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1.
Sex Transm Dis ; 47(6): 389-394, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32421299

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The resumption of sexual activity shortly after commencing treatment for sexually transmitted infections (STIs) is poorly described despite contributing to onward transmission. With azithromycin remaining an option for rectal Chlamydia trachomatis, resuming sex too early after treatment may contribute to antimicrobial resistance because of exposure of newly acquired STIs to subinhibitory concentrations. METHODS: Clinical and sexual behavioral data were collected from men participating in a trial assessing treatment efficacy for rectal chlamydia. Data were collected at recruitment and weekly for 3 weeks after commencing treatment. Outcome measures were resumption of any sexual activity or condomless receptive anal sex within 1, 2, or 3 weeks after commencing treatment. Generalized linear regression was used to calculate adjusted risk ratios (aRR) to identify associated factors. RESULTS: Almost 1 in 10 men (9.5%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 7.2-12.1) resumed condomless receptive anal sex within 1 week of commencing treatment. This was associated with current preexposure prophylaxis use (aRR, 3.4; 95% CI, 2.5-4.8]) and having 9 or more sexual partners in the last 3 months (aRR, 3.2; 95% CI, 1.6-5.0). Most men (75.0%; 95% CI, 71.3-78.5) resumed any sexual activity within 3 weeks; this was associated with a greater number of sexual partners (4-8 partners; aRR, 1.2; 95% CI, 1.1-1.5; ≥9 partners; aRR, 1.5; 95% CI, 1.3-1.7). CONCLUSIONS: Resuming condomless receptive anal sex early after treatment may facilitate onward transmission and promote antimicrobial resistance for STIs. Although azithromycin remains a treatment option, this analysis highlights the need for new health promotion messages regarding early resumption of sex and continued surveillance for antimicrobial resistance.

2.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2020 Apr 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32342984

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Gay and bisexual men (GBM) are disproportionately affected by anal cancer. Prevention is hindered by incomplete understanding of the natural history of its precursor, anal high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL). METHODS: The Study of the Prevention of Anal Cancer, conducted between 2010 and 2018, enrolled human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive and HIV-negative GBM aged ≥35 years. Anal cytology and high-resolution anoscopy (HRA) were performed at baseline and 3 annual visits. A composite HSIL diagnosis (cytology ± histology) was used. Cytological high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (cHSIL) incidence and clearance rates were calculated with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Predictors were calculated using Cox regression with hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CIs. RESULTS: Among 617 men, 220 (35.7%) were HIV-positive, median age 49 years. And 124 incident cHSIL cases occurred over 1097.3 person-years (PY) follow-up (11.3, 95% CI 9.5-13.5 per 100 PY). Significant bivariate predictors of higher incidence included age <45 years (HR 1.64, 95% CI 1.11-2.41), HIV positivity (HR 1.43, 95% CI .99-2.06), prior SIL diagnosis (P-trend < .001) and human papillomavirus (HPV)16 (HR 3.39, 2.38-4.84). Over 695.3 PY follow-up, 153 HSIL cleared (clearance 22.0, 95% CI 18.8-25.8 per 100 PY). Predictors were age < 45 years (HR 1.52, 1.08-2.16), anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN)2 rather than AIN3 (HR 1.79, 1.29-2.49), smaller lesions (HR 1.62, 1.11-2.36) and no persistent HPV16 (HR 1.72, 1.23-2.41). There was 1 progression to cancer (incidence 0.224, 95% CI .006-1.25 per 100 PY). CONCLUSION: These data strongly suggest that not all anal HSIL detected in screening requires treatment. Men with persistent HPV16 were less likely to clear HSIL and are more likely to benefit from effective HSIL treatments.

