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1.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1081, 2019 Aug 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31399028

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Internationally, acute homelessness is commonly associated with complex health and social care needs. While homelessness can be understood as an outcome of structural housing exclusion requiring housing led solutions, the health care issues faced by homeless people equally require attention. A substantive evidence base on the health needs of homeless people exists, but relatively little is known about what influences the self-rated health of homeless people. This article presents new evidence on whether drug use (alcohol consumption, ever having used drugs), health variables (visiting a hospital once in the last year, visiting the doctor in the last month, having a health card, sleeping difficulties, and having a disabling impairment) and sociodemographic characteristics are significantly associated with Self-Rated Health (SRH) among Spanish homeless people. METHOD: The approach applies secondary analysis to cross-sectional data from a sample of 2437 homeless adults in Spain (83.8% were male). Multinomial logistic regression modelling was used to analyse the relationships between drug use, other health variables and SRH. RESULTS: Being male, an abstainer, having a health card and being in the youngest age groups were significant factors associated with perceived good health. On the other hand, ever having used drugs, having been a night in hospital, having gone to the doctor in the last month, having sleeping difficulties, having a disabling impairment and being in the older age group were all significant risk factors associated with perceived poor health. CONCLUSIONS: These results help to improve understanding of the key factors that influence the SRH among homeless people. The findings can contribute to development and delivery of preventive policies, suggesting that interventions to reduce drug consumption and ensure access to a health card/health services, as well as enhancing services for older, female and disabled homeless people are all measures which could improve health and well-being for those who face homelessness. Effective housing interventions (e.g. Housing First or Permanent Supported Housing programmes) are equally important to underpin the effectiveness of measures to improve the self-rated health of homeless people.


Assuntos
Autoavaliação Diagnóstica , Pessoas em Situação de Rua/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Espanha , Inquéritos e Questionários
2.
Front Psychol ; 10: 1620, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31379666

RESUMO

The new technologies (NT) and Internet are now a part of our lives and they are even changing the way in which we relate to each other, in both a positive and a negative sense, especially among young people. One of the negative aspects is their use to harass others, a phenomenon known as Cyberbullying. The aim of this study was to describe the frequency of cyberbullying, the characteristics of victims and aggressors in a sample of university students, and to analyze the relationships between the use of Internet and the presence of psychopathological symptomatology, as well as the differences in the psychopathological dimensions in relation to the intensity of the cyberbullying, cyberaggression and gender. The participants were 1108 university students selected using a randomized cluster sample. The results demonstrate the presence of cyberbullying in our participants. No differences were found with respect to gender in the frequency of being a victim; but differences were found in this respect in the case of the aggressors, as well as there being different symptomatology profiles in males and females and according to the intensity of the aggression. The results are discussed in relation to the differences according to gender, as well as the need to carry out longitudinal studies and to design prevention and intervention programs for university campuses that are sensitive to the differences between males and females.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31071907

RESUMO

Minors' mental health is a subject of high global concern. Understanding the factors that influence their mental health is essential to improving the health of future generations. In this study, an analysis of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire's usefulness is carried out, as a validated tool, recognized in Spain and internationally, for the measurement of minors' mental health. In turn, the influence of the variables of gender, age, and physical health, along with the occupational social class of parents on Spanish minors' mental health, has been analyzed. Spanish minors with good physical health and of parents with middle and higher education, as well as in an occupational social class, are less likely to suffer mental health problems. On the other hand, it seems that internalizing symptoms are more likely in girls, and externalizing symptoms are more likely in boys. However, when a global measure of mental health is made without specific subscales, the effects of gender and age diverge greatly, according to the studies. Although there are examples of current research using the same measurement tool, there is still a need for many more international studies that are coordinated using the same methodology. This study identifies the factors which the international and Spanish scientific literature has revealed as being determinants in minors' mental health. Finally, it is essential that the influence of these factors be assessed in the areas of primary care and mental health to facilitate better detection, intervention, or prevention of mental health problems in today's children, as well as the children of future generations.


