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1.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 12(5): 5633-5641, 2020 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31940165

RESUMO

The synthetic flexibility of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) with high loading capacities and biocompatibility makes them ideal candidates as drug delivery systems (DDSs). Here, we report the use of CAU-7, a biocompatible bismuth-based MOF, for the delivery of two cancer drugs, sodium dichloroacetate (DCA) and α-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamic acid (α-CHC). We achieved loadings of 33 and 9 wt % for DCA and α-CHC, respectively. Interestingly, CAU-7 showed a gradual release of the drugs, achieving a release time of up to 17 days for DCA and 31 days for α-CHC. We then performed mechanical and thermal amorphization processes to attempt to delay the delivery of guest molecules even more. With the thermal treatment, we were able to achieve an outstanding 32% slower release of α-CHC from the thermally treated CAU-7. Using in vitro studies and endocytosis inhibitors, confocal microscopy, and fluorescence-activated cell sorting, we also demonstrated that CAU-7 was successfully internalized by cancer cells, partially avoiding lysosome degradation. Finally, we showed that CAU-7 loaded either with DCA or α-CHC had a higher therapeutic efficiency compared with the free drug approach, making CAU-7 a great option for biomedical application.

2.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 999, 2019 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30824710

RESUMO

Stimuli-responsive behaviors of flexible metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) make these materials promising in a wide variety of applications such as gas separation, drug delivery, and molecular sensing. Considerable efforts have been made over the last decade to understand the structural changes of flexible MOFs in response to external stimuli. Uniform pore deformation has been used as the general description. However, recent advances in synthesizing MOFs with non-uniform porous structures, i.e. with multiple types of pores which vary in size, shape, and environment, challenge the adequacy of this description. Here, we demonstrate that the CO2-adsorption-stimulated structural change of a flexible MOF, ZIF-7, is induced by CO2 migration in its non-uniform porous structure rather than by the proactive opening of one type of its guest-hosting pores. Structural dynamics induced by guest migration in non-uniform porous structures is rare among the enormous number of MOFs discovered and detailed characterization is very limited in the literature. The concept presented in this work provides new insights into MOF flexibility.

3.
J Am Chem Soc ; 141(9): 3893-3900, 2019 Mar 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30707577

RESUMO

Nanoparticle encapsulation inside zirconium-based metal-organic frameworks (NP@MOF) is hard to control, and the resulting materials often have nonuniform morphologies with NPs on the external surface of MOFs and NP aggregates inside the MOFs. In this work, we report the controlled encapsulation of gold nanorods (AuNRs) by a scu-topology Zr-MOF, via a room-temperature MOF assembly. This is achieved by functionalizing the AuNRs with poly(ethylene glycol) surface ligands, allowing them to retain colloidal stability in the precursor solution and to seed the MOF growth. Using this approach, we achieve core-shell yields exceeding 99%, tuning the MOF particle size via the solution concentration of AuNRs. The functionality of AuNR@MOFs is demonstrated by using the AuNRs as embedded probes for selective surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS). The AuNR@MOFs are able to both take-up or block molecules from the pores, thereby facilitating highly selective sensing at the AuNR ends. This proof-of-principle study serves to present both the outstanding level of control in the synthesis and the high potential for AuNR@Zr-MOF composites for SERS.

4.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 10(37): 31146-31157, 2018 Sep 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30136840

