response in fish of the same size but different age. Both tests indicate that age is the determining factor for the functioning of the hypothalamo-pituitary-interrenal (HPI) axis, and is probably related to the stage of maturation. This study makes a significant contribution to our knowledge of the stress, behavior, and welfare of fish of different age classes, primarily with respect to the timing of measurements and the accurate determination of fish age, regardless of size.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Tamanho Corporal/fisiologia , Peso Corporal/fisiologia , Hidrocortisona/sangue , Estresse Fisiológico/fisiologia , Envelhecimento/sangue , Animais , Peixes , Fatores de Tempo
17.
Physiol Behav ; 106(2): 129-32, 2012 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22289300

RESUMO

This study investigated differences in the cortisol response of fish at different developmental stages after exposure to an acute stressor. Three experiments using 126 fish each were performed using 3 different age groups of jundiá (Rhamdia quelen): fingerlings at 60 days of age, juveniles at 180 days, and adults at 360 days. In each experiment, the fish in each group were randomly distributed into either a handled experimental group or a non-handled control group. The handled group was then exposed to an acute stressor for measurement of cortisol concentrations at 5, 15, 30, 60, and 240 min after exposure and subsequent comparison of cortisol concentrations with those of the non-handled groups at the 6 sampling times. Between the experimental and control groups, the results revealed that the handled fish in each of the 3 age groups had higher cortisol concentrations compared to the non-handled fish in the equivalent age group. Among the age groups of the handled fish, the results revealed that the fingerlings and juveniles attained peak cortisol concentrations within 5 to 30 min after stressor exposure whereas the adults attained peak concentrations 60 min after exposure. This finding has important implications for the design of research into stress and welfare among fish at different developmental stages.


Assuntos
Manobra Psicológica , Hidrocortisona/sangue , Fatores Etários , Animais , Peixes-Gato , Estresse Psicológico/sangue , Fatores de Tempo
18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18634903

RESUMO

Exposure to agrichemicals can have deleterious effects on fish, such as disruption of the hypothalamus-pituitary-inter-renal axis (HPI) that could impair the ability of fish to respond to stressors. In this study, fingerlings of the teleost jundiá (Rhamdia quelen) were used to investigate the effects of the commonly used agrichemicals on the fish response to stress. Five common agrichemicals were tested: the fungicide - tebuconazole, the insecticide - methyl-parathion, and the herbicides - atrazine, atrazine+simazine, and glyphosate. Control fishes were not exposed to agrichemicals and standard stressors. In treatments 2-4, the fishes were exposed to sub-lethal concentrations (16.6%, 33.3%, and 50% of the LC(50)) of each agrichemical for 96 h, and at the end of this period, were subjected to an acute stress-handling stimulus by chasing them with a pen net. In treatments 5-7 (16.6%, 33.3%, and 50% of the LC(50)), the fishes were exposed to the same concentrations of the agrichemicals without stress stimulus. Treatment 8 consisted of jundiás not exposed to agrichemicals, but was subjected to an acute stress-handling stimulus. Jundiás exposed to methyl-parathion, atrazine+simazine, and glyphosate presented a decreased capacity in exhibiting an adequate response to cope with stress and in maintaining the homeostasis, with cortisol level lower than that in the control fish (P<0.01). In conclusion, the results of this study clearly demonstrate that the acute exposure to sub-lethal concentrations of methyl-parathion, atrazine+simazine, and glyphosate exert a deleterious effect on the cortisol response to an additional acute stressor in the jundiá fingerlings.


Assuntos
Agroquímicos/toxicidade , Peixes-Gato/sangue , Hidrocortisona/sangue , Estresse Fisiológico/sangue , Animais , Atrazina/toxicidade , Feminino , Glicina/análogos & derivados , Glicina/toxicidade , Masculino , Metil Paration/toxicidade , Simazina/toxicidade , Triazóis/toxicidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade
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