Assuntos
Saúde Mental , Menores de Idade , Adolescente , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Classe Social , Espanha , Inquéritos e Questionários
4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29937491

RESUMO

The analysis of the mental health in children under 14 years has become a research topic of global interest where the family can be a key factor for protection or risk against mental health problems. With this work, we intend to determine, employing binary logistic regression analysis, whether parental acceptance-rejection perceived by boys and girls can predict their mental health. Seven hundred sixty-two students participated, the average age was 12.23 years; 53.8% (n = 410) girls and 46.2% (n = 352) boys. We have used the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ), self-reported version and the Affection Scale children version (EA-H) for parental acceptance-rejection to assess mental health. The odds ratio (OR) of the logistic models reports that there is a greater probability of having mental health problems in boys and girls when they perceive that they are highly criticized and rejected by their parents. With our work, we highlight the importance of the environment and family affection on mental health. The perception of the children about the rejection, aversion, and criticism of their parents constitutes a risk factor in the manifestation of mental health problems.


Assuntos
Transtornos Mentais/etiologia , Saúde Mental , Relações Pais-Filho , Distância Social , Meio Social , Adolescente , Saúde do Adolescente , Criança , Saúde da Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Menores de Idade , Razão de Chances , Pais/psicologia , Psicologia do Adolescente , Psicologia da Criança , Fatores de Risco , Autorrelato
5.
Front Psychol ; 9: 326, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29593622

RESUMO

Cooperative learning are being used increasingly in the university classroom, in order to promote teamwork among students, improve performance and develop interpersonal competences. Responsibility and cooperation are two fundamental pillars of cooperative learning. Team members' responsibility is a necessary condition for the team's success in the assigned tasks. Students must be aware that they depend on each other and should make their maximum effort. On the other hand, in efficient groups, the members cooperate and pool their efforts to achieve the proposed goals. In this research, we propose to create a Questionnaire of Group Responsibility and Cooperation in Learning Teams (CRCG). Participants in this work were 375 students from the Faculty of Teacher Training of the University of Extremadura (Spain). The CRCG has very acceptable psychometric characteristics, good internal consistency, and temporal reliability. Moreover, structural equation analysis allowed us to verify that the latent variables in the two factors found are well defined and, therefore, their assessment is adequate. Besides, we found high significant correlations between the Learning Team Potency Questionnaire (CPEA) and the total score and the factors of the CRCG. This tool will evaluate cooperative skills and offer faculty information in order to prepare students for teamwork and conflict resolution.

6.
Brain Sci ; 7(10)2017 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29065447

RESUMO

Research on minors' mental health is an increasingly developing area. Given the increased prevalence of disorders, it seems necessary to analyze the factors that can affect poor mental health. This study analyzes the influence of occupational class, educational level, age, sex and perceived mental health of Spanish children, which is measured through the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. The sample consists of 3599 minors between 4 and 14 years old, who were interviewed through the Spanish National Health Survey 2011. Our results indicating the significant (p < 0.05) relationship between mental health, occupational class (OR 0.533) and minors' health in the last year (OR 0.313) are shown. However, gender (OR 1.187) and educational level of Pre-School Education in relation to Secondary Education (OR 1.174) and Primary Education (OR 0.996) do not generate significant differences. In conclusion, we consider it necessary to design and implement public policies aimed at improving the care system for children who have had poor or regular health in the last year, and whose parents are positioned in the lowest part of the occupational scale.

7.
Univ. psychol ; 16(1): 221-233, Jan.-Mar. 2017. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-904627

RESUMO

RESUMEN El bullying (acoso escolar) contempla como protagonistas a un grupo de alumnos con papeles bien diferenciados: Agresor, víctima y observadores, estos últimos, testigos del acoso que pueden condicionar el curso del mismo. Con este estudio se pretende determinar si la aplicación de técnicas de aprendizaje cooperativo en el aula, reduce la frecuencia de conductas de acoso escolar, en estudiantes de Educación Primaria. Con el fin de evaluar dichas conductas, se aplicó la Escala de frecuencias de acoso escolar entre iguales. Perspectiva Observador. Nuestros resultados apoyan la hipótesis, de que tras la aplicación de técnicas de aprendizaje cooperativo en el aula, los observadores constatan una reducción de las agresiones verbales y físicas directas, físicas indirectas y de exclusión social propias de la dinámica bullying.


ABSTRACT Bullying includes starring a group of students with distinct roles: aggressor, victim and observers, the latter witnessed the harassment, which may affect the course of the same. This study aims to determine whether the application in the classroom cooperative learning techniques, reduces the frequency of bullying behaviors in students of Primary Education. In order to evaluate these behaviors, the Frequency Scale Peer Bullying. Observer Perspective applies. Our results support the hypothesis that following the implementation of cooperative learning techniques in the classroom, observers establish that reduction in direct verbal and physical aggression, indirect and dynamic characteristics of social exclusion physical bullying.


Assuntos
Bullying , Práticas Interdisciplinares/tendências
8.
Salud ment ; 38(5): 329-335, sep.-oct. 2015. graf
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS-Express | ID: lil-778948

RESUMO

ANTECEDENTES: La investigación de la salud mental en los menores de edad supone una necesidad actual como medida de detección, análisis y prevención de posibles trastornos mentales. OBJETIVO: Analizar la influencia de la clase social ocupacional de los padres y de la etapa educativa en la que se encuentran los menores, como factores de riesgo en la salud mental de los menores españoles. MÉTODO: Se utilizaron los resultados obtenidos en la Encuesta Nacional de Salud Española 2006, con una muestra de 5812 menores de cuatro a 15 años. Se estimaron las medidas de asociación con respecto a las variables independientes midiendo la salud mental mediante el Cuestionario de Capacidades y Dificultades (SDQ-versión padres). RESULTADOS: La relación entre la salud mental y la variable clase social ocupacional 1 (más privilegiadas) (OR 0.256) y la clase social 2 (clase media) (OR 0.523) aportaron valores significativos (p < 0.05) con respecto a la clase social 3, más desfavorecida. Sin embargo, la pertenencia de los menores a la E. Infantil (OR 1.138) o a la E. Primaria (OR 1.162) no aportó valores significativos (p > 0.05) con respecto a la E. Secundaria. DISCUSIÓN Y CONCLUSIÓN: Se puede concluir que las clases sociales ocupacionales elevadas y medias son factores protectores con respecto a la salud mental de los menores en comparación con la pertenencia a una clase social ocupacional baja. Sin embargo, la pertenencia a la E. Infantil o a la E. Primaria no supone un factor de riesgo de salud mental en comparación con la pertenencia a la E. Secundaria.


BACKGROUND: Research on minors' mental health is a current necessity as a way to detect, analyze and prevent possible mental disorders. OBJECTIVE: The goal of this study was to analyze the influence of minors' educational stage and their parents' occupational social class as risk factors for minors' mental health. METHOD: We used the results obtained in the National Spanish Health Survey 2006, with a sample of 5812 minors between 4 and 15 years of age. Measures associated with the independent variables were estimated through the measurement of mental health on the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ-parents' version). RESULTS: The relation between mental health and the variables occupational social class 1 (more privileged) (O.R. 0.256) and social class 2 (middle class) (O.R. 0.523) was significant (p < 0.05) in comparison with social class 3 (more disadvantaged). However, whether the minors were in pre-school (O.R. 1.138) or primary school (O.R. 1.162) was nonsignificant (p > 0.05) in comparison with secondary school. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: It is concluded that high and middle occupational social classes are protector factors for minors' mental health in comparison to belonging to a low occupational social class. However, being a student in pre-school or in primary school is not a risk factor for mental health in comparison to being a secondary school student.

9.
Univ. psychol ; 14(3): 1117-1128, jul.-sep. 2015. ilus, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: lil-780673

RESUMO

Con esta investigación, mediante un análisis discriminante se pretende analizar cuáles variables de socialización presentan un mayor poder de discriminación o cuantifican mejor las diferencias entre los distintos niveles de agresión y victimización en el fenómeno bullying. La muestra está formada por 700 adolescentes estudiantes. Se utilizó el Cuestionario de Convivencia Escolar (Defensor del Pueblo, 2006) y el BAS-3 (Batería de Socialización, en formato de autoevaluación) de Silva y Martorell (1989). Nuestros resultados confirman que niveles altos de agresión en el acoso escolar estarían caracterizados por puntuaciones bajas en consideración hacia los demás y autocontrol en las relaciones sociales, mientras que niveles altos de victi-mización estarían caracterizados por puntuaciones altas en ansiedad social/ timidez y retraimiento social.


With this research, by discriminant analysis to analyze variables of socialization that have a higher discriminatory or better quantify the differences between the different levels of aggression and victimization in the bullying phenomenon. The sample consisted of 700 adolescent students. Questionnaire was used School Coexistence (Ombudsman, 2006) and the BAS-3 (Drums of socialization, self-assessment format) de Silva and Martorell (1989). Our results confirm that high levels of aggression in bullying would be characterized by low scores on consideration for others and self in social relations, while high levels of victimization, would be characterized by high scores on social anxiety / shyness and social withdrawal.


Assuntos
Adolescente , Bullying , Agressão
10.
An. psicol ; 31(2): 600-606, mayo 2015. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-139005

RESUMO

Un área de estudio importante en el acoso escolar continúa siendo el análisis de las causas del fenómeno y de los factores que actuarían como protección/riesgo en los ámbitos culturales, sociales, personales, escolares y familiares. La familia puede ser clave como factor de protección o de riesgo en la aparición de situaciones de violencia escolar. Con este estudio mediante un análisis discriminante pretendemos determinar las relaciones entre los diferentes perfiles de victimización y agresión implicados en la dinámica bullying y la aceptación-rechazo que perciben los participantes de sus padres. La muestra total estaba formada por 700 adolescentes estudiantes, 43% mujeres y 57% varones con una media de edad de 13.98. Hemos utilizado el Cuestionario de Convivencia Escolar (Defensor del Pueblo, 2006) y la Escala de Afecto versión hijos, EA-H (Bersabé, Fuentes y Motrico, 2001). Nuestros resultados confirman que las víctimas se caracterizarían por percibir un mayor afecto y comunicación de sus madres. Los agresores y los agresores/víctimas por percibir rechazo y crítica, especialmente del padre y poco afecto y comunicación de sus madres


An important area of study in bullying remains the analysis of the causes of the phenomenon and the factors that act as protective / risk in the cultural, social, personal, school and family. The family may be key protective factor or risk in the occurrence of school violence situations. With this study by discriminant analysis aims to determine the relationships between the different profiles of victimization and aggression dynamics involved in bullying and acceptance-rejection participants perceived their parents. The total sample consisted of 700 adolescent students, 43% female and 57% men with a mean age of 13.98. We have used the Cuestionario de Convivencia Escolar (Defensor del Pueblo, 2006) and Escala de Afecto versión hijos, EA-H (Bersabé, Fuentes y Motrico, 2001). Our results confirm that the victims would be characterized by greater affection and receive communication from their mothers. The attackers and attackers / victims to perceive rejection and criticism, especially from the father and little affection and communication of their mothers


Assuntos
Humanos , Relações Pais-Filho , Bullying/psicologia , Afeto , Rejeição (Psicologia) , Fatores de Risco , Psicometria/instrumentação , Inquéritos e Questionários
11.
Rev Esp Salud Publica ; 86(4): 445-51, 2012.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23076089

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) is one of the most internationally widely used questionnaire to measure mental health. The aim of this study is to analyze the discrimination cutoff of the questionnaire in Spanish population and the association between the Spanish children mental health and the variables gender, municipality size and health status in the last twelve months. METHOD: The results of the Spanish National Health Survey-2006 were used with a selected sample of 6390 children between 4 and 15 years. Through discriminant analysis and ROC curves, we analyzed the cutoff score provide in the SDQ-parent with Spanish population and the measures of association are forecasted with respect to the independent variables. RESULTS: the cutoff equal to 20, used in the SDQ-parent with Spanish population, provided a sensitivity of 0,964 and a specificity of 0,945. The relationship between mental health and sex (OR 1,17) and municipality size (OR 0,85) gave not significant p-value (p>0,05). However, this relation get a significant p-value for the variable health situation in the last twelve months (OR 0,30; p<0,05). CONCLUSIONS: The cutoff score equal to 20 is adequate to discriminate the Spanish children mental health through the SDQ-parent version. The influence between health situation in the last year and mental health is accepted, compared to a lack of influence of gender and municipality size variables.


Assuntos
Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Saúde Mental/estatística & dados numéricos , Área Sob a Curva , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Pais , Fatores de Risco , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Fatores Sexuais , Espanha , Inquéritos e Questionários
12.
Rev. esp. salud pública ; 86(4): 445-451, jul.-ago. 2012. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-103663

RESUMO

Fundamentos: el Cuestionario de Capacidades y Dificultades (SDQ, según sus siglas en inglés) es uno de los más utilizados internacionalmente para la medición de la salud mental. El objetivo de este estudio es analizar la discriminación del punto de corte del cuestionario en población española y la asociación entre la salud mental de los menores españoles y las variables sexo, tamaño del municipio y estado de salud en los últimos doce meses. Método: se utilizaron los resultados obtenidos en la Encuesta Nacional de Salud Española 2006, con una muestra de 6.390 menores de 4 a 15 años. Mediante un análisis discriminante y las curvas COR, se analizó la puntuación de corte utilizada en el cuestionario SDQ-padres para la población española y se estimaron las medidas de asociación con respecto a las variables independientes. Resultados: el punto de corte igual a 20, utilizado en el SDQ-pa-dres con población española, aporta una sensibilidad de 0,964 y una especificidad de 0,945. La relación entre la salud mental y las variables sexo (OR 1,17) y tamaño del municipio (OR 0,85) aportaron valores no significativos (p>0,05). En la variable estado de salud del menor en los últimos doce meses sí se obtuvieron diferencias estadísticamente (OR 0,30; p<0,05). Conclusiones: la puntuación de corte igual a 20 es adecuada para la discriminación de la salud mental de los menores españoles mediante el cuestionario SDQ-padres. Se acepta la influencia del estado de salud en los últimos doce meses en la salud mental, frente a una falta de influencia del sexo y el tamaño del municipio(AU)


Background: The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) is one of the most internationally widely used questionnaire to measure mental health. The aim of this study is to analyze the discrimination cutoff of the questionnaire in Spanish population and the association between the Spanish children mental health and the variables gender, municipality size and health status in the last twelve months. Method: The results of the Spanish National Health Survey-2006 were used with a selected sample of 6390 children between 4 and 15 years. Through discriminant analysis and ROC curves, we analyzed the cutoff score provide in the SDQ-parent with Spanish population and the measures of association are forecasted with respect to the independent variables. Results: the cutoff equal to 20, used in the SDQ-parent with Spanish population, provided a sensitivity of 0,964 and a specificity of 0,945. The relationship between mental health and sex (OR 1,17) and municipality size (OR 0,85) gave not significant p-value (p>0,05). However, this relation get a significant p-value for the variable health situation in the last twelve months (OR 0,30; p<0,05). Conclusions: The cutoff score equal to 20 is adequate to discriminate the Spanish children mental health through the SDQ-parent version. The influence between health situation in the last year and mental health is accepted, compared to a lack of influence of gender and municipality size variables(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Pré-Escolar , Criança , Adolescente , Saúde Mental/normas , Saúde Mental/tendências , Serviços de Saúde Mental/organização & administração , Serviços de Saúde Mental/tendências , Bem-Estar da Criança/legislação & jurisprudência , Bem-Estar da Criança/estatística & dados numéricos , Bem-Estar da Criança/tendências , Nível de Saúde , Fatores de Risco , Saúde Mental/estatística & dados numéricos , Enquete Socioeconômica , Inquéritos e Questionários , Razão de Chances
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