RESUMO

Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs), network structures wherein metal ions or clusters link organic ligands into porous materials, are being actively researched as nanoscale drug delivery devices as they offer tunable structures with high cargo loading that can easily be further functionalized for targeting and enhanced physiological stability. The excellent biocompatibility of Zr has meant that its MOFs are among the most studied to date, in particular the archetypal Zr terephthalate UiO-66. In contrast, the isoreticular analog linked by fumarate (Zr-fum) has received little attention, despite the endogenous linker being part of the Krebs cycle. Herein, we report a comprehensive study of Zr-fum in the context of drug delivery. Reducing particle size is shown to increase uptake by cancer cells while reducing internalization by macrophages, immune system cells that remove foreign objects from the bloodstream. Zr-fum is compatible with defect loading of the drug dichloroacetate (DCA) as well as surface modification during synthesis, through coordination modulation and postsynthetically. DCA-loaded, PEGylated Zr-fum shows selective in vitro cytotoxicity toward HeLa and MCF-7 cancer cells, likely as a consequence of its enhanced caveolae-mediated endocytosis compared to uncoated precursors, and it is well tolerated by HEK293 kidney cells, J774 macrophages, and human peripheral blood lymphocytes. Compared to UiO-66, Zr-fum is more efficient at transporting the drug mimic calcein into HeLa cells, and DCA-loaded, PEGylated Zr-fum is more effective at reducing HeLa and MCF-7 cell proliferation than the analogous UiO-66 sample. In vitro examination of immune system response shows that Zr-fum samples induce less reactive oxygen species than UiO-66 analogs, possibly as a consequence of the linker being endogenous, and do not activate the C3 and C4 complement cascade pathways, suggesting that Zr-fum can avoid phagocytic activation. The results show that Zr-fum is an attractive alternative to UiO-66 for nanoscale drug delivery, and that a wide range of in vitro experiments is available to greatly inform the design of drug delivery systems prior to early stage animal studies.


Assuntos
Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos , Fumaratos , Sistema Imunitário/efeitos dos fármacos , Estruturas Metalorgânicas/química , Estruturas Metalorgânicas/farmacologia , Zircônio , Animais , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Fumaratos/química , Células HEK293 , Células HeLa , Humanos , Células MCF-7 , Estruturas Metalorgânicas/toxicidade , Zircônio/química
5.
Chemistry ; 24(50): 13170-13180, 2018 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30028544

RESUMO

The metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) M(BPZNO2 ) (M=Co, Cu, Zn; H2 BPZNO2 =3-nitro-4,4'-bipyrazole) were prepared through solvothermal routes and were fully investigated in the solid state. They showed good thermal stability both under a N2 atmosphere and in air, with decomposition temperatures peaking up to 663 K for Zn(BPZNO2 ). Their crystal structure is characterized by 3D networks with square (M=Co, Zn) or rhombic (M=Cu) channels decorated by polar NO2 groups. As revealed by N2 adsorption at 77 K, they are micro-mesoporous materials with BET specific surface areas ranging from 400 to 900 m2 g-1 . Remarkably, under the mild conditions of 298 K and 1.2 bar, Zn(BPZNO2 ) adsorbs 21.8 wt % CO2 (4.95 mmol g-1 ). It shows a Henry CO2 /N2 selectivity of 15 and an ideal adsorbed solution theory (IAST) selectivity of 12 at p=1 bar. As a CO2 adsorbent, this compound is the best-performing MOF to date among those bearing a nitro group as a unique chemical tag. High-resolution powder X-ray diffraction at 298 K and different CO2 loadings revealed, for the first time in a NO2 -functionalized MOF, the insurgence of primary host-guest interactions involving the C(3)-NO2 moiety of the framework and the oxygen atoms of carbon dioxide, as confirmed by Grand Canonical Monte Carlo simulations. This interaction mode is markedly different from that observed in NH2 -functionalized MOFs, for which the carbon atom of CO2 is involved.

6.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 1378, 2018 04 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29643387

RESUMO

Current advances in materials science have resulted in the rapid emergence of thousands of functional adsorbent materials in recent years. This clearly creates multiple opportunities for their potential application, but it also creates the following challenge: how does one identify the most promising structures, among the thousands of possibilities, for a particular application? Here, we present a case of computer-aided material discovery, in which we complete the full cycle from computational screening of metal-organic framework materials for oxygen storage, to identification, synthesis and measurement of oxygen adsorption in the top-ranked structure. We introduce an interactive visualization concept to analyze over 1000 unique structure-property plots in five dimensions and delimit the relationships between structural properties and oxygen adsorption performance at different pressures for 2932 already-synthesized structures. We also report a world-record holding material for oxygen storage, UMCM-152, which delivers 22.5% more oxygen than the best known material to date, to the best of our knowledge.

