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2.
Food Res Int ; 128: 108775, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31955745

RESUMO

Brucellosis is known as an influential zoonosis in different regions worldwide, with significant effects on the reproductive performance of livestock. Considering the high incidence of brucellosis in dairy products and further negative impacts on food safety, the present study was aimed to systematically investigate prevalence worldwide among published data regarding the identification of Brucella spp. in dairy products. In this regard, some databases, i.e., Scopus, PubMed, Embase, and Web of Science have been searched to retrieve all related articles regarding the incidence of Brucella contaminations in dairy products from 1 January 1983 to 1 April 2019. The prevalence of Brucella spp. in unpasteurized dairy products based on countries, WHO regions, and dairy product subgroups were evaluated and statistically compared. Based on the findings, the prevalence of Brucella spp. in dairy products increased while the GDP (C = 0.17, P-value < 0.001) and HDI (C = 0.19, P-value < 0.001) ranking decreased. Also, the highest prevalence of Brucella contamination in dairy products was noted in buffalo (25.91%) and goat (17.90%), respectively. The lowest and highest prevalence of Brucella spp. were observed in the Western Pacific (15.32%) and the Southeast Asia region (25.55%), respectively. Also, the rank order of WHO regions based on odds ratio (OR) was Southeast Asia region (2.84) > Eastern Mediterranean (2.41) > Region of America (1.65) > European Region (1.54) > Africa region (1.46) > Western Pacific (reference). The results of this study showed that decreasing poverty and an increase in the level of education in societies could reduce the prevalence of Brucella spp. in dairy products. The outcome of the current investigation can be used for the implementation of sustainable intervention and prevention strategies in affected regions.

3.
Microb Pathog ; 139: 103858, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31712119

RESUMO

Brucella spp. are Gram-negative coccobacilli that may grow in different media and environmental conditions for extended periods of time. The survivals of these bacteria in the environment have an important impact on the epidemiology of brucellosis worldwide. The effect of climate on the incidence of certain zoonotic infectious diseases, (recently referred to as climate-sensitive zoonosis) is now well established. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relation between the incidence of brucellosis and climatic parameters in Iran, an important endemic region for brucellosis with diverse climate. The information on the incidence of human brucellosis in different Iranian provinces for 2016 has been provided by the Ministry of Health and Medical Education, Iran. Annual meteorological data collected between 2015 and 2016 were obtained from the Iranian Meteorological organization (IMO). A regression analysis of the incidence of brucellosis was performed via STATA 14.0 and the heterogeneity among observations was determined via Cochrane's Q-test and I2 statistic. If I2 index was higher than 50%, heterogeneity was considered as considerable. The results of regression analyses revealed a negative significant association between mean ambient air temperature and brucellosis incidence (C = - 0.022, P value = 0.004). Likewise, a positive significant association was found between number of frosty days and brucellosis incidence (C = 0.002, p value = 0.003). Other metrological parameters showed no significant effect on the human brucellosis incidence. Although our results suggest a high degree of temperature sensitivity in regards to the brucellosis incidence in Iran, this study opens up prospects for further investigations regarding environmental conditions and climatic changes influencing the spatial distributions and seasonal/annual cycle of this zoonotic pathogen worldwide.

4.
Acta Trop ; 202: 105241, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31669529

RESUMO

Brucellosis, known as Malta fever or Mediterranean fever, is one of the most common bacterial zoonotic diseases caused by Brucella spp. which can result in serious health issues. The objective of the present study was to systematically review and summarize the studies regarding the prevalence of Brucella spp. in milk and milk products in the Middle East region. Some international databases (PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus, Science Direct, and Google Scholar) were searched to retrieve relevant reports published between 1 January 2008 and 30th October 2018. After assessing for eligibility, 30 articles containing 9281 samples, were included in the current study. The highest number of publications were found in Iran and Turkey (n = 12 and 7, respectively), while Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, and Syria had the lowest number of publications (n = 1). Besides, the highest and lowest prevalence was observed in Kuwait (62%) and Egypt (15%), respectively. The highest and lowest overall prevalence of Brucella spp. in milk was found in raw cow milk 36% (95%CI: 28-54%) and raw buffalo milk 13% (95%CI: -22-48%), respectively. The overall prevalence in cheese estimated to be 9% (95%CI: -16-35%). The overall prevalence of Brucella spp. in dairy products in the Middle East was estimated to be 29% (95%CI: 23-35%). The results indicate that more risk management plans are needed to reduce the incidence of Brucella spp. in dairy products in the Middle East, especially in cow milk.

5.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 13(12): e0007809, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31856156

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Human toxocariasis is an important neglected disease. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis study to estimate the global and regional prevalence of anti-Toxocara serum antibodies (referred to as 'T-seroprevalence') in human populations around the world. METHODS: We searched five international databases (PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, SciELO and Scopus) for seroprevalence studies published from 1 January 1980 to 15 March 2019. We used random effect models to calculate the overall T-seroprevalence (with 95% CIs) in all six WHO regions and worldwide. We also conducted subgroup and linear meta-regression analyses to evaluate the impact of socio-demographic, geographical and climatic parameters on seroprevalence. RESULTS: We identified 250 eligible studies (253 datasets) comprising 265,327 participants in 71 countries for inclusion in the present meta-analysis. The estimated global T-seroprevalence rate was 19.0% (95%CI, 16.6-21.4%; 62,927/265,327); seroprevalence was highest in the African region (37.7%; 25.7-50.6%) and lowest in the Eastern Mediterranean region (8.2%; 5.1-12.0%). The pooled seroprevalence for other WHO regions was 34.1% (20.2-49.4%) in the South-East Asia; 24.2% (16.0-33.5%) in the Western Pacific; 22.8% (19.7-26.0%) in the American; and 10.5% (8.5-12.8%) in the European regions. A significantly higher T-seroprevalence was associated with a lower income level; lower human development index (HDI); lower latitude; higher humidity; higher temperature; and higher precipitation (P-value < 0.001). Potential risk factors associated with seropositivity to Toxocara included male gender; living in a rural area; young age; close contact with dogs, cats or soil; consumption of raw meat; and the drinking of untreated water. CONCLUSIONS: The present findings indicate high levels of infection with, or exposure to Toxocara spp. in many countries, which calls for increased attention to human toxocariasis and improved measures to prevent adverse health risks of this disease.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Anti-Helmínticos/sangue , Toxocara/imunologia , Toxocaríase/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Animais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Saúde Global , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Adulto Jovem
6.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 13(10): e0007807, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31609966

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Acute Toxoplasma infection (ATI) during pregnancy, if left untreated, can cause severe adverse outcomes for the fetus and newborn. Here, we undertook a meta-analysis to estimate the worldwide prevalence of ATI in pregnant women. METHODS: We searched international databases for studies published between January 1988 and November 2018. We included population-based cross-sectional and prospective cohort studies that reported the prevalence of ATI in pregnant women. Data were synthesized using a random effect model to calculate the overall prevalence of ATI (with a 95% CI) in six WHO regions and globally. We also performed linear meta-regression analyses to investigate associations of maternal, socio-demographic, geographical and climate parameters with the prevalence of ATI. RESULTS: In total, 217 studies comprising 902,228 pregnant women across 74 countries were included in the meta-analysis. The overall prevalence of ATI in pregnant women globally was 1.1% (95% CI: 0.9-1.2%). In studies where more strict criteria for ATI were used, the overall prevalence was 0.6% (95% CI: 0.4-0.7%). The prevalence was highest in the Eastern Mediterranean region (2.5%; 95%CI: 1.7-3.4%) and lowest in the European region (0.5%; 95% CI: 0.4-0.7%). A significantly higher prevalence of ATI was found in countries with lower income levels (P = 0.027), lower human development indices (P = 0.04), higher temperatures (P = 0.02) and lower latitudes (P = 0.005) and longitudes (P = 0.02). CONCLUSIONS: The risk of acquiring ATI during gestation is clinically important and preventive measures to avoid exposure of pregnant women to Toxoplasma infection should be strictly applied.


