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1.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(17): 9194-9201, 2020 Apr 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32295882

RESUMO

Promotion of C-C bonds is one of the key fundamental questions in the field of CO2 electroreduction. Much progress has occurred in developing bulk-derived Cu-based electrodes for CO2-to-multicarbons (CO2-to-C2+), especially in the widely studied class of high-surface-area "oxide-derived" copper. However, fundamental understanding into the structural characteristics responsible for efficient C-C formation is restricted by the intrinsic activity of these catalysts often being comparable to polycrystalline copper foil. By closely probing a Cu nanoparticle (NP) ensemble catalyst active for CO2-to-C2+, we show that bias-induced rapid fusion or "electrochemical scrambling" of Cu NPs creates disordered structures intrinsically active for low overpotential C2+ formation, exhibiting around sevenfold enhancement in C2+ turnover over crystalline Cu. Integrating ex situ, passivated ex situ, and in situ analyses reveals that the scrambled state exhibits several structural signatures: a distinct transition to single-crystal Cu2O cubes upon air exposure, low crystallinity upon passivation, and high mobility under bias. These findings suggest that disordered copper structures facilitate C-C bond formation from CO2 and that electrochemical nanocrystal scrambling is an avenue toward creating such catalysts.

2.
Environ Sci Technol ; 54(7): 4221-4230, 2020 Apr 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32182043

RESUMO

Selenium (Se) deficiency and toxicity affect over a billion people worldwide. Plants can mitigate both problems, via Se biofortification and phytoremediation. Here we explore the potential of hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) for these phytotechnologies. Field surveys in naturally seleniferous agricultural areas in Colorado, United States, found 15-25 µg of Se/g in seed and 5-10 µg of Se/g dry weight (DW) in flowers and leaves. Thus, 4 g of this hemp seed provides the U.S. recommended daily allowance of 55-75 µg of Se. In controlled greenhouse experiments, hemp seedlings grown in Turface supplied with 40-320 µM selenate showed complete tolerance up to 160 µM and accumulated up to 1300 mg of Se/kg shoot dry weight. Mature hemp grown in Turface supplied with 5-80 µM selenate was completely tolerant up to 40 µM selenate and accumulated up to 200 mg of Se/kg DW in leaves, flowers, and seeds. Synchrotron X-ray fluorescence and X-ray absorption spectroscopies of selenate-supplied hemp showed Se to accumulate mainly in the leaf vasculature and in the seed embryos, with predominant Se speciation in C-Se-C forms (57-75% in leaf and more than 86% in seeds). Aqueous seed extracts were found by liquid chromatography mass spectrometry to contain selenomethionine and methyl-selenocysteine (1:1-3 ratio), both excellent dietary Se sources. Floral concentrations of medicinal cannabidiol (CBD) and terpenoids were not affected by Se. We conclude that hemp has good potential for Se phytoremediation while producing Se-biofortified dietary products.

3.
Nat Nanotechnol ; 2020 Jan 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31988508

RESUMO

It has recently been shown that sulfur, a solid material in its elementary form S8, can stay in a supercooled state as liquid sulfur in an electrochemical cell. We establish that this newly discovered state could have implications for lithium-sulfur batteries. Here, through in situ studies of electrochemical sulfur generation, we show that liquid (supercooled) and solid elementary sulfur possess very different areal capacities over the same charging period. To control the physical state of sulfur, we studied its growth on two-dimensional layered materials. We found that on the basal plane, only liquid sulfur accumulates; by contrast, at the edge sites, liquid sulfur accumulates if the thickness of the two-dimensional material is small, whereas solid sulfur nucleates if the thickness is large (tens of nanometres). Correlating the sulfur states with their respective areal capacities, as well as controlling the growth of sulfur on two-dimensional materials, could provide insights for the design of future lithium-sulfur batteries.

