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1.
J Neurosci ; 2021 Oct 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34645605

RESUMO

Detection of statistical irregularities, measured as a prediction error response, is fundamental to the perceptual monitoring of the environment. We studied whether prediction error response is associated with neural oscillations or asynchronous broadband activity. Electrocorticography was conducted in three male monkeys, who passively listened to the auditory roving oddball stimuli. Local field potentials (LFPs) recorded over the auditory cortex underwent spectral principal component analysis, which decoupled broadband and rhythmic components of the LFP signal. We found that the broadband component captured the prediction error response, whereas none of the rhythmic components were associated with statistical irregularities of sounds. The broadband component displayed more stochastic, asymmetrical multifractal properties than the rhythmic components, which revealed more self-similar dynamics. We thus conclude that the prediction error response is captured by neuronal populations generating asynchronous broadband activity, defined by irregular dynamic states, which, unlike oscillatory rhythms, appear to enable the neural representation of auditory prediction error response.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENTThis study aimed to examine the contribution of oscillatory and asynchronous components of auditory local field potentials in the generation of prediction error responses to sensory irregularities, as this has not been directly addressed in the previous studies. Here, we show that mismatch negativity-an auditory prediction error response-is driven by the asynchronous broadband component of potentials recorded in the auditory cortex. This finding highlights the importance of nonoscillatory neural processes in the predictive monitoring of the environment. At a more general level, the study demonstrates that stochastic neural processes, which are often disregarded as neural noise, do have a functional role in the processing of sensory information.

2.
PLoS Biol ; 19(5): e3001241, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33951043

RESUMO

The study of unconscious processing requires a measure of conscious awareness. Awareness measures can be either subjective (based on participant's report) or objective (based on perceptual performance). The preferred awareness measure depends on the theoretical position about consciousness and may influence conclusions about the extent of unconscious processing and about the neural correlates of consciousness. We obtained functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) measurements from 43 subjects while they viewed masked faces and houses that were either subjectively or objectively invisible. Even for objectively invisible (perceptually indiscriminable) stimuli, we found significant category information in both early, lower-level visual areas and in higher-level visual cortex, although representations in anterior, category-selective ventrotemporal areas were less robust. For subjectively invisible stimuli, similar to visible stimuli, there was a clear posterior-to-anterior gradient in visual cortex, with stronger category information in ventrotemporal cortex than in early visual cortex. For objectively invisible stimuli, however, category information remained virtually unchanged from early visual cortex to object- and category-selective visual areas. These results demonstrate that although both objectively and subjectively invisible stimuli are represented in visual cortex, the extent of unconscious information processing is influenced by the measurement approach. Furthermore, our data show that subjective and objective approaches are associated with different neural correlates of consciousness and thus have implications for neural theories of consciousness.


Assuntos
Conscientização/fisiologia , Visão Ocular/fisiologia , Percepção Visual/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Mapeamento Encefálico/métodos , Córtex Cerebral/fisiologia , Estado de Consciência/fisiologia , Feminino , Substância Cinzenta/fisiologia , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Masculino , Estimulação Luminosa/métodos , Córtex Visual/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
3.
J Neurosci Methods ; 352: 109080, 2021 03 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33508412

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Traditionally, EEG/MEG data are high-pass filtered and baseline-corrected to remove slow drifts. Minor deleterious effects of high-pass filtering in traditional time-series analysis have been well-documented, including temporal displacements. However, its effects on time-resolved multivariate pattern classification analyses (MVPA) are largely unknown. NEW METHOD: To prevent potential displacement effects, we extend an alternative method of removing slow drift noise - robust detrending - with a procedure in which we mask out all cortical events from each trial. We refer to this method as trial-masked robust detrending. RESULTS: In both real and simulated EEG data of a working memory experiment, we show that both high-pass filtering and standard robust detrending create artifacts that result in the displacement of multivariate patterns into activity silent periods, particularly apparent in temporal generalization analyses, and especially in combination with baseline correction. We show that trial-masked robust detrending is free from such displacements. COMPARISON WITH EXISTING METHOD(S): Temporal displacement may emerge even with modest filter cut-off settings such as 0.05 Hz, and even in regular robust detrending. However, trial-masked robust detrending results in artifact-free decoding without displacements. Baseline correction may unwittingly obfuscate spurious decoding effects and displace them to the rest of the trial. CONCLUSIONS: Decoding analyses benefit from trial-masked robust detrending, without the unwanted side effects introduced by filtering or regular robust detrending. However, for sufficiently clean data sets and sufficiently strong signals, no filtering or detrending at all may work adequately. Implications for other types of data are discussed, followed by a number of recommendations.