Assuntos
Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Toxoplasmose/epidemiologia , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/sangue , Bases de Dados Factuais , Feminino , Humanos , Prevalência , Toxoplasma/imunologia
7.
Arch Pediatr ; 26(6): 347-351, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31521442

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Anemia in infants is a common problem, with regular iron supplementation the suggested policy for prevention and control of anemia. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and the determining factors of anemia as well as the benefits of regular iron supplementation in 6- to 12-month-old children. DESIGN/SETTING/SUBJECTS: In this cross-sectional study, 897 children aged from 6 to 12 months cared for at the Tabas Health Centers, affiliated with Birjand University of Medical Sciences, South Khorasan, Iran, were enrolled in the study. Demographic and anthropometric data as well as the level of hemoglobin were collected through interviews and laboratory tests, respectively. Data analysis was performed using SPSS-22 and stata-13. Chi2, polychromic PCA, and logistic regression were used. The statistical significance level was 0.05. RESULT: The prevalence of anemia, according to the WHO criterion for hemoglobin, was 36.8% (95% CI, 33.6-40.0). Its prevalence showed a decreasing trend as age and duration of iron supplement increased. Each 1-month increase in infant age was associated with a decreased risk of anemia [OR=0.88 (95% CI, 0.80-0.98)]. Anemia was not significantly different between genders. Individuals in the highest category for parity (≥3) were at a 2.3-fold greater risk of anemia compared with the lowest category [OR=2.35 (95% CI, 1.43-3.84)]. In contrast, individuals in the highest category for maternal age (>35 years) had a 62% lower risk of anemia compared with the reference category (<25 years) [OR=0.38 (95% CI, 0.20-0.72)]. CONCLUSION: Implementation of an iron supplementation plan in Iran has decreased anemia among 6- to 12-month-old children.

8.
Food Res Int ; 125: 108518, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31554079

RESUMO

Nowadays, vegetable irrigation with wastewater in developing countries has become a serious issue. In this regard, the current investigation was performed to collect the related data regarding the concentration of potentially toxic elements (PTEs) including Fe, Zn, Cu, Cr, Pb, Ni, and Cd in onion and tomato samples irrigated with wastewater by the aid of a systematic review among the Scopus, Medline and Embase databases between 1/January/1983 to 31/January/2019. Also, the health risk assessment for consumers due to PTEs ingestion via the consumption of onion and tomato was estimated by using target hazard quotient (THQ). In this context, 35 articles with 64 studies out of 779 retrieved citations were included in the meta-analysis. The ranking of different parts of tomato based on Pb, Cd, and Cu concentration was shoot > root > leave > edible part; Fe, leave > shoot > root > edible part; Cr, root > leave > shoot > edible part; Zn, shoot > leave > root > edible part; and Ni, leave > edible part > root > shoot. Moreover, the ratio concentration of Pb, Cd, Cu, Fe, Cr, Zn and Ni in the edible part to leave of onion was 2.92, 6.01, 1.29, 4.17, 0.84, and 3.55, 10.10, respectively. According to findings, the rank order of PTEs in the onion was Fe (43.09 mg/kg-dry weight) > Zn (34.3 mg/ kg-dry weight) > Pb (18.54 mg/ kg-dry weight) > Cu (14.9 mg/ kg-dry weight) > Ni (11.92 mg/ kg-dry weight) > Cr (7.24 mg/ kg-dry weight) > Cd (0.23 mg/ kg-dry weight) and tomato; Fe (139.12 mg/ kg-dry weight) > Zn (29.81 mg/ kg-dry weight) > Cu (25.04 mg/ kg-dry weight) > Cr (14.28 mg/ kg-dry weight) > Pb (9.58 mg/ kg-dry weight) > Ni (9.23 mg/ kg-dry weight) > Cd (4.64 mg/kg-dry weight). However, the concentration of PTEs investigated in the edible part of onion was higher than leaves; their concentrations in the edible part of the tomato were lower than other parts. The health risk assessment indicated that consumers groups are at significant non-carcinogenic risk due to the ingestion of PTEs via consumption of the onion and tomato vegetable wastewater irrigated (THQ > 1). Therefore, the irrigation of vegetables with wastewater should be monitored and controlled by some prevention plans.

9.
MethodsX ; 6: 1581-1590, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31321212

RESUMO

There is well-documented relationship between industrial development and environmental pollution, but there are no enough studies that have predicted development impacts on pollutants emission. In the current study, impacts of three development periods of Bojnourd cement factory on pollutants emission (CO, SO2, NOx, and PM10) were investigated using the AUSTAL 2000 model. The collected emission data during 19 years were classified for each period and analyzed via the model, separately. Two sets of monitoring point (each contains 5 points) determined at the model; first set for estimation of pollutants concentration in residential areas (three villages, one suburban, and one city), and the second set for model validity assessment which located near the factory. •According to model results, the second development period had the highest emission load per unit area for PM10 and SO2 by 164% and 262%, respectively. However, by applying the bag filter at the beginning of the third period, SO2 and PM10 concentrations were reduced significantly to the same as the first period.•Unlike the two previous pollutants, emissions load of NOx and CO per unit area were increased in both the second period (167% and 154%, respectively) and third period (182% and 337%, respectively). Moreover, the model showed a good agreement compared with the field measured data that it could be usable to predict pollutants emission.•The findings of this paper prove the predicting importance of the emissions prior to construction or any stages of industries upgrading and development. In other words, it emphasizes environmental protection during economic boost to maintain harmony between nature and sustainable development. Also, the model showed how the use of pollution control equipment (bag filter) during development can be effective to reduce the pollutants emission.

10.
Fungal Biol ; 123(8): 611-617, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31345415

RESUMO

The current investigation was aimed to estimate the prevalence and concentration of ochratoxin A (OTA) in different types of coffee and coffee-based products with the aid of a systematic review and meta-analysis. Therefore, the recommended databases including PubMed, Scopus, and Embase from Jan 1983 to Oct 2018 were screened to retrieve the related citations. In this regard, among 1041 explored articles in the identification step, thirty six articles with 3182 samples were included in the meta-analysis and meta-regression. According to findings, the global pooled concentration and prevalence of OTA was calculated as 3.21 µg/kg (95% CI: 3.08-3.34 µg/kg) and 53.0 % (95% CI: 43.0-62.0), respectively. Also, direct correlations between the increases in poverty as well as the amount of annual precipitation and prevalence of OTA was noted, while with decreasing in HDI the prevalence of OTA in coffee significantly was increased. Moreover, the lowest and highest concentrations of OTA in coffee were observed in Taiwan (0.35 µg/kg) and Turkey (79.0 µg/kg), respectively. The outcome of this meta-analysis can be used for the building of risk assessment models aiming to derive data for the development of specific actions to reduce the exposure to this mycotoxin in coffee and coffee-based products.


Assuntos
Coffea/química , Café/química , Contaminação de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Ocratoxinas/análise , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Sementes/química
11.
Vet Parasitol ; 269: 42-52, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31079827

RESUMO

Toxoplasmosis, caused by the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii, is an important disease with worldwide distribution. Infection can occur from ingesting raw or undercooked infected meat, and among food animal species, pork is known to be one of the main sources of meat-borne infection. Here, we present results of the first systematic review and meta-analysis on the global T. gondii seroprevalence in pigs. PubMed/MEDLINE, Scopus, and EMBASE databases were comprehensively searched for relevant studies published between January 1, 1990 and October 25, 2018. We used a random effects model to calculate pooled seroprevalence estimates with 95% confidence intervals (CI) and analyzed data from five continents. We also conducted subgroup and meta-regression analyses to evaluate the effects of geographical and climate variables on pooled seroprevalence rates. Among 1542 publications identified, 148 studies containing 150 datasets were included in the meta-analysis, and comprised 148,092 pigs from 47 countries. The pooled global T. gondii seroprevalence in pigs was estimated to be 19% (95%CI, 17-22%; 23,696/148,092), with the lowest seroprevalence in Europe (13%; 10-15%) and highest seroprevalence in Africa (25%; 17-34%) and North America (25%; 19-33%). The seropositivity rates in Asia and South America regions were (21%, 16-26%) and (23%; 17-30%), respectively. A significantly higher T. gondii seroprevalence was associated with higher mean annual temperature and lower geographical latitude. The presence of cats on farms was identified as a potential risk factor for T. gondii seropositivity (OR, 1.41; 95%CI, 1.00-2.02). Our findings highlight the importance of pigs as a possible source of human T. gondii infections.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/sangue , Carne Vermelha/parasitologia , Doenças dos Suínos/epidemiologia , Toxoplasma/imunologia , Toxoplasmose Animal/epidemiologia , Toxoplasmose/epidemiologia , África/epidemiologia , Animais , Ásia/epidemiologia , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Saúde Global , Humanos , América do Norte/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , América do Sul/epidemiologia , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/parasitologia , Temperatura Ambiente , Toxoplasmose/parasitologia , Toxoplasmose Animal/parasitologia , Zoonoses
12.
Food Chem ; 294: 587-596, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31126504

RESUMO

This study was aimed to evaluate the fate of D3G, 3-ADON, and 15-ADON during various processing steps (milling, fermentation, baking and cooking with water) of different cereal-based products, as well as the co-occurrence of culmorin (CUL) and its derivatives (15-Hydroxy-CUL and 5-Hydroxy-CUL. Some databases such as Science Direct, PubMed, Scopus, and Embase were screened to collect the relevant published papers between January 1983 to October 2018, and 23 articles with 319 data were included. The baking resulted in reductions in the concentration of all types of investigated masked mycotoxins, i.e., 15-ADON (-25%) > 3-ADON (-15%) > D3G (-6%). Also, rank order of CUL and its derivatives based on occurrence was CUL (70%) > 15-Hydroxy-CUL (47%) > 5-Hydroxy-CUL (15%) and their rank based on their concentration was 5-Hydroxy-CUL (99.21 µg/kg) > CUL (48.84 µg/kg) > 15-Hydroxy-CUL (9.39 µg/kg) > Hydroxy -CUL (0.06 µg/kg) > 12-Hydroxy-CUL (0.05 µg/kg) > 14-Hydroxy-CUL (0.01 µg/kg).


Assuntos
Grão Comestível/química , Sesquiterpenos/química , Tricotecenos/química , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Culinária , Bases de Dados Factuais , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Glucosídeos/química , Micotoxinas/química
13.
MethodsX ; 6: 690-703, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31008063

RESUMO

In the previous studies regarding the effects of exposure to ambient air pollution on biological markers and/or behavior of animals, the gaseous pollutants are not separated from the particulate matter (PM). Hence the synergetic effect of gaseous pollutants and PM was not considered. In this regard, current study was aimed to devolve a new method for separation of PM from gaseous pollutants. Also, the effect of exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) on the Alzheimer and depressive cognitive-like behaviors in rats after 3 and 6 months were investigated. Three chambers were designed including exposure group 1 (PM2.5 plus gaseous pollutants alone), exposure group 2 (gaseous pollutants alone) and control group (clean air). Exposure time was 5 h per day (9.00 a.m.-2.00 p.m.) for 4 days per week. The concentration of PM2.5 and gaseous pollutants (O3, NO2, and SO2) were monitored in the exposure hours, continuously. Concentration of PM2.5 by beta attenuation method and concentration of O3, NO2, and SO2 by UV fluorescence was monitored. Also, the concentration of metals including Al, Cr, Mn, Pb, Cd, Ni, Fe, and Cu and 16-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) bound PM2.5 by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) were analyzed, respectively. Cognitive-like behavior related to Alzheimer and depressive behaviors were determined by Y maze and Force swimming. The concentration of PM2.5 in the 3 and 6 months exposure was higher than WHO guideline, significantly (p-value <0.05). The concentration of O3, NO2 and SO2 in the 3 and 6 months exposure was lower than WHO guideline, significantly (p-value <0.05). The order of metals in the PM2.5 according to mean concentration Al > Ca > Cu > Cd > Na > Fe > Cr > Ni > Mn > Pb. Also, the sum concentration of 16-PAHs in the PM2.5 in the 3 and 6 months exposure was 45.7 ± 37.15 ng/m3 and 30.04 ± 25.27 ng/m3, respectively. Exposure to PM2.5 cannot significantly increase Alzheimer and depressive cognitive-like behaviors in the rats. Also, a significant difference between male and female in Alzheimer and depressive cognitive-like behaviors not observed. •A new method for separation of PM2.5 from other PM in the ambient air by ECO-PM sampler was presented.•A new method for separation of PM2.5 from gaseous pollutants in the ambient air by HEPA filter and active carbon was presented.•Tow exposure groups including exposure 1: PM2.5 plus gaseous pollutants and exposure 2: gaseous pollutants only were designed for increased accuracy of the in-vivo study.•Exposure to PM2.5 cannot cause significant increased Alzheimer and depressive cognitive-like behaviors in the rats.

14.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 132: 360-373, 2019 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30940592

RESUMO

N, S-doped TiO2 (NST), N, S-doped ZnO (NSZ) and their composite with chitosan (NST/CS, NSZ/CS) were synthesized by sol gel-hydrothermal method. The prepared samples were characterized using XRD, FTIR, TEM and BET techniques. These photocatalysts were used for the photocatalytic degradation of tetracycline under visible light irradiation. At screening test, NST/CS had the highest tetracycline degradation efficiency of 91% for duration of 20 min under visible light. The blending of chitosan with NST increases the rate of photocatalytic degradation of tetracycline about 2 times. A detail characterization including HRTEM, SEM, EDS and DRS were conducted for NST/CS, the most active photocatalyst in this study. Photocatalytic activity test was conducted by varying tetracycline concentration, irradiation time, catalyst's concentration and pH using response surface methodology to find out the optimum condition for photocatalytic activity. The reusability of as-synthesized NST/CS was assessed which due to its high recoverability can be applied as an effective catalyst for degradation of organic substances in water and wastewater especially for degradation of emerging pollutants such pharmaceutical pollutants. The results from this work show a promising material for local authorities and pharmaceutical facilities to use for the treatment of pharmaceutical pollutants and tetracycline removal in water resource.


Assuntos
Quitosana/química , Nitrogênio/química , Fotólise , Enxofre/química , Tetraciclina/química , Titânio/química , Óxido de Zinco/química , Catálise , Luz , Nanocompostos/química , Águas Residuárias/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/química
15.
J Food Prot ; 82(5): 785-795, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30995144

RESUMO

This meta-analysis was designed to review the published reports regarding the concentration and/or prevalence of aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) in human breast milk in Iran. The carcinogenic risk for Iranian infants consuming this milk was estimated with the hazard index. The PubMed and Scopus databases and the Scientific Information Database were screened for relevant studies between 1995 and 2017, and 11 of the 112 collected studies were included in the systematic review and meta-analysis. The mean (95% confidence interval) concentration of AFM1 was 5.85 ng/L (4.54 to 7.15 ng/L), which was lower than the European Union standard (25 ng/L). The mean prevalence of AFM1 in breast milk in Iran was 42% (11 to 77%). The estimated daily intakes for male and female infants were 0.02 to 5.57 ng/kg and 0.02 to 3.68 ng/kg of body weight per day, respectively. The rank order of estimated daily intake for both male and female infants according to age was 1 week > 1 month > 6 months > 12 months. The hazard index for all age groups of infants in all provinces in Iran was less than 1. Therefore, infants in Iran were not considered at carcinogenic risk from AFM1 in human breast milk.

16.
MethodsX ; 6: 278-283, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30815366

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to evaluate corrosion and scaling potential of drinking water resources Iranshahr in order to considering necessary solutions to solve possible problems including internal corrosion of pipes, deterioration of water quality and reduce of water transfer capacity of distribution network system. The data showed that Langelier index ranged between -1.53 to -0.96, Ryznar index between 9.63-10.54, Aggressive index between 12.04 and 12.91, and Puckorius index between 9.05-10.68 for drinking water resources Iranshahr. Studied indices indicated that the drinking water in Iranshahr can be considered as corrosive.

17.
Biol Trace Elem Res ; 188(2): 261-273, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29943372

RESUMO

A systematic review, meta-analysis, and non-carcinogenic risk considering fluoride content of drinking water resources of 31 provinces of Iran among some international databases such as Science Direct, Scopus, PubMed, and national databases including SID and Irandoc (2011 to July 2017) were conducted. In this context, 10 articles (40 studies) with 1706 samples were included in meta-analyses and risk assessment studies. The pooled concentration of fluoride in the cold, mild, and warm weather provinces were calculated as 0.39 mg/L (95% CI 0.32-0.48 mg/L), 0.52 (95% CI 0.43-0.61 mg/L), and 0.75 (95% CI 0.56-0.94 mg/L), respectively. The pooled concentration of fluoride in Iranian drinking water resources was 0.51 (95% CI 0.45-0.57 mg/L). The minimum and maximum concentrations of fluoride content were related to Kermanshah (0.19 mg/L) and Kerman (1.13 mg/L) provinces, respectively. The HQ of fluoride in the children and adults were 0.462 and 0.077, respectively as children are more vulnerable than adults. The HQ for children and adults was lower than 1 value. Therefore, there is no considerable non-carcinogenic risk for consumers due to drinking water in Iran. Although the non-carcinogenic of fluoride in drinking water was not significant, fluoride entry from other sources, such as food or inhalation, could endanger the health of the residents of Kerman and Bushehr provinces.


Assuntos
Água Potável/química , Água Potável/normas , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Fluoretos/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Adulto , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico) , Medição de Risco , Tempo (Meteorologia)
18.
Environ Geochem Health ; 41(3): 1473-1487, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30552597

RESUMO

The exposure to heavy metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) bound to particulate matter 2.5 (PM2.5) ambient air can result in some adverse health effect. In the current study, PM2.5 ambient air of Tehran metropolitan, Iran, was characterized by the aid of scanning electron microscope and energy-dispersive X-ray techniques. Also, the human health risk of heavy metals and PAHs bound PM2.5 for adults and children was assessed using the Monte Carlo simulation method. According to our findings, a size range of 0.97-2.46 µm with an average diameter of 1.56 µm for PM2.5 was noted. The average concentration of PM2.5 in ambient air (8.29E+04 ± 2.94E+04 ng m-3) significantly (p < 0.05) was suppressed the national (2.50E+04 ng m-3), World Health Organization (2.50E+04 ng m-3) and Environmental Protection Agency (3.50E+04 ng m-3) standard limits. The rank order of heavy metals bound PM2.5 was determined as Al > Cu > Cd > Cr > Pb > Ni > Fe > Mn. The maximum concentration among 16 PAHs compounds investigated was correlated with Phenanthrene. Considering the principal component analysis, the main source of heavy metals (Ni, Pb and Cr) is vehicle combustion. Moreover, the rank order of exposure pathways based on their health risk was ingestion > inhalation > dermal contact. Moreover, the significant health risks for Tehran residents due to heavy metals bound PM2.5 [target hazard quotient > 1; carcinogenic risk > 1.00E-06)] were noted based on the health risk assessment. Excessive carcinogenic risk (ECR) of PAHs bound PM2.5 was 4.16E-07 that demonstrated that there is no considerable risk (ECR < 1.00E-06).


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Metais Pesados/análise , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , Adulto , Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Carcinógenos/análise , Carcinógenos/toxicidade , Criança , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico) , Modelos Estatísticos , Método de Monte Carlo , Material Particulado/análise , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/toxicidade , Medição de Risco/métodos
19.
Biomed Environ Sci ; 32(11): 839-853, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31910941

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study was conducted to evaluate the concentration of potentially toxic elements (PTEs) such as arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), mercury (Hg), and lead (Pb) in fruit samples collected from Markazi Province, Iran. A probabilistic health risk assessment due to ingestion of PTEs through the consumption of these fruits was also conducted. METHODS: The concentration of PTEs in 90 samples of five types of fruits (n = 3) collected from six geographic regions in Markazi Province was measured. The potential health risk was evaluated using a Monte Carlo simulation model. RESULTS: A significant difference was observed in the concentration of PTEs between fruits as well as soil and water samples collected from different regions in Markazi Province. The order of PTE concentration in the soil and water samples was as follows: Pb > As > Hg > Cd. Furthermore, the highest level of transfer factor for Cd and Hg correlated with the grape. The estimated daily intake for adults and children was lower than the recommended tolerable daily intake. CONCLUSION: The population in Markazi Province, Iran, is not at considerable noncarcinogenic or carcinogenic risk due to the ingestion of PTEs through the consumption of the examined fruits.

20.
Data Brief ; 21: 1890-1894, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30519613

RESUMO

Food contamination by heavy metals can lead to the accumulation of these elements in the body of consumers and the contraction of diseases. Accordingly, heavy metal concentration in common carp fishes consumed in Shiraz, Iran was determined in the present study. The mean concentrations of Pb, Cd, Zn, and Cu were 0.23, 0.07, 0.47, and 0.59 mg/kg (dry weight), respectively. The average concentration of heavy metals in the muscle of common carps consumed in Shiraz was less than the permissible standard of the WHO and FAO. The estimated weekly intake (EWI) of the studied metals was below the provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI). The maximum and minimum relative risk (RR) equaled 48.93 and 0.55% of the total risk for Cd and Zn, respectively.

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