4.
Metallomics ; 12(1): 133-143, 2020 Jan 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31777886

RESUMO

In these studies we identified and compared the properties of plant species that showed positive or negative co-occurrence with selenium (Se) hyperaccumulators in their natural habitat. The main questions addressed were: which species are most abundant directly adjacent to hyperaccumulators, and which are absent? How do Se accumulation and tolerance compare in species found to positively or negatively co-occur with hyperaccumulators? Approaches included field surveys, X-ray microprobe analysis of field samples, and a lab Se tolerance and accumulation study. When 54 hyperaccumulators across two naturally seleniferous sites were surveyed for their five nearest neighboring species, and the relative abundance of these species around hyperaccumulators compared to that in the overall vegetation, some species were identified to positively or negatively co-occur with hyperaccumulators. Several positively co-occurring species showed high Se accumulation capability (up to 900 mg Se per kg dry weight), which may reflect Se tolerance. Leaf X-ray microprobe analysis found relatively more organic forms of Se in two positively co-occurring species than in a negatively co-occurring one. There were elevated soil Se levels around Se hyperaccumulators, and neighbors of Se hyperaccumulators had a higher tissue Se concentration as compared to when the same species grew elsewhere in the area. The elevated soil Se levels around Se hyperaccumulators - likely resulting from litter deposition- may significantly affect the local plant community, facilitating Se-tolerant plant community members but lowering the fitness of Se-sensitive members.

5.
Sci Total Environ ; 703: 135041, 2020 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31767332

RESUMO

Cardamine violifolia (family Brassicaceae) is the first discovered selenium hyperaccumulator from the genus Cardamine with unique properties in terms of selenium accumulation, i.e., high abundance of selenolanthionine. In our study, a fully comprehensive experiment was conducted with the comparison of a non-hyperaccumulator Cardamine species, Cardamine pratensis, covering growth characteristics, chlorophyll fluorescence, spatial selenium/sulfur distribution patterns through elemental analyses (synchrotron-based X-Ray Fluorescence and ICP-OES) and speciation data through selenium K-edge micro X-ray absorption near-edge structure analysis (µXANES) and strong cation exchange (SCX)-ICP-MS. The results revealed remarkable differences in contrast to other selenium hyperaccumulators as neither Cardamine species showed evidence of growth stimulation by selenium. Also, selenite uptake was not inhibited by phosphate for either of the Cardamine species. Sulfate inhibited selenate uptake, but the two Cardamine species did not show any difference in this respect. However, µXRF derived speciation maps and selenium/sulfur uptake characteristics provided results that are similar to other formerly reported hyperaccumulator and non-hyperaccumulator Brassicaceae species. µXANES showed organic selenium, "C-Se-C", in seedlings of both species and also in mature C. violifolia plants. In contrast, selenate-supplied mature C. pratensis contained approximately half "C-Se-C" and half selenate. SCX-ICP-MS data showed evidence of the lack of selenocystine in any of the Cardamine plant extracts. Thus, C. violifolia shows clear selenium-related physiological and biochemical differences compared to C. pratensis and other selenium hyperaccumulators.

6.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 15678, 2019 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31666554

RESUMO

The idea that original soft tissue structures and the native structural proteins comprising them can persist across geological time is controversial, in part because rigorous and testable mechanisms that can occur under natural conditions, resulting in such preservation, have not been well defined. Here, we evaluate two non-enzymatic structural protein crosslinking mechanisms, Fenton chemistry and glycation, for their possible contribution to the preservation of blood vessel structures recovered from the cortical bone of a Tyrannosaurus rex (USNM 555000 [formerly, MOR 555]). We demonstrate the endogeneity of the fossil vessel tissues, as well as the presence of type I collagen in the outermost vessel layers, using imaging, diffraction, spectroscopy, and immunohistochemistry. Then, we use data derived from synchrotron FTIR studies of the T. rex vessels to analyse their crosslink character, with comparison against two non-enzymatic Fenton chemistry- and glycation-treated extant chicken samples. We also provide supporting X-ray microprobe analyses of the chemical state of these fossil tissues to support our conclusion that non-enzymatic crosslinking pathways likely contributed to stabilizing, and thus preserving, these T. rex vessels. Finally, we propose that these stabilizing crosslinks could play a crucial role in the preservation of other microvascular tissues in skeletal elements from the Mesozoic.