Assuntos
Artefatos , Encéfalo , Eletroencefalografia , Análise Multivariada , Processamento de Sinais Assistido por Computador
4.
Cogn Neurosci ; 12(2): 93-94, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33208038

RESUMO

Doerig and colleagues put forward the notion that we need hard and theory-neutral criteria by which to arbitrate between empirical (mechanistic) theories of consciousness. However, most of the criteria that they propose are not theory neutral because they focus on functional equivalence between systems. Because empirical theories of consciousness are mechanistic rather than functionalist, we think these criteria are not helpful when arbitrating between them.

5.
Neuroimage ; 202: 116133, 2019 11 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31472251

RESUMO

Cognitive control can involve proactive (preparatory) and reactive (corrective) mechanisms. Using a gaze-contingent eye tracking paradigm combined with fMRI, we investigated the involvement of these different modes of control and their underlying neural networks, when switching between different targets in multiple-target search. Participants simultaneously searched for two possible targets presented among distractors, and selected one of them. In one condition, only one of the targets was available in each display, so that the choice was imposed, and reactive control would be required. In the other condition, both targets were present, giving observers free choice over target selection, and allowing for proactive control. Switch costs emerged only when targets were imposed and not when target selection was free. We found differential levels of activity in the frontoparietal control network depending on whether target switches were free or imposed. Furthermore, we observed core regions of the default mode network to be active during target repetitions, indicating reduced control on these trials. Free and imposed switches jointly activated parietal and posterior frontal cortices, while free switches additionally activated anterior frontal cortices. These findings highlight unique contributions of proactive and reactive control during visual search.


Assuntos
Atenção/fisiologia , Mapeamento Encefálico , Função Executiva/fisiologia , Lobo Frontal/fisiologia , Rede Nervosa/fisiologia , Lobo Parietal/fisiologia , Percepção Espacial/fisiologia , Percepção Visual/fisiologia , Adulto , Medições dos Movimentos Oculares , Feminino , Lobo Frontal/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Rede Nervosa/diagnóstico por imagem , Lobo Parietal/diagnóstico por imagem , Adulto Jovem
6.
eNeuro ; 6(1)2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30834301

RESUMO

Several influential theories of consciousness attempt to explain how, when and where conscious perception arises in the brain. The extent of conscious perception of a stimulus is often probed by asking subjects to provide confidence estimations in their choices in challenging perceptual decision-making tasks. Here, we aimed to dissociate neural patterns of "cognitive" and "sensory" information maintenance by linking category selective visual processes to decision confidence using multivariate decoding techniques on human EEG data. Participants discriminated at-threshold masked face versus house stimuli and reported confidence in their discrimination performance. Three distinct types of category-selective neural activity patterns were observed, dissociable by their timing, scalp topography, relationship with decision confidence, and generalization profile. An early (∼150-200 ms) decoding profile was unrelated to confidence and quickly followed by two distinct decodable patterns of late neural activity (350-500 ms). One pattern was on-diagonal, global and highly related to decision confidence, likely indicating cognitive maintenance of consciously reportable stimulus representations. The other pattern however was off-diagonal, restricted to posterior electrode sites (local), and independent of decision confidence, and therefore may reflect sensory maintenance of category-specific information, possibly operating via recurrent processes within visual cortices. These results highlight that two functionally independent neural processes are operating in parallel, only one of which is related to decision confidence and conscious access.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/fisiologia , Percepção Visual/fisiologia , Discriminação Psicológica/fisiologia , Eletroencefalografia , Feminino , Humanos , Julgamento/fisiologia , Masculino , Processamento de Sinais Assistido por Computador , Adulto Jovem
7.
J Neurosci ; 39(9): 1733-1743, 2019 02 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30617208

RESUMO

Many important situations require human observers to simultaneously search for more than one object. Despite a long history of research into visual search, the behavioral and neural mechanisms associated with multiple-target search are poorly understood. Here we test the novel theory that the efficiency of looking for multiple targets critically depends on the mode of cognitive control the environment affords to the observer. We used an innovative combination of electroencephalogram (EEG) and eye tracking while participants searched for two targets, within two different contexts: either both targets were present in the search display and observers were free to prioritize either one of them, thus enabling proactive control over selection; or only one of the two targets would be present in each search display, which requires reactive control to reconfigure selection when the wrong target has been prioritized. During proactive control, both univariate and multivariate signals of beta-band (15-35 Hz) power suppression before display onset predicted switches between target selections. This signal originated over midfrontal and sensorimotor regions and has previously been associated with endogenous state changes. In contrast, imposed target selections requiring reactive control elicited prefrontal power enhancements in the delta/theta band (2-8 Hz), but only after display onset. This signal predicted individual differences in associated oculomotor switch costs, reflecting reactive reconfiguration of target selection. The results provide compelling evidence that multiple target representations are differentially prioritized during visual search, and for the first time reveal distinct neural mechanisms underlying proactive and reactive control over multiple-target search.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Searching for more than one object in complex visual scenes can be detrimental for search performance. Although perhaps annoying in daily life, this can have severe consequences in professional settings such as medical and security screening. Previous research has not yet resolved whether multiple-target search involves changing priorities in what people attend to, and how such changes are controlled. We approached these questions by concurrently measuring cortical activity and eye movements using EEG and eye tracking while observers searched for multiple possible targets. Our findings provide the first unequivocal support for the existence of two modes of control during multiple-target search, which are expressed in qualitatively distinct time-frequency signatures of the EEG both before and after visual selection.


Assuntos
Ritmo beta , Reconhecimento Visual de Modelos , Ritmo Teta , Adulto , Atenção , Feminino , Lobo Frontal/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino
8.
Front Neurosci ; 12: 368, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30018529

RESUMO

In recent years, time-resolved multivariate pattern analysis (MVPA) has gained much popularity in the analysis of electroencephalography (EEG) and magnetoencephalography (MEG) data. However, MVPA may appear daunting to those who have been applying traditional analyses using event-related potentials (ERPs) or event-related fields (ERFs). To ease this transition, we recently developed the Amsterdam Decoding and Modeling (ADAM) toolbox in MATLAB. ADAM is an entry-level toolbox that allows a direct comparison of ERP/ERF results to MVPA results using any dataset in standard EEGLAB or Fieldtrip format. The toolbox performs and visualizes multiple-comparison corrected group decoding and forward encoding results in a variety of ways, such as classifier performance across time, temporal generalization (time-by-time) matrices of classifier performance, channel tuning functions (CTFs) and topographical maps of (forward-transformed) classifier weights. All analyses can be performed directly on raw data or can be preceded by a time-frequency decomposition of the data in which case the analyses are performed separately on different frequency bands. The figures ADAM produces are publication-ready. In the current manuscript, we provide a cookbook in which we apply a decoding analysis to a publicly available MEG/EEG dataset involving the perception of famous, non-famous and scrambled faces. The manuscript covers the steps involved in single subject analysis and shows how to perform and visualize a subsequent group-level statistical analysis. The processing pipeline covers computation and visualization of group ERPs, ERP difference waves, as well as MVPA decoding results. It ends with a comparison of the differences and similarities between EEG and MEG decoding results. The manuscript has a level of description that allows application of these analyses to any dataset in EEGLAB or Fieldtrip format.

9.
Psychol Sci ; 28(8): 1137-1147, 2017 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28661761

RESUMO

It is debated whether people can actively search for more than one object or whether this results in switch costs. Using a gaze-contingent eye-tracking paradigm, we revealed a crucial role for cognitive control in multiple-target search. We instructed participants to simultaneously search for two target objects presented among distractors. In one condition, both targets were available, which gave the observer free choice of what to search for and allowed for proactive control. In the other condition, only one of the two targets was available, so that the choice was imposed, and a reactive mechanism would be required. No switch costs emerged when target choice was free, but switch costs emerged reliably when targets were imposed. Bridging contradictory findings, the results are consistent with models of visual selection in which only one attentional template actively drives selection and in which the efficiency of switching targets depends on the type of cognitive control allowed for by the environment.


Assuntos
Comportamento de Escolha/fisiologia , Função Executiva/fisiologia , Percepção Visual/fisiologia , Adulto , Percepção de Cores/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
10.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 114(14): 3744-3749, 2017 04 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28325878

RESUMO

The visual system has the remarkable ability to integrate fragmentary visual input into a perceptually organized collection of surfaces and objects, a process we refer to as perceptual integration. Despite a long tradition of perception research, it is not known whether access to consciousness is required to complete perceptual integration. To investigate this question, we manipulated access to consciousness using the attentional blink. We show that, behaviorally, the attentional blink impairs conscious decisions about the presence of integrated surface structure from fragmented input. However, despite conscious access being impaired, the ability to decode the presence of integrated percepts remains intact, as shown through multivariate classification analyses of electroencephalogram (EEG) data. In contrast, when disrupting perception through masking, decisions about integrated percepts and decoding of integrated percepts are impaired in tandem, while leaving feedforward representations intact. Together, these data show that access consciousness and perceptual integration can be dissociated.


Assuntos
Intermitência na Atenção Visual/fisiologia , Percepção Visual/fisiologia , Estado de Consciência , Eletroencefalografia , Humanos , Mascaramento Perceptivo
11.
Cereb Cortex ; 26(5): 1986-96, 2016 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25662715

RESUMO

It is a well-established fact that top-down processes influence neural representations in lower-level visual areas. Electrophysiological recordings in monkeys as well as theoretical models suggest that these top-down processes depend on NMDA receptor functioning. However, this underlying neural mechanism has not been tested in humans. We used fMRI multivoxel pattern analysis to compare the neural representations of ambiguous Mooney images before and after they were recognized with their unambiguous grayscale version. Additionally, we administered ketamine, an NMDA receptor antagonist, to interfere with this process. Our results demonstrate that after recognition, the pattern of brain activation elicited by a Mooney image is more similar to that of its easily recognizable grayscale version than to the pattern evoked by the identical Mooney image before recognition. Moreover, recognition of Mooney images decreased mean response; however, neural representations of separate images became more dissimilar. So from the neural perspective, unrecognizable Mooney images all "look the same", whereas recognized Mooneys look different. We observed these effects in posterior fusiform part of lateral occipital cortex and in early visual cortex. Ketamine distorted these effects of recognition, but in early visual cortex only. This suggests that top-down processes from higher- to lower-level visual areas might operate via an NMDA pathway.


Assuntos
Retroalimentação Fisiológica/efeitos dos fármacos , Ketamina/administração & dosagem , Reconhecimento Visual de Modelos/fisiologia , Receptores de N-Metil-D-Aspartato/fisiologia , Reconhecimento Psicológico/fisiologia , Córtex Visual/fisiologia , Adulto , Mapeamento Encefálico , Feminino , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Reconhecimento Visual de Modelos/efeitos dos fármacos , Estimulação Luminosa , Receptores de N-Metil-D-Aspartato/antagonistas & inibidores , Reconhecimento Psicológico/efeitos dos fármacos , Córtex Visual/efeitos dos fármacos , Adulto Jovem
12.
Front Psychol ; 6: 667, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26074838

RESUMO

Both categorization and segmentation processes play a crucial role in face perception. However, the functional relation between these subprocesses is currently unclear. The present study investigates the temporal relation between segmentation-related and category-selective responses in the brain, using electroencephalography (EEG). Surface segmentation and category content were both manipulated using texture-defined objects, including faces. This allowed us to study brain activity related to segmentation and to categorization. In the main experiment, participants viewed texture-defined objects for a duration of 800 ms. EEG results revealed that segmentation-related responses precede category-selective responses. Three additional experiments revealed that the presence and timing of categorization depends on stimulus properties and presentation duration. Photographic objects were presented for a long and short (92 ms) duration and evoked fast category-selective responses in both cases. On the other hand, presentation of texture-defined objects for a short duration only evoked segmentation-related but no category-selective responses. Category-selective responses were much slower when evoked by texture-defined than by photographic objects. We suggest that in case of categorization of objects under suboptimal conditions, such as when low-level stimulus properties are not sufficient for fast object categorization, segmentation facilitates the slower categorization process.

13.
Soc Cogn Affect Neurosci ; 10(6): 877-84, 2015 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25338630

RESUMO

The disposition for prosocial conduct, which contributes to cooperation as arising during social interaction, requires cortical network dynamics responsive to the development of social ties, or care about the interests of specific interaction partners. Here, we formulate a dynamic computational model that accurately predicted how tie formation, driven by the interaction history, influences decisions to contribute in a public good game. We used model-driven functional MRI to test the hypothesis that brain regions key to social interactions keep track of dynamics in tie strength. Activation in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and posterior cingulate cortex tracked the individual's public good contributions. Activation in the bilateral posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS), and temporo-parietal junction was modulated parametrically by the dynamically developing social tie-as estimated by our model-supporting a role of these regions in social tie formation. Activity in these two regions further reflected inter-individual differences in tie persistence and sensitivity to behavior of the interaction partner. Functional connectivity between pSTS and mPFC activations indicated that the representation of social ties is integrated in the decision process. These data reveal the brain mechanisms underlying the integration of interaction dynamics into a social tie representation which in turn influenced the individual's prosocial decisions.


Assuntos
Tomada de Decisões/fisiologia , Relações Interpessoais , Adolescente , Adulto , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Mapeamento Encefálico , Feminino , Humanos , Individualidade , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Modelos Neurológicos , Adulto Jovem
14.
Psychol Sci ; 25(4): 861-73, 2014 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24549293

RESUMO

The capacity to attend to multiple objects in the visual field is limited. However, introspectively, people feel that they see the whole visual world at once. Some scholars suggest that this introspective feeling is based on short-lived sensory memory representations, whereas others argue that the feeling of seeing more than can be attended to is illusory. Here, we investigated this phenomenon by combining objective memory performance with subjective confidence ratings during a change-detection task. This allowed us to compute a measure of metacognition--the degree of knowledge that subjects have about the correctness of their decisions--for different stages of memory. We show that subjects store more objects in sensory memory than they can attend to but, at the same time, have similar metacognition for sensory memory and working memory representations. This suggests that these subjective impressions are not an illusion but accurate reflections of the richness of visual perception.


Assuntos
Atenção/fisiologia , Cognição/fisiologia , Tomada de Decisões/fisiologia , Memória de Curto Prazo/fisiologia , Percepção Visual/fisiologia , Adolescente , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Memória , Adulto Jovem
15.
Atten Percept Psychophys ; 76(4): 1057-68, 2014 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24554231

RESUMO

Perceptual decisions seem to be made automatically and almost instantly. Constructing a unitary subjective conscious experience takes more time. For example, when trying to avoid a collision with a car on a foggy road you brake or steer away in a reflex, before realizing you were in a near accident. This subjective aspect of object recognition has been given little attention. We used metacognition (assessed with confidence ratings) to measure subjective experience during object detection and object categorization for degraded and masked objects, while objective performance was matched. Metacognition was equal for degraded and masked objects, but categorization led to higher metacognition than did detection. This effect turned out to be driven by a difference in metacognition for correct rejection trials, which seemed to be caused by an asymmetry of the distractor stimulus: It does not contain object-related information in the detection task, whereas it does contain such information in the categorization task. Strikingly, this asymmetry selectively impacted metacognitive ability when objective performance was matched. This finding reveals a fundamental difference in how humans reflect versus act on information: When matching the amount of information required to perform two tasks at some objective level of accuracy (acting), metacognitive ability (reflecting) is still better in tasks that rely on positive evidence (categorization) than in tasks that rely more strongly on an absence of evidence (detection).


Assuntos
Classificação/métodos , Mascaramento Perceptivo/fisiologia , Reconhecimento Psicológico/fisiologia , Percepção Visual/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Atenção , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Modelos Psicológicos , Apego ao Objeto , Curva ROC , Tempo de Reação/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
16.
J Cogn Neurosci ; 26(5): 955-69, 2014 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24283494

RESUMO

Every day, we experience a rich and complex visual world. Our brain constantly translates meaningless fragmented input into coherent objects and scenes. However, our attentional capabilities are limited, and we can only report the few items that we happen to attend to. So what happens to items that are not cognitively accessed? Do these remain fragmentary and meaningless? Or are they processed up to a level where perceptual inferences take place about image composition? To investigate this, we recorded brain activity using fMRI while participants viewed images containing a Kanizsa figure, an illusion in which an object is perceived by means of perceptual inference. Participants were presented with the Kanizsa figure and three matched nonillusory control figures while they were engaged in an attentionally demanding distractor task. After the task, one group of participants was unable to identify the Kanizsa figure in a forced-choice decision task; hence, they were "inattentionally blind." A second group had no trouble identifying the Kanizsa figure. Interestingly, the neural signature that was unique to the processing of the Kanizsa figure was present in both groups. Moreover, within-subject multivoxel pattern analysis showed that the neural signature of unreported Kanizsa figures could be used to classify reported Kanizsa figures and that this cross-report classification worked better for the Kanizsa condition than for the control conditions. Together, these results suggest that stimuli that are not cognitively accessed are processed up to levels of perceptual interpretation.


Assuntos
Atenção/fisiologia , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Ilusões/fisiologia , Estimulação Luminosa/métodos , Desempenho Psicomotor/fisiologia , Percepção Visual/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Masculino
17.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 109(52): 21504-9, 2012 Dec 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23236162

RESUMO

The human brain has the extraordinary capability to transform cluttered sensory input into distinct object representations. For example, it is able to rapidly and seemingly without effort detect object categories in complex natural scenes. Surprisingly, category tuning is not sufficient to achieve conscious recognition of objects. What neural process beyond category extraction might elevate neural representations to the level where objects are consciously perceived? Here we show that visible and invisible faces produce similar category-selective responses in the ventral visual cortex. The pattern of neural activity evoked by visible faces could be used to decode the presence of invisible faces and vice versa. However, only visible faces caused extensive response enhancements and changes in neural oscillatory synchronization, as well as increased functional connectivity between higher and lower visual areas. We conclude that conscious face perception is more tightly linked to neural processes of sustained information integration and binding than to processes accommodating face category tuning.


Assuntos
Estado de Consciência/fisiologia , Neurônios/fisiologia , Córtex Visual/fisiologia , Percepção Visual/fisiologia , Face , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
18.
PLoS One ; 7(11): e50042, 2012.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23209639

RESUMO

Introspectively we experience a phenomenally rich world. In stark contrast, many studies show that we can only report on the few items that we happen to attend to. So what happens to the unattended objects? Are these consciously processed as our first person perspective would have us believe, or are they - in fact - entirely unconscious? Here, we attempt to resolve this question by investigating the perceptual characteristics of visual sensory memory. Sensory memory is a fleeting, high-capacity form of memory that precedes attentional selection and working memory. We found that memory capacity benefits from figural information induced by the Kanizsa illusion. Importantly, this benefit was larger for sensory memory than for working memory and depended critically on the illusion, not on the stimulus configuration. This shows that pre-attentive sensory memory contains representations that have a genuinely perceptual nature, suggesting that non-attended representations are phenomenally experienced rather than unconscious.


Assuntos
Inconsciente Psicológico , Percepção Visual , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Ilusões , Masculino , Memória , Memória de Curto Prazo , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estimulação Luminosa , Adulto Jovem
19.
Front Neurosci ; 6: 28, 2012.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22403524

RESUMO

There is a growing interest for the determinants of human choice behavior in social settings. Upon initial contact, investment choices in social settings can be inherently risky, as the degree to which the other person will reciprocate is unknown. Nevertheless, people have been shown to exhibit prosocial behavior even in one-shot laboratory settings where all interaction has been taken away. A logical step has been to link such behavior to trait empathy-related neurobiological networks. However, as a social interaction unfolds, the degree of uncertainty with respect to the expected payoff of choice behavior may change as a function of the interaction. Here we attempt to capture this factor. We show that the interpersonal tie one develops with another person during interaction - rather than trait empathy - motivates investment in a public good that is shared with an anonymous interaction partner. We examined how individual differences in trait empathy and interpersonal ties modulate neural responses to imposed monetary sharing. After, but not before interaction in a public good game, sharing prompted activation of neural systems associated with reward (striatum), empathy (anterior insular cortex and anterior cingulate cortex) as well as altruism, and social significance [posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS)]. Although these activations could be linked to both empathy and interpersonal ties, only tie-related pSTS activation predicted prosocial behavior during subsequent interaction, suggesting a neural substrate for keeping track of social relevance.

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