7.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 10(6): 5255-5268, 2018 Feb 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29356507

RESUMO

The high drug-loading and excellent biocompatibilities of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) have led to their application as drug-delivery systems (DDSs). Nanoparticle surface chemistry dominates both biostability and dispersion of DDSs while governing their interactions with biological systems, cellular and/or tissue targeting, and cellular internalization, leading to a requirement for versatile and reproducible surface functionalization protocols. Herein, we explore not only the effect of introducing different surface functionalities to the biocompatible Zr-MOF UiO-66 but also the efficacy of three surface modification protocols: (i) direct attachment of biomolecules [folic acid (FA) and biotin (Biot)] introduced as modulators for UiO-66 synthesis, (ii) our previously reported "click-modulation" approach to covalently attach polymers [poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG), poly-l-lactide, and poly-N-isopropylacrylamide] to the surface of UiO-66 through click chemistry, and (iii) surface ligand exchange to postsynthetically coordinate FA, Biot, and heparin to UiO-66. The innovative use of a small molecule with metabolic anticancer activity, dichloroacetate (DCA), as a modulator during synthesis is described, and it is found to be compatible with all three protocols, yielding surface-coated, DCA-loaded (10-20 w/w %) nano-MOFs (70-170 nm). External surface modification generally enhances the stability and colloidal dispersion of UiO-66. Cellular internalization routes and efficiencies of UiO-66 by HeLa cervical cancer cells can be tuned by surface chemistry, and anticancer cytotoxicity of DCA-loaded MOFs correlates with the endocytosis efficiency and mechanisms. The MOFs with the most promising coatings (FA, PEG, poly-l-lactide, and poly-N-isopropylacrylamide) were extensively tested for selectivity of anticancer cytotoxicity against MCF-7 breast cancer cells and HEK293 healthy kidney cells as well as for cell proliferation and reactive oxygen species production against J774 macrophages and peripheral blood lymphocytes isolated from the blood of human donors. DCA-loaded, FA-modified UiO-66 selectively kills cancer cells without harming healthy ones or provoking immune system response in vitro, suggesting a significant targeting effect and great potential in anticancer drug delivery. The results provide mechanistic insight into the design and functionalization of MOFs for drug delivery and underline the availability of various in vitro techniques to potentially minimize early-stage in vivo animal studies following the three Rs: reduction, refinement, and replacement.


Assuntos
Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Acetatos , Animais , Antineoplásicos , Compostos Clorados , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Sistema Imunitário , Estruturas Metalorgânicas , Polietilenoglicóis
8.
J Am Chem Soc ; 140(1): 382-387, 2018 01 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29226672

RESUMO

Many zeolitic imidazolate frameworks (ZIFs) are promising candidates for use in separation technologies. Comprising large cavities interconnected by small windows they can be used, at least in principle, as molecular sieves where molecules smaller than the window size are able to diffuse into the material while larger molecules are rejected. However, "swing effect" or "gate opening" phenomena resulting in an enlargement of the windows have proven to be detrimental. Here, we present the first systematic experimental and computational study of the effect of chemical functionalization of the imidazole linker on the framework dynamics. Using high-pressure (HP) single-crystal X-ray diffraction, density functional theory, and grand canonical Monte Carlo simulations, we show that in the isostructural ZIF-8, ZIF-90, and ZIF-65 functional groups of increasing polarity (-CH3, -CHO, and -NO2) on the imidazole linkers provide control over the degree of rotation and thus the critical window diameter. On application of pressure, the substituted imidazolate rings rotate, resulting in an increase in both pore volume and content. Our results show that the interplay between the guest molecules and the chemical function of the imidazole linker is essential for directing the swing effect in ZIF frameworks and therefore the adsorption performance.

9.
Nat Mater ; 17(2): 174-179, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29251723

RESUMO

A critical bottleneck for the use of natural gas as a transportation fuel has been the development of materials capable of storing it in a sufficiently compact form at ambient temperature. Here we report the synthesis of a porous monolithic metal-organic framework (MOF), which after successful packing and densification reaches 259 cm3 (STP) cm-3 capacity. This is the highest value reported to date for conformed shape porous solids, and represents a greater than 50% improvement over any previously reported experimental value. Nanoindentation tests on the monolithic MOF showed robust mechanical properties, with hardness at least 130% greater than that previously measured in its conventional MOF counterparts. Our findings represent a substantial step in the application of mechanically robust conformed and densified MOFs for high volumetric energy storage and other industrial applications.

10.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 19(47): 31766-31772, 2017 Dec 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29168516

RESUMO

A thermodynamic analysis using quantum chemical methods was carried out to identify optimal functional group candidates that can be included in metal-organic frameworks and activated carbons for the selective capture of toxic industrial chemicals (TICs) in humid air. We calculated the binding energies of 14 critical TICs plus water with a series of 10 functional groups attached to a naphthalene ring model. Using vibrational calculations, the free energies of adsorption were calculated in addition to the binding energies. Our results show that, in these systems, the binding energies and free energies follow similar trends. We identified copper(i) carboxylate as the optimal functional group (among those studied) for the selective binding of the majority of the TICs in humid air, and this functional group exhibits especially strong binding for sulfuric acid. Further thermodynamic analysis shows that the presence of water weakens the binding strength of sulfuric acid with the copper carboxylate group. Our calculations predict that functionalization of aromatic rings would be detrimental to selective capture of COCl2, CO2, and Cl2 under humid conditions. Finally, we found that forming an ionic complex, H3O+HSO4-, between H2SO4 and H2O via proton transfer is not favorable on copper carboxylate.

11.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 53(83): 11437-11440, 2017 Oct 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28976523

RESUMO

In this work, we show a solvent-free "explosive" synthesis (SFES) method for the ultrafast and low-cost synthesis of metal-formate frameworks (MFFs). A combination of experiments and in-depth molecular modelling analysis - using grand canonical Monte Carlo (GCMC) simulations - of the adsorption performance of the synthesized nickel-formate framework (Ni-FA) revealed extremely high quality products with permanent porosity, prominent CH4/N2 selectivity (ca. 6.0), and good CH4 adsorption capacity (ca. 0.80 mmol g-1 or 33.97 cm3 cm-3) at 1 bar and 298 K. This performance is superior to those of many other state-of-the-art porous materials.

12.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 9(41): 35516-35525, 2017 Oct 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28925254

RESUMO

A critical bottleneck for the use of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) as drug delivery systems has been allowing them to reach their intracellular targets without being degraded in the acidic environment of the lysosomes. Cells take up particles by endocytosis through multiple biochemical pathways, and the fate of these particles depends on these routes of entry. Here, we show the effect of functional group incorporation into a series of Zr-based MOFs on their endocytosis mechanisms, allowing us to design an efficient drug delivery system. In particular, naphthalene-2,6-dicarboxylic acid and 4,4'-biphenyldicarboxylic acid ligands promote entry through the caveolin-pathway, allowing the particles to avoid lysosomal degradation and be delivered into the cytosol and enhancing their therapeutic activity when loaded with drugs.

13.
Chem ; 2(4): 561-578, 2017 Apr 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28516168

RESUMO

The high storage capacities and excellent biocompatibilities of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) have made them emerging candidates as drug-delivery vectors. Incorporation of surface functionality is a route to enhanced properties, and here we report on a surface-modification procedure-click modulation-that controls their size and surface chemistry. The zirconium terephthalate MOF UiO-66 is (1) synthesized as ∼200 nm nanoparticles coated with functionalized modulators, (2) loaded with cargo, and (3) covalently surface modified with poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) chains through mild bioconjugate reactions. At pH 7.4, the PEG chains endow the MOF with enhanced stability toward phosphates and overcome the "burst release" phenomenon by blocking interaction with the exterior of the nanoparticles, whereas at pH 5.5, stimuli-responsive drug release is achieved. The mode of cellular internalization is also tuned by nanoparticle surface chemistry, such that PEGylated UiO-66 potentially escapes lysosomal degradation through enhanced caveolae-mediated uptake. This makes it a highly promising vector, as demonstrated for dichloroacetic-acid-loaded materials, which exhibit enhanced cytotoxicity. The versatility of the click modulation protocol will allow a wide range of MOFs to be easily surface functionalized for a number of applications.

14.
J Am Chem Soc ; 139(22): 7522-7532, 2017 06 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28508624

RESUMO

Utilizing metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) as a biological carrier can lower the amount of the active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) required in cancer treatments to provide a more efficacious therapy. In this work, we have developed a temperature treatment process for delaying the release of a model drug compound from the pores of NU-1000 and NU-901, while taking care to utilize these MOFs' large pore volume and size to achieve exceptional model drug loading percentages over 35 wt %. Video-rate super-resolution microscopy reveals movement of MOF particles when located outside of the cell boundary, and their subsequent immobilization when taken up by the cell. Through the use of optical sectioning structured illumination microscopy (SIM), we have captured high-resolution 3D images showing MOF uptake by HeLa cells over a 24 h period. We found that addition of a model drug compound into the MOF and the subsequent temperature treatment process does not affect the rate of MOF uptake by the cell. Endocytosis analysis revealed that MOFs are internalized by active transport and that inhibiting the caveolae-mediated pathway significantly reduced cellular uptake of MOFs. Encapsulation of an anticancer therapeutic, alpha-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamic acid (α-CHC), and subsequent temperature treatment produced loadings of up to 81 wt % and demonstrated efficacy at killing cells beyond the burst release effect.


Assuntos
Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos , Estruturas Metalorgânicas/química , Zircônio/química , Antineoplásicos/química , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Liberação Controlada de Fármacos , Células HeLa , Humanos , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Porosidade , Temperatura Ambiente
15.
J Am Chem Soc ; 139(15): 5397-5404, 2017 04 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28343394

RESUMO

We report a hafnium-containing MOF, hcp UiO-67(Hf), which is a ligand-deficient layered analogue of the face-centered cubic fcu UiO-67(Hf). hcp UiO-67 accommodates its lower ligand:metal ratio compared to fcu UiO-67 through a new structural mechanism: the formation of a condensed "double cluster" (Hf12O8(OH)14), analogous to the condensation of coordination polyhedra in oxide frameworks. In oxide frameworks, variable stoichiometry can lead to more complex defect structures, e.g., crystallographic shear planes or modules with differing compositions, which can be the source of further chemical reactivity; likewise, the layered hcp UiO-67 can react further to reversibly form a two-dimensional metal-organic framework, hxl UiO-67. Both three-dimensional hcp UiO-67 and two-dimensional hxl UiO-67 can be delaminated to form metal-organic nanosheets. Delamination of hcp UiO-67 occurs through the cleavage of strong hafnium-carboxylate bonds and is effected under mild conditions, suggesting that defect-ordered MOFs could be a productive route to porous two-dimensional materials.

16.
Dalton Trans ; 46(12): 3915-3920, 2017 Mar 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28265629

RESUMO

Copper-exchanged and acidic zeolites are shown to produce nitric oxide (NO) from a nitrite source in biologically active (nanomolar) concentrations. Four zeolites were studied; mordenite, ferrierite, ZSM-5 and SSZ-13, which had varying pore size, channel systems and Si/Al ratios. ZSM-5 and SSZ-13 produced the highest amounts of NO in both the copper and acid form. The high activity and regeneration of the copper active sites makes them good candidates for long-term NO production. Initial cytotoxicity tests have shown at least one of the copper zeolites (Cu-SSZ-13) to be biocompatible, highlighting the potential usage within biomedical applications.


Assuntos
Materiais Biocompatíveis/química , Cobre/química , Óxido Nítrico/química , Zeolitas/química , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Cobre/toxicidade , Células HeLa , Humanos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Nitritos/química , Temperatura Ambiente
17.
Interface Focus ; 6(4): 20160027, 2016 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27499847

RESUMO

Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs), formed by the self-assembly of metal centres or clusters and organic linkers, possess many key structural and chemical features that have enabled them to be used in sensing platforms for a variety of environmentally, chemically and biomedically relevant compounds. In particular, their high porosity, large surface area, tuneable chemical composition, high degree of crystallinity, and potential for post-synthetic modification for molecular recognition make MOFs promising candidates for biosensing applications. In this review, we separate our discussion of MOF biosensors into two categories: quantitative sensing, focusing specifically on luminescence-based sensors for the direct measurement of a specific analyte, and qualitative sensing, where we describe MOFs used for fluorescence microscopy and as magnetic resonance imaging contrast agents. We highlight several key publications in each of these areas, concluding that MOFs present an exciting, versatile new platform for biosensing applications and imaging, and we expect to see their usage grow as the field progresses.

18.
Adv Healthc Mater ; 5(17): 2261-70, 2016 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27385477

RESUMO

The pathway of internalization and final fate of a specific metal-organic framework (MOF) in cells has been investigated for the first time. This study is based on two calcein-loaded UiO-66 samples with particle sizes of 150 and 260 nm (i.e., cal@150 UiO-66 and cal@260 UiO-66, respectively), and shows that the active trafficking of cal@150 UiO-66 is done almost exclusively through clathrin-mediated endocytosis, whereas the uptake of cal@260 UiO-66 is a combination of both clathrin and caveolae-mediated endocytosis. Colocalization studies with a lysosomal marker showed that cal@150 UiO-66 is located mostly in lysosomes for further degradation, whereas cal@260 UiO-66 seems to avoid the lysosomal degradation and potentially deliver the cargo molecules in the cytosol, allowing their distribution to different cellular organelles. This study reveals the importance of the internalization processes of MOFs, particularly the relevance of their particle size, and also the critical significance of their final fate to become an efficient drug delivery system. Based on these results, it is possible that extremely small particle-sized MOFs are not the most efficient carriers and instead relatively medium-sized particles are required.


Assuntos
Materiais Revestidos Biocompatíveis , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos/métodos , Endocitose/efeitos dos fármacos , Fluoresceínas , Nanopartículas , Compostos Organometálicos , Materiais Revestidos Biocompatíveis/química , Materiais Revestidos Biocompatíveis/farmacologia , Fluoresceínas/química , Fluoresceínas/farmacocinética , Fluoresceínas/farmacologia , Células HeLa , Humanos , Lisossomos/metabolismo , Nanopartículas/química , Nanopartículas/uso terapêutico , Compostos Organometálicos/química , Compostos Organometálicos/farmacocinética , Compostos Organometálicos/farmacologia
19.
Dalton Trans ; 45(16): 6893-900, 2016 Apr 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26948119

RESUMO

The flexibility and structure transition behaviour of ZIF-8 in a series of samples with different particle size has been studied using a combination of high-resolution N2 gas adsorption isotherms and, for the first time, a broad in situ PXRD and Rietveld analysis. During the stepped adsorption process, large particles showed a narrow adsorption/desorption pressure range with a shorter equilibrium time due to lower kinetic hindrance, deriving from higher amount of active sites. In situ PXRD showed that both the rotation of imidazole ring and a bend in the methyl group led to the gate opening of ZIF-8.

20.
Polymers (Basel) ; 8(2)2016 Feb 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30979134

RESUMO

We report the in situ formation of two novel metal-organic frameworks based on terbium and dysprosium ions using azobenzene-4,4'-dicarboxylic acid (H2abd) as ligand, synthesized by soft hydrothermal routes. Both materials show isostructural three-dimensional networks with channels along a axis and display intense photoluminescence properties in the solid state at room temperature. Textural properties of the metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) have been fully characterized although no appreciable porosity was obtained. Magnetic properties of these materials were studied, highlighting the dysprosium material displays slightly frequency-dependent out of phase signals when measured under zero external field and under an applied field of 1000 Oe.

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