7.
Plants (Basel) ; 8(8)2019 Aug 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31426292

RESUMO

More than a billion people worldwide may be selenium (Se) deficient, and supplementation with Se-rich Brazil nuts may be a good strategy to prevent deficiency. Since different forms of Se have different nutritional value, and Se is toxic at elevated levels, careful seed characterization is important. Variation in Se concentration and correlations of this element with other nutrients were found in two batches of commercially available nuts. Selenium tissue localization and speciation were further determined. Mean Se levels were between 28 and 49 mg kg-1, with up to 8-fold seed-to-seed variation (n = 13) within batches. Brazil nut Se was mainly in organic form. While present throughout the seed, Se was most concentrated in a ring 1 to 2 mm below the surface. While healthy, Brazil nuts should be consumed in moderation. Consumption of one seed (5 g) from a high-Se area meets its recommended daily allowance; the recommended serving size of 30 g may exceed the allowable daily intake (400 µg) or even its toxicity threshold (1200 µg). Based on these findings, the recommended serving size may be re-evaluated, consumers should be warned not to exceed the serving size and the seed may be sold as part of mixed nuts, to avoid excess Se intake.

8.
Adv Mater ; 31(12): e1807553, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30687983

RESUMO

Nanocasting based on porous templates is a powerful strategy in accessing materials and structures that are difficult to form by bottom-up syntheses in a controlled fashion. A facile synthetic strategy for casting ordered, nanoporous platinum (NP-Pt) networks with a high degree of control by using metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) as templates is reported here. The Pt precursor is first infiltrated into zirconium-based MOFs and subsequently transformed to 3D metallic networks via a chemical reduction process. It is demonstrated that the dimensions and topologies of the cast NP-Pt networks can be accurately controlled by using different MOFs as templates. The Brunauer-Emmett-Teller surface areas of the NP-Pt networks are estimated to be >100 m2 g-1 and they exhibit excellent catalytic activities in the methanol electrooxidation reaction (MEOR). This new methodology presents an attractive route to prepare well-defined nanoporous materials for diverse applications ranging from energy to sensing and biotechnology.

9.
J Am Chem Soc ; 140(51): 18208-18216, 2018 12 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30525562

RESUMO

Particulate methane monooxygenase (pMMO) is an enzyme that oxidizes methane to methanol with high activity and selectivity. Limited success has been achieved in incorporating biologically relevant ligands for the formation of such active site in a synthetic system. Here, we report the design and synthesis of metal-organic framework (MOF) catalysts inspired by pMMO for selective methane oxidation to methanol. By judicious selection of a framework with appropriate topology and chemical functionality, MOF-808 was used to postsynthetically install ligands bearing imidazole units for subsequent metalation with Cu(I) in the presence of dioxygen. The catalysts show high selectivity for methane oxidation to methanol under isothermal conditions at 150 °C. Combined spectroscopies and density functional theory calculations suggest bis(µ-oxo) dicopper species as probable active site of the catalysts.


Assuntos
Materiais Biomiméticos/química , Estruturas Metalorgânicas/química , Metano/química , Metanol/síntese química , Catálise , Cobre/química , Teoria da Densidade Funcional , Modelos Químicos , Estrutura Molecular , Oxirredução , Oxigênio/química , Oxigenases/química
10.
Front Plant Sci ; 9: 1583, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30429866

