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2.
Blood ; 2020 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33270832

RESUMO

The optimal duration of eculizumab treatment in patients with atypical haemolytic uremic syndrome (aHUS) remains poorly defined. We conducted a prospective national multicentric open-label study in order to assess eculizumab discontinuation in children and adults with aHUS. Fifty-five patients (including 19 children) discontinued eculizumab (mean duration of treatment, 16.5 months). Twenty-eight (51%) patients had complement gene rare variants, mostly in MCP (n= 12, 22%), CFH (n= 6, 11%) and CFI (n=6, 10%) genes. At eculizumab discontinuation, 17 (30%) and 4 (7%) patients had chronic kidney disease stage 3 and 4, respectively. During follow-up, 13 (23%) patients (6 children and 7 adults) experienced aHUS relapse. In multivariable analysis, female gender and the presence of a rare complement gene variant were associated with an increased risk of aHUS relapse, whereas requirement for dialysis during previous episodes of acute aHUS was not. In addition, an increased soluble C5b-9 plasma level at eculizumab discontinuation was associated with a higher risk of aHUS relapse in all patients and in the subset of carriers of complement gene rare variants, in log rank test and in multivariable analysis. Among the 13 relapsing patients, who were all restarted on eculizumab, 11 regained their baseline renal function and two had a worsening of their pre-existing chronic kidney disease, including one patient who progressed to end-stage renal disease. A strategy of eculizumab discontinuation in aHUS patients based on complement genetics is reasonable and safe. It improves the management and quality of life of a sizeable proportion of aHUS patients while reducing the cost of treatment. Trail registration number: NCT02574403.

4.
Blood ; 136(19): 2103-2117, 2020 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32808006

RESUMO

Pregnancy and postpartum are high-risk periods for different forms of thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA). However, the management of pregnancy-associated TMA remains ill defined. This report, by an international multidisciplinary working group of obstetricians, nephrologists, hematologists, intensivists, neonatologists, and complement biologists, summarizes the current knowledge of these potentially severe disorders and proposes a practical clinical approach to diagnose and manage an episode of pregnancy-associated TMA. This approach takes into account the timing of TMA in pregnancy or postpartum, coexisting symptoms, first-line laboratory workup, and probability-based assessment of possible causes of pregnancy-associated TMA. Its aims are: to rule thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) in or out, with urgency, using ADAMTS13 activity testing; to consider alternative disorders with features of TMA (preeclampsia/eclampsia; hemolysis elevated liver enzymes low platelets syndrome; antiphospholipid syndrome); or, ultimately, to diagnose complement-mediated atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (aHUS; a diagnosis of exclusion). Although they are rare, diagnosing TTP and aHUS associated with pregnancy, and postpartum, is paramount as both require urgent specific treatment.

5.
Kidney Int ; 98(5): 1135-1148, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32622830

RESUMO

In recent years, a substantial body of experimental and clinical work has been devoted to C3 glomerulopathy and Ig-mediated membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis. Despite the rapid accumulation of data, several uncertainties about these 2 rare forms of nephropathies persist. They concern their pathophysiology, classification, clinical course, relevance of biomarkers and of pathology findings, and assessment of the efficacy of the available therapies. The present review discusses the impact of these uncertainties on the clinical management of patients.

6.
Kidney Int Rep ; 5(6): 813-820, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32518863

RESUMO

Introduction: IgA nephropathy (IgAN) can be associated with spondyloarthritis (SpA). The course of SpA-associated IgAN remains largely unknown due to the absence of large cohorts. Methods: This retrospective study included patients with biopsy-proven IgAN and definite SpA. Kidney biopsies were centrally examined and scored according to the IgAN Oxford Classification. Thirty-two patients fulfilled the inclusion criteria, with a male:female ratio of 9:1 and median age of 27 and 37 years at SpA and IgAN diagnosis, respectively. HLA-B27 was positive in 90% of cases, and most patients (60%) presented with ankylosing spondylitis. The mean baseline estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was 84 ± 26 ml/min per 1.73 m2, and the urine protein-to-creatinine ratio was 0.19 g/mmol. Results: Renal biopsy revealed frequent presence of crescents (33%) and interstitial inflammation (18%). Despite almost constant use of renin-angiotensin system inhibitors, combined with steroids in 13 of 32 patients, renal outcome was particularly poor. After a median follow-up of 5.9 years, 4 patients (12.5%) reached end-stage renal disease and 41% of patients experienced a >50% decrease of eGFR. The mean annual eGFR decline rate was -4.3 ± 6.7 ml/min per 1.73 m2. The risk of reaching class IV or V chronic kidney disease (CKD) stage during follow-up was associated with the presence of hypertension, level of proteinuria, and baseline S- and T-scores of the Oxford. Conclusion: SpA-associated IgAN is associated with a poor renal outcome, despite frequent use of steroids. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α blockade did not appear to influence the rate of eGFR decline in this setting.

9.
Kidney Int ; 98(1): 232, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32437769

Assuntos
Coronavirus , Rim
10.
Kidney Dis (Basel) ; 6(2): 98-108, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32309292

RESUMO

Introduction: Classical pauci-immune necrotizing crescentic glomerulonephritis (CGN) associated with antineutrophil cytoplasmic autoantibodies (ANCA) is characterized by the absence of renal immunoglobulin (Ig) deposits. However, IgG deposits can sometimes be present. We wanted to assess whether necrotizing CGN with IgG deposits is associated with a more severe presentation and outcome than necrotizing CGN without IgG deposits. Methods: Between November 2008 and August 2013, we retrospectively identified 158 patients from four centers who had necrotizing CGN due to primary ANCA-associated systemic vasculitis. Glomerular IgG deposits were found in 18 (11%) patients (group 1). For each patient in group 1, we selected 2 patients with classical pauci-immune necrotizing CGN with the nearest date of diagnosis in the same center (group 2, n = 36). We assessed clinical, biological, and pathological characteristics in both groups. Results: Baseline characteristics were similar in both groups, and most patients had ANCA-associated vasculitis with antibodies to myeloperoxidase (74%). Deposits displayed moderate to strong staining in 9 patients. As compared with group 2, group 1 exhibited a higher frequency of interstitial fibrosis/tubular atrophy lesions (p = 0.024) and lower frequency of acute tubular necrosis (p = 0.046). Nevertheless, after a mean follow-up of 30 and 26 months for group 1 and group 2, respectively, IgG deposits did not affect the renal prognosis or probability of relapse. Finally, the groups did not differ in renal or patient survival. Conclusions: IgG deposits, detected in 11% of patients with ANCA-associated necrotizing CGN, did not affect renal or patient outcomes.

11.
Rev Med Suisse ; 16(683): 387-388, 2020 Feb 26.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32129013
12.
Rev Med Suisse ; 16(683): 412-416, 2020 Feb 26.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32129019

RESUMO

Over the last decades, an increasing number of cases of chronic and end-stage kidney disease has been observed in Central America and Asia. This kidney disease mainly affects young farmers without classic renal risk factors. The clinical presentation includes a progressive decrease of the glomerular filtration rate, minimal proteinuria and the presence of tubulo-interstitial nephritis at renal biopsy. A close link with global warming is suspected for this disease, called (according to its location) meso-american nephropathy, Sri Lanka nephropathy or chronic kidney disease of unknown etiology. Others have suggested that intake of water contaminated with pesticides may be responsible. This article provides an overview of this new kidney disease. Measures to prevent acute kidney injury during heat waves in Switzerland are also discussed.


Assuntos
Aquecimento Global , Nefropatias/epidemiologia , Nefropatias/etiologia , Rim/patologia , Rim/fisiopatologia , América Central/epidemiologia , Humanos , Nefropatias/prevenção & controle , Falência Renal Crônica/epidemiologia , Falência Renal Crônica/etiologia , Falência Renal Crônica/prevenção & controle , Sri Lanka/epidemiologia , Suíça/epidemiologia
17.
J Am Soc Nephrol ; 30(12): 2449-2463, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31575699

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) is associated with high recurrence rates after kidney transplant, with devastating outcomes. In late 2011, experts in France recommended the use of highly individualized complement blockade-based prophylaxis with eculizumab to prevent post-transplant atypical HUS recurrence throughout the country. METHODS: To evaluate this strategy's effect on kidney transplant prognosis, we conducted a retrospective multicenter study from a large French nationwide registry, enrolling all adult patients with atypical HUS who had undergone complement analysis and a kidney transplant since January 1, 2007. To assess how atypical HUS epidemiology in France in the eculizumab era evolved, we undertook a population-based cohort study that included all adult patients with atypical HUS (n=397) between 2007 and 2016. RESULTS: The first study included 126 kidney transplants performed in 116 patients, 58.7% and 34.1% of which were considered to be at a high and moderate risk of atypical HUS recurrence, respectively. Eculizumab prophylaxis was used in 52 kidney transplants, including 39 at high risk of recurrence. Atypical HUS recurred after 43 (34.1%) of the transplants; in four cases, patients had received eculizumab prophylaxis and in 39 cases they did not. Use of prophylactic eculizumab was independently associated with a significantly reduced risk of recurrence and with significantly longer graft survival. In the second, population-based cohort study, the proportion of transplant recipients among patients with ESKD and atypical HUS sharply increased between 2012 and 2016, from 46.2% to 72.3%, and showed a close correlation with increasing eculizumab use among the transplant recipients. CONCLUSIONS: Results from this observational study are consistent with benefit from eculizumab prophylaxis based on pretransplant risk stratification and support the need for a rigorous randomized trial.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , Síndrome Hemolítico-Urêmica Atípica/tratamento farmacológico , Inativadores do Complemento/uso terapêutico , Transplante de Rim , Adulto , Síndrome Hemolítico-Urêmica Atípica/epidemiologia , Síndrome Hemolítico-Urêmica Atípica/genética , Síndrome Hemolítico-Urêmica Atípica/cirurgia , Proteínas Inativadoras do Complemento C3b/genética , Proteínas do Sistema Complemento/análise , Feminino , França , Sobrevivência de Enxerto/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Proteínas Mutantes Quiméricas/genética , Cuidados Pré-Operatórios , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Recidiva , Sistema de Registros , Estudos Retrospectivos , Prevenção Secundária
18.
Kidney Int ; 96(2): 517-518, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31331469
19.
Kidney Int ; 95(6): 1443-1452, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30982675

RESUMO

Secondary hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) is a heterogeneous group of thrombotic microangiopathies associated with various underlying conditions. Whether it belongs to the spectrum of complement-mediated HUS remains controversial. We analysed the presentation, outcome, and frequency of complement gene rare variants in a cohort of 110 patients with secondary HUS attributed to drugs (29%), autoimmune diseases (24%), infections (17%), malignancies (10%), glomerulopathies (9%), extra-renal organ transplantation (8%), and pancreatitis (3%). The frequency of complement gene rare variants was similar in patients with secondary HUS (5%) and in healthy individuals (6% and 8% in French and European controls, respectively). At diagnosis, 40% of patients required dialysis and 18% had neurological manifestations. Fifty percent of patients received plasmatherapy and 35% were treated with eculizumab. Haematological and complete renal remission was achieved in 80% and 24% of patients, respectively. Thirty-nine percent of patients progressed to chronic kidney disease (stages 3-4) and an additional 37% reached end-stage renal disease. Eleven percent of patients died, most often from complications of the underlying cause of HUS. Only one patient experienced an HUS relapse. Patients treated with eculizumab presented with more severe HUS and were more likely to require dialysis at the time of diagnosis as compared to patients not treated with eculizumab. Rates of hematological remission, chronic kidney disease (stages 3-4), and end-stage renal disease were similar in the two groups. Secondary HUS is an acute nonrelapsing form of HUS, not related to complement dysregulation. The efficacy of eculizumab in this setting is not yet established.


Assuntos
Síndrome Hemolítico-Urêmica Atípica/genética , Proteínas do Sistema Complemento/genética , Síndrome Hemolítico-Urêmica/etiologia , Falência Renal Crônica/epidemiologia , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , Síndrome Hemolítico-Urêmica Atípica/mortalidade , Síndrome Hemolítico-Urêmica Atípica/patologia , Síndrome Hemolítico-Urêmica Atípica/terapia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Ativação do Complemento/genética , Inativadores do Complemento/uso terapêutico , Proteínas do Sistema Complemento/imunologia , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , França/epidemiologia , Síndrome Hemolítico-Urêmica/mortalidade , Síndrome Hemolítico-Urêmica/patologia , Síndrome Hemolítico-Urêmica/terapia , Humanos , Rim/imunologia , Rim/patologia , Falência Renal Crônica/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Plasmaferese/estatística & dados numéricos , Sistema de Registros/estatística & dados numéricos , Diálise Renal/estatística & dados numéricos , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/patologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
20.
Clin Kidney J ; 12(2): 196-205, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30976396

RESUMO

Background: Eculizumab, a terminal complement inhibitor, is approved for atypical haemolytic uraemic syndrome (aHUS) to inhibit complement-mediated thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA). Methods: In five parent studies, eculizumab effectively prevented TMA and improved renal and haematologic outcomes in patients with aHUS; therefore, these patients could enrol in this long-term, prospective, observational and multicentre study. The primary endpoint was the TMA manifestation rate off and on eculizumab post-parent study. Post hoc analyses evaluated rates during labelled versus non-labelled dosing regimens, and in those with versus without identified complement abnormalities. Serious targeted treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs) were evaluated. Results: Of 87 patients in the current study, 39 and 76 had off- and on-treatment periods, respectively; 17 (44%) with off periods reinitiated eculizumab. TMA manifestation rate per 100 patient-years was 19.9 off and 7.3 on treatment [hazard ratio (HR), 4.7; P = 0.0008]; rates were highest off treatment and lowest during labelled regimens. TMA manifestations with hospitalizations/serious AEs occurred more frequently off versus on treatment. TMA rates were higher among patients with identified complement abnormalities (HR, 4.5; P = 0.0082). Serious targeted TEAEs occurred at similar rates off and on treatment. Conclusions: As expected, patients with aHUS have increased risk of TMA manifestations after discontinuation of eculizumab or in the setting of non-labelled eculizumab dosing. Collectively, results show that maintaining eculizumab treatment minimizes risk of TMA, particularly in patients with identified complement abnormalities. Future studies are needed to further characterize TMA and longer term outcomes on labelled or non-labelled eculizumab regimens and after discontinuation of treatment.

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