3.
Sex Transm Infect ; 2020 Apr 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32341023

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To systematically review and appraise published data, to determine the prevalence of Mycoplasma genitalium (MG) in men who have sex with men (MSM) tested at each anatomical site, that is, at the urethra, rectum and/or pharynx. DESIGN: Systematic review and meta-analysis. DATA SOURCES: Ovid Medline, PubMed, Embase were searched for articles from 1st January 1981 (the year MG was first identified) to 1st June 2018. REVIEW METHODS: Studies were eligible for inclusion if they reported MG prevalence in MSM tested at the urethra, rectum and/or pharynx, in at least 50 MSM, using nucleic acid amplification testing. Data were extracted by anatomical site, symptom and HIV status. Summary estimates (95% CIs) were calculated using random-effects meta-analysis. Subgroup analyses were performed to assess heterogeneity between studies. RESULTS: Forty-six studies met inclusion criteria, with 34 reporting estimates of MG prevalence at the urethra (13 753 samples), 25 at the rectum (8629 samples) and 7 at the pharynx (1871 samples). MG prevalence was 5.0% (95% CI 3.5 to 6.8; I2=94.0) at the urethra; 6.2% (95% CI 4.6 to 8.1; I2=88.1) at the rectum and 1.0% (95% CI 0.0 to 5.1; I2=96.0) at the pharynx. The prevalence of MG was significantly higher at urethral and rectal sites in symptomatic versus asymptomatic MSM (7.1% vs 2.2%, p<0.001; and 16.1% vs 7.5%, p=0.039, respectively). MG prevalence at the urethra was significantly higher in HIV-positive compared with HIV-negative MSM (7.0% vs 3.4%, p=0.006). CONCLUSION: MG was common in MSM, particularly at urethral and rectal sites (5% to 6%). MG was more commonly detected in symptomatic men at both sites, and more common in HIV-positive men at the urethra. MG was uncommonly detected in the pharynx. Site-specific estimates are similar to those for chlamydia and will be helpful in informing testing practices in MSM. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42017058326.

4.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0231547, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32298328

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Victorian legislation prohibits sex workers from working when they have visible anogenital herpes or warts. The aim of this study was to determine the proportion of asymptomatic female sex workers (FSW) diagnosed with anogenital herpes or warts by genital examination. METHODS: We analysed all computerised medical records of consultations with FSW at the Melbourne Sexual Health Centre (MSHC) in 2018. All asymptomatic sex workers were offered screening sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and a genital examination to identify visible anogenital herpes or warts at MSHC. FSW consultations were categorised into either 'asymptomatic' or 'symptomatic' based on the presence of symptoms reported by the FSW to the triage nurse. The proportion of asymptomatic FSW diagnosed with visible anogenital herpes or warts during a routine screening examination was calculated. RESULTS: In 2018, 4055 consultations were provided to 1979 FSW. 3406 of these consultations were asymptomatic and all were examined by an experienced clinician for signs of STIs. Of these 3406 asymptomatic consultations, seven FSW (0.21%, 95% CI: 0.08% to 0.42%) were diagnosed with visible anogenital herpes and/or warts following a genital examination. Four were diagnosed with warts (0.12%, 95% CI: 0.03% to 0.30%), two with herpes (0.06%, 95% CI: 0.01% to 0.21%) and one with both herpes and warts (0.03%, 95% CI: 0.001% to 0.16%). CONCLUSION: Based on these data, approximately 500 asymptomatic FSW would need to be examined to identify one case of anogenital herpes or warts. Genital examinations consume considerable clinical resources, increase the duration of consultations and provide essentially no significant benefit to the mandated testing for gonorrhoea, chlamydia, HIV and syphilis. Our clinic will use self-collected samples and no longer examine FSW who are asymptomatic.

5.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 459, 2020 Apr 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32252712

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Australian surveillance data document higher rates of sexually transmissible infections (STIs) among young Aboriginal people (15-29 years) in remote settings than non-Aboriginal young people. Epidemiological data indicate a substantial number of young Aboriginal people do not test for STIs. Rigorous qualitative research can enhance understanding of these findings. This paper documents socio-ecological factors influencing young Aboriginal people's engagement with clinic-based STI testing in two remote settings in the Northern Territory, Australia. METHODS: In-depth interviews with 35 young Aboriginal men and women aged 16-21 years; thematic analysis examining their perceptions and personal experiences of access to clinic-based STI testing. RESULTS: Findings reveal individual, social and health service level influences on willingness to undertake clinic-based STI testing. Individual level barriers included limited knowledge about asymptomatic STIs, attitudinal barriers against testing for symptomatic STIs, and lack of skills to communicate about STIs with health service staff. Social influences both promoted and inhibited STI testing. In setting 1, local social networks enabled intergenerational learning about sexual health and facilitated accompanied visits to health clinics for young women. In setting 2, however, social connectedness inhibited access to STI testing services. Being seen at clinics was perceived to lead to stigmatisation among peers and fear of reputational damage due to STI-related rumours. Modalities of health service provision both enhanced and inhibited STI testing. In setting 1, outreach strategies by male health workers provided young Aboriginal men with opportunities to learn about sexual health, initiate trusting relationships with clinic staff, and gain access to clinics. In setting 2, barriers were created by the location and visibility of the clinic, appointment procedures, waiting rooms and waiting times. Where inhibitive factors at the individual, social and health service levels exist, young Aboriginal people reported more limited access to STI testing. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first socio-ecological analysis of factors influencing young Aboriginal people's willingness to undertake testing for STIs within clinics in Australia. Strategies to improve uptake of STI testing must tackle the overlapping social and health service factors that discourage young people from seeking sexual health support. Much can be learned from young people's lived sexual health experiences and family- and community-based health promotion practices.

6.
J Clin Microbiol ; 58(5)2020 Apr 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32132192

RESUMO

Screening for Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae at the pharyngeal, urogenital, and anorectal sites is recommended for men who have sex with men (MSM). Combining the three individual-site samples into a single pooled sample could result in significant cost savings, provided there is no significant sensitivity reduction. The aim of this study was to examine the sensitivity of pooled samples for detecting chlamydia and gonorrhea in asymptomatic MSM using a nucleic acid amplification test. Asymptomatic MSM who tested positive for chlamydia or gonorrhoea were invited to participate. Paired samples were obtained from participants prior to administration of treatment. To form the pooled sample, the anorectal swab was agitated in the urine specimen transport tube and then discarded. The pharyngeal swab and 2 ml of urine sample were then added to the tube. The difference in sensitivity between testing of pooled samples and individual-site testing was calculated against an expanded gold standard, where an individual is considered positive if either pooled-sample or individual-site testing returns a positive result. All samples were tested using the Aptima Combo 2 assay. A total of 162 MSM were enrolled in the study. Sensitivities of pooled-sample testing were 86% (94/109; 95% confidence interval [CI], 79 to 92%]) for chlamydia and 91% (73/80; 95% CI, 83 to 96%) for gonorrhea. The sensitivity reduction was significant for chlamydia (P = 0.02) but not for gonorrhea (P = 0.34). Pooling caused 22 infections (15 chlamydia and 7 gonorrhoea) to be missed, and the majority were single-site infections (19/22). Pooling urogenital and extragenital samples from asymptomatic MSM reduced the sensitivity of detection by approximately 10% for chlamydia but not for gonorrhea.

7.
Sex Transm Infect ; 96(4): 265-270, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32169881

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Outbreaks of hepatitis A are being reported more commonly among men who have sex with men (MSM) globally. Australia has also reported a sharp increase in the number of cases of hepatitis A in 2017. This study aimed to determine the level of immunity to hepatitis A among MSM attending a large urban sexual health clinic in Victoria in the lead up to recent outbreak. METHODS: This was a retrospective audit of serological testing data from first-time MSM attendees at Melbourne Sexual Health Centre (MSHC) in Australia from 1 January 2012 to 31 December 2018. We determined the proportion of MSM who were tested and who had serological detection of hepatitis A IgG, stratified by age and calendar year. We used univariable and multivariable logistic regression to investigate factors associated with testing for and detection of hepatitis A IgG. RESULTS: There were 16 609 first-time MSM attendees at MSHC over the 7-year period, of which 9718 (59%, 95% CI 58% to 60%) were tested for hepatitis A IgG. There was a 2% annual increase in the proportion of men tested (from 60% in 2012 to 69% in 2018; OR=1.02, 95% CI 1.00 to 1.03, p=0.025). Men born outside of Australia/New Zealand, and younger men <30 years had higher odds of being tested. Of those tested, 44% (n=4304, 95% CI 43% to 45%) had hepatitis A IgG detected at their first visit, with no change over time (OR=1.01, 95% CI 0.99 to 1.03, p=0.210). Detection of hepatitis A IgG was associated with being aged 30 years or older (adjusted OR=2.06, 95% CI 1.89 to 2.24, p<0.001) or being born overseas versus Australia/New Zealand (AOR=1.21, 95% CI 1.11 to 1.31, p<0.001). CONCLUSION: Hepatitis A immunity among MSM remains below the estimated 70% required to prevent outbreaks. Measures including increased testing and higher vaccination coverage are needed to prevent outbreaks and to limit the number of cases and deaths.

8.
Sex Transm Infect ; 2020 Mar 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32188771

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The rapid expansion of the recreational drug market becomes a global health concern. It is worrying that the bacterial and viral infection epidemics linking to drug use may worsen accordingly. This study aimed to estimate the impacts of changing trend and behaviours of using heroin only, synthetic drug (SD) only and polydrug (using SD and heroin concurrently) on HIV, hepatitis C virus (HCV) and syphilis epidemics among people who use drugs in China by 2035. METHODS: We constructed a compartmental model to estimate HIV, HCV and syphilis epidemics in the dynamic drug-use trend by three scenarios: SD-only use, heroin-only use and polydrug use based on Monte Carlo simulations. The parameters for the model were collected from a comprehensive literature search. RESULTS: Our model estimated that polydrug use led to the highest HIV and HCV prevalence among three drug-use patterns. The prevalences were projected to increase from 10.9% (95% CI 10.2% to 11.5%) and 61.7% (95% CI 59.4% to 62.5%) in 2005 to 19.0% (95% CI 17.3% to 20.7%) and 69.1% (95% CI 67.3% to 69.5%), respectively, in 2035 among people using polydrug. Similarly, HIV and HCV prevalence in the SD-only group were projected to increase from 0.4% (95% CI 0.3% to 0.4%) and 19.5% (95% CI 19.4% to 21.7%) to 1.8% (95% CI 1.4 to 2.1%) and 33.7% (95% CI 33.2% to 34.9%) in 2005-2035. Conversely, HIV prevalence in the heroin-only group was projected to decrease from 8.0% (95% CI 7.6% to 8.1%) to 2.2% (95% CI 2.0% to 2.3%) in 2005-2035. Syphilis prevalence was estimated to remain unchanged in all population groups within this time frame. It was projected that the proportion of HIV transmitted by sexual transmission will increase compared with unsafe injection transmission in all people who use drugs from 2005 to 2035. CONCLUSION: Our modelling suggests that polydrug use is projected to lead to the highest HIV and HCV disease burden by 2035, and the proportion of HIV transmitted by sexual transmission will increase. Current HIV intervention among people using heroin seems effective according to our estimation.

9.
Sex Health ; 17(2): 149-154, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32135076

RESUMO

Background Previous studies have shown that there is a peak in sexually transmissible infection (STI) cases and sexual activities around summer, but there has been no study examining whether kissing also follows a similar seasonal pattern. The aim of this study was to examine the seasonal patterns of kissing and sex partners among gay, bisexual and other men who have sex with men (MSM). METHODS: A short cross-sectional study was conducted among MSM attending the Melbourne Sexual Health Centre between March 2016 and February 2017. Participants were asked to report the number of kissing-only, sex-only and kissing-with-sex male partners in the last 3 months. The mean number of male partners was calculated and stratified by Australia's seasons. The seasonal trend in the number of partners was assessed by negative binomial regression models. RESULTS: In total, 4391 MSM were included in the analysis. The number of kissing-only and sex-only partners increased significantly from autumn to summer among MSM in Melbourne (Ptrend <0.001). MSM reported the highest number of male partners for kissing-only (mean: 4.91; 95% confidence intervals (CI): 4.78-5.04) and sex-only (mean: 1.91; 95% CI: 1.83-1.99) around summer compared with other seasons. However, the number of kissing-with-sex partners remained stable across seasons. CONCLUSIONS: The study data suggest that there is a peak in kissing-only and sex-only partners among MSM around summer and holiday seasons.

10.
J Infect Dis ; 221(6): 1017-1024, 2020 Mar 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32031634

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The basis of fluoroquinolone treatment failure for Mycoplasma genitalium is poorly understood. METHODS: To identify mutations associated with failure we sequenced key regions of the M. genitalium parC and gyrA genes for patients undergoing sequential therapy with doxycycline-moxifloxacin (201 patients, including 21 with failure) or doxycycline-sitafloxacin (126 patients, including 13 with failure). RESULTS: The parC G248T/S83I mutation was more common among patients with failed sequential doxycycline-moxifloxacin (present in 76.2% of failures vs 7.8% cures, P < .001) or doxycycline-sitafloxacin (50% vs 16.8%, respectively; P = .01) treatment. Doxycycline-sitafloxacin was more efficacious than doxycycline-moxifloxacin against infections carrying the parC mutation conferring S83I amino acid change. Treatment was more likely to fail in these infections if they had a concurrent gyrA mutation (M95I or D99N) (P = .07 for doxycycline-moxifloxacin group and P = .009 for doxycycline-sitafloxacin group), suggesting an additive effect. CONCLUSIONS: This study indicates that parC G248T/S83I mutations contribute to failure of moxifloxacin and sitafloxacin, and the findings will inform the development of quinolone resistance assays needed to ensure optimal selection of antimicrobials for M. genitalium.

12.
J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr ; 83(2): 99-102, 2020 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31929399

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sexual mixing between HIV-positive, HIV-negative, and pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) users among men who have sex with men (MSM) is an important determinant of the incidence of infection. There have been very limited studies examining the patterns of sexual mixing in relation to HIV status and PrEP use in the era of PrEP. SETTING: Melbourne Sexual Health Centre (MSHC), Australia. METHODS: We included all MSM partnerships attending MSHC on the same day between 2011 and 2018. A chi-square trend test was used to examine the changes in the annual proportion of partnerships by HIV serostatus in 2011-2018 and by PrEP use in 2016-2018. RESULTS: Of the 1765 MSM partnerships who attended MSHC between 2011 and 2018, 1.3% of the partnerships were concordant HIV-positive, 91.0% were concordant HIV-negative, and 7.6% were HIV-discordant. The proportion of HIV-discordant partnerships increased from 0% in 2011 to 12.5% in 2018 (ptrend < 0.001). In 2016-2018, only a small proportion (1.2%) of concordant HIV-negative partnerships involved both men taking PrEP, whereas 6.0% involved at least one man taking PrEP. Overall, 79.1% of concordant HIV-negative partnerships were not protected against HIV (ie, neither man taking PrEP), and this proportion declined significantly from 84.3% in 2016 to 74.0% in 2018 (ptrend = 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The pattern of sexual mixing by HIV status and PrEP use among MSM partnerships has changed over time. PrEP use in both men within MSM partnerships is not common. About 79% of concordant HIV-negative partnerships were not protected against HIV as neither man taking PrEP.

13.
Sex Health ; 17(1): 53-60, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31928612

RESUMO

Background Sexually transmissible infections (STIs) are rising among female sex workers (FSW) in Australia. The rise might be explained by changes in sexual practices; however, there is limited behavioural data available. This study aimed to explore the current sexual practices among FSW in Melbourne. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted among FSW at Melbourne Sexual Health Centre between September 2017 and March 2018. Participants were asked about current sexual practices with male clients in an average working week. The frequency and proportion of each sexual practice was calculated. RESULTS: There were 180 questionnaires included in the analysis. The median age of the FSW was 28 years (interquartile range [IQR]: 25-34). Most FSW (80.6%) worked in brothels. In an average working week, FSW had a median of 10 (IQR: 7-20) male clients. The most common sexual practices included: vaginal sex (98.3%), fellatio (97.2%), cunnilingus (92.2%) and tongue-kissing (83.7%). FSW had a median number of 10 (IQR: 6-18) vaginal, 10 (IQR: 5-18) fellatio, 7 (IQR: 2-10) cunnilingus and 6 (IQR: 2-10) tongue-kissing clients. Consistent condom use with all clients was highest for vaginal sex (97.1%), followed by anal sex (92.3%), then fellatio (78.9%). Only 3.1% used dental dams consistently for cunnilingus. CONCLUSION: Consistent condom use with all clients was high among FSWs, especially for vaginal and anal sex. However, one-fifth of FSW had condomless fellatio during an average working week. Tongue-kissing was more common than previously published. Peer-led sexual health education on safe sex practice for FSW is of high importance.

14.
Sex Transm Infect ; 96(4): 246-250, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31919276

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: In 2017, there was an outbreak of invasive meningococcal disease (IMD) serogroup C among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Victoria, Australia. A government-funded free meningococcal (MenACWY) vaccination programme targeting all MSM living in Victoria was launched between December 2017 and December 2018. The aim of this study was to examine the vaccine uptake among MSM attending a sexual health clinic in Melbourne. METHODS: This was a retrospective clinical audit of MSM attending the Melbourne Sexual Health Centre (MSHC) during the vaccination programme. We calculated the proportion of MSM who received the meningococcal vaccine on their first visit and at any time during the programme. We performed univariable and multivariable logistic regression to identify the factors associated with the vaccine uptake on the first visit. RESULTS: Of the 10 370 MSM who attended MSHC, 55.5% received the vaccine on their first visit and 67.4% at any time during the programme. MSM had higher odds of receiving the vaccine on the first visit if they were aged 16-25 years (adjusted OR (aOR) 1.21; 95% CI 1.08 to 1.35) or 26-35 years (aOR 1.17; 95% CI 1.07 to 1.29) in comparison with MSM older than 35 years; were HIV-negative and not on pre-exposure prophylaxis (aOR 1.80; 95% CI 1.56 to 2.09); had more than four male partners in the last 12 months (aOR 1.16; 95% CI 1.06 to 1.27); had male partners only (aOR 2.24; 95% CI 1.96 to 2.55); or were born overseas (aOR 1.11; 95% CI 1.03 to 1.21). CONCLUSIONS: Two-thirds of the MSM attending a sexual health clinic received at least one dose of meningococcal vaccine. The vaccination programme coincided temporally with a dramatic reduction in the incidence of IMD. Vaccination should be further promoted among MSM and men who have sex with both men and women.

15.
Sex Transm Infect ; 96(1): 10-18, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31217322

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: There are limited data on the prevalence of Mycoplasma genitalium (Mgen) coinfection with rectal chlamydia (Chlamydia trachomatis (CT)) and rectal gonorrhoea (Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG)) infections and few studies examining the prevalence of pharyngeal Mgen in men who have sex with men (MSM). Using transcription-mediated amplification assay, this study aimed to determine the proportion of rectal CT and rectal NG infections in MSM who are coinfected with rectal Mgen, and the proportion of MSM with Mgen detected in the pharynx in order to inform clinical practice. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study conducted at Melbourne Sexual Health Centre in Australia. Consecutively collected rectal swabs from MSM that tested positive for CT (n=212) or NG (n=212), and consecutively collected pharyngeal samples (n=480) from MSM were tested for Mgen using the Aptima Mycoplasma genitalium Assay (Hologic, San Diego). Samples were linked to demographic data and symptom status. RESULTS: Rectal Mgen was codetected in 27 of 212 rectal CT (13%, 95% CI 9 to 18) and in 29 of 212 rectal NG (14%, 95% CI 9 to 19) samples, with no difference in the proportion positive for Mgen. MSM with rectal CT/Mgen coinfection had more sexual partners than those with rectal CT monoinfection (mean 6 vs 11, p=0.06). MSM with rectal NG/Mgen coinfection were more likely to be HIV-positive than those with rectal NG monoinfection (OR=2.96, 95% CI 1.21 to 7.26, p=0.023). MSM with rectal CT/Mgen coinfection were more likely to be using pre-exposure prophylaxis than MSM with rectal NG/Mgen coinfection (OR 0.25, 95% CI 0.10 to 0.65, p=0.002). Pharyngeal Mgen was uncommon and detected in 8 of 464 samples (2%, 95% CI 1% to 3%). Pharyngeal Mgen was associated with having a rectal STI (OR=10.61, 95% CI 2.30 to 48.87, p=0.002), and there was a borderline association with being HIV-positive (p=0.079). CONCLUSION: These data indicate one in seven MSM treated for rectal CT or rectal NG will have undiagnosed Mgen that is potentially exposed to azithromycin during treatment of these STIs. Rectal Mgen coinfection was associated with specific risk factors which may inform testing practices. Pharyngeal Mgen was uncommon.

16.
Sex Transm Infect ; 96(2): 110-114, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31346067

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: In 2017, an outbreak of hepatitis A among gay, bisexual and other men who have sex with men (MSM) was reported in Victoria, Australia. In 2018, the Victorian government implemented a free hepatitis A vaccination programme targeting all Victorian MSM. This study aimed to determine hepatitis A vaccine uptake among MSM in a sexual health clinic in Melbourne. METHODS: All MSM attending the Melbourne Sexual Health Centre (MSHC) in 2018 were included. Chart review was performed to determine the proportion of men vaccinated for at least one dose of hepatitis A and to examine why men did not receive the vaccine. Multivariable logistic regression was performed to examine the factors associated with vaccine uptake. Vaccine uptake was defined as receipt of at least one dose of hepatitis A vaccine. RESULTS: Of the 9582 MSM who attended MSHC in 2018, 61.3% (95% CI 60.3% to 62.2%) self-reported already being immune to hepatitis A. Of the 3713 remaining eligible men, 62.7% (95% CI 61.1% to 64.2%) received at least one dose of the hepatitis A vaccine on the day of attendance. Compared with MSM not living with HIV and not taking pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), MSM taking PrEP (adjusted OR 1.28; 95% CI 1.01 to 1.62) were more likely to receive the vaccine. 1386 men (37.3%) did not receive the vaccine and 55.4% were not offered the vaccine by their treating clinician. 300 men (21.6%) were identified as non-immune after serological testing but did not return for vaccination. By the end of 2018, 85.5% of MSHC attendees (8196/9582) were immune to hepatitis A. CONCLUSION: The critical vaccination threshold for hepatitis A has been estimated at >70%. Continuation of the targeted hepatitis A vaccination programme will improve immunity among the MSM population to prevent ongoing transmission and the likelihood of future outbreaks.

18.
J Infect Dis ; 221(3): 454-463, 2020 Jan 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31544206

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Gardnerella vaginalis is detected in women with and without bacterial vaginosis (BV). Identification of 4 G. vaginalis clades raised the possibility that pathogenic and commensal clades exist. We investigated the association of behavioral practices and Nugent Score with G. vaginalis clade distribution in women who have sex with women (WSW). METHODS: Longitudinal self-collected vaginal specimens were analyzed using established G. vaginalis species-specific and clade-typing polymerase chain reaction assays. Logistic regression assessed factors associated with detection of G. vaginalis clades, and multinomial regression assessed factors associated with number of clades. RESULTS: Clades 1, 2, and 3 and multiclade communities (<2 clades) were associated with Nugent-BV. Clade 1 (odds ratio [OR], 3.36; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.65-6.84) and multiclade communities (relative risk ratio [RRR], 9.51; 95% CI, 4.36-20.73) were also associated with Lactobacillus-deficient vaginal microbiota. Clade 4 was neither associated with Nugent-BV nor Lactobacillus-deficient microbiota (OR, 1.49; 95% CI, 0.67-3.33). Specific clades were associated with differing behavioral practices. Clade 1 was associated with increasing number of recent sexual partners and smoking, whereas clade 2 was associated with penile-vaginal sex and sharing of sex toys with female partners. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that G. vaginalis clades have varying levels of pathogenicity in WSW, with acquisition occurring through sexual activity. These findings suggest that partner treatment may be an appropriate strategy to improve BV cure.

19.
Clin Infect Dis ; 70(1): 136-139, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31237616

RESUMO

Syphilis control programs have been scaled up due to the substantial burden in China. We analyzed syphilis incidence according to demographic, spatiotemporal, and economic factors. The increasing latent syphilis diagnoses and declining congenital syphilis suggest the effectiveness of scale-up screening. However, primary and secondary cases persist, especially in inland provinces.

20.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 19749, 2019 Dec 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31874964

RESUMO

Women-who-have-sex-with-women (WSW) are at increased risk of bacterial vaginosis (BV). We investigated the impact of practices and past BV on the vaginal microbiota within a two-year longitudinal cohort of Australian WSW. Self-collected vaginal swabs were used to characterise the vaginal microbiota using 16S-rRNA gene sequencing. Hierarchical clustering defined community state types (CSTs). Bacterial diversity was calculated using the Shannon diversity index and instability of the vaginal microbiota was assessed by change of CST and Bray-Curtis dissimilarity. Sex with a new partner increased the bacterial diversity (adjusted-coefficient = 0.41, 95%CI: 0.21,0.60, p < 0.001) and instability of the vaginal microbiota, in terms of both change of CST (adjusted-odds-ratio = 2.65, 95%CI: 1.34,5.22, p = 0.005) and increased Bray-Curtis dissimilarity (adjusted-coefficient = 0.21, 95%CI: 0.11,0.31, p < 0.001). Women reporting sex with a new partner were more likely than women reporting no new partner to have a vaginal microbiota characterised by Gardnerella vaginalis (adjusted-relative-risk-ratio[aRRR] = 3.45, 95%CI: 1.42,8.41, p = 0.006) or anaerobic BV-associated bacteria (aRRR = 3.62, 95%CI: 1.43,9.14, p = 0.007) relative to a Lactobacillus crispatus dominated microbiota. Sex with a new partner altered the vaginal microbiota of WSW by increasing the diversity and abundance of BV-associated bacteria. These findings highlight the influence of practices on the development of a non-optimal vaginal microbiota and provide microbiological support for the sexual exchange of bacteria between women.

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