RESUMO

Buckwheat is an important crop species in areas of selenium (Se) deficiency. To obtain better insight into their Se metabolic properties, common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum) and tartary buckwheat (F. tataricum) were supplied with different concentrations of Se, supplied as selenate, selenite, or Astragalus bisulcatus plant extract (methyl-selenocysteine). Se was supplied at different developmental stages, with different durations, and in the presence or absence of potentially competing ions, sulfate, and phosphate. The plants were analyzed for growth, Se uptake, translocation, accumulation, as well as for Se localization and chemical speciation in the seed. Plants of both buckwheat species were supplied with 20 µM of either of the three forms of Se twice over their growth period. Both species accumulated 15-40 mg Se kg-1 DW in seeds, leaves and stems, from all three selenocompounds. X-ray microprobe analysis showed that the Se in seeds was localized in the embryo, in organic C-Se-C form(s) resembling selenomethionine, methyl-selenocysteine, and γ-glutamyl-methylselenocysteine standards. In short-term (2 and 24 h) Se uptake studies, both buckwheat species showed higher Se uptake rate and shoot Se accumulation when supplied with plant extract (methyl-selenocysteine), compared to selenite or selenate. In long-term (7 days) uptake studies, both species were resistant to selenite up to 50 µM. Tartary buckwheat was also resistant to selenate up to 75 µM Se, but >30 µM selenate inhibited common buckwheat growth. Selenium accumulation was similar in both species. When selenite was supplied, Se levels were 10-20-fold higher in root (up to 900 mg Se kg-1 DW) than shoot, but 4-fold higher in shoot (up to 1,200 mg Se kg-1 DW) than root for selenate-supplied plants. Additionally, sulfate and phosphate supply affected Se uptake, and conversely selenate enhanced S and P accumulation in both species. These findings have relevance for crop Se biofortification applications.

11.
Front Plant Sci ; 9: 1213, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30177943

RESUMO

Endophytes can enhance plant stress tolerance by promoting growth and affecting elemental accumulation, which may be useful in phytoremediation. In earlier studies, up to 35% elemental selenium (Se0) was found in Se hyperaccumulator Astragalus bisulcatus. Since Se0 can be produced by microbes, the plant Se0 was hypothesized to be microbe-derived. Here we characterize a fungal endophyte of A. bisulcatus named A2. It is common in seeds from natural seleniferous habitat containing 1,000-10,000 mg kg-1 Se. We identified A2 as Alternaria tenuissima via 18S rRNA sequence analysis and morphological characterization. X-ray microprobe analysis of A. bisulcatus seeds that did or did not harbor Alternaria, showed that both contained >90% organic seleno-compounds with C-Se-C configuration, likely methylselenocysteine and glutamyl-methylselenocysteine. The seed Se was concentrated in the embryo, not the seed coat. X-ray microprobe analysis of A2 in pure culture showed the fungus produced Se0 when supplied with selenite, but accumulated mainly organic C-Se-C compounds when supplied with selenate. A2 was completely resistant to selenate up to 300 mg L-1, moderately resistant to selenite (50% inhibition at ∼50 mg Se L-1), but relatively sensitive to methylselenocysteine and to Se extracted from A. bisulcatus (50% inhibition at 25 mg Se L-1). Four-week old A. bisulcatus seedlings derived from surface-sterilized seeds containing endophytic Alternaria were up to threefold larger than seeds obtained from seeds not showing evidence of fungal colonization. When supplied with Se, the Alternaria-colonized seedlings had lower shoot Se and sulfur levels than seedlings from uncolonized seeds. In conclusion, A. tenuissima may contribute to the Se0 observed earlier in A. bisulcatus, and affect host growth and Se accumulation. A2 is sensitive to the Se levels found in its host's tissues, but may avoid Se toxicity by occupying low-Se areas (seed coat, apoplast) and converting plant Se to non-toxic Se0. These findings illustrate the potential for hyperaccumulator endophytes to affect plant properties relevant for phytoremediation. Facultative endophytes may also be applicable in bioremediation and biofortification, owing to their capacity to turn toxic inorganic forms of Se into non-toxic or even beneficial, organic forms with anticarcinogenic properties.

12.
ACS Cent Sci ; 4(4): 493-503, 2018 Apr 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29721532

RESUMO

Molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) is a semiconducting transition metal dichalcogenide that is known to be a catalyst for both the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) as well as for hydro-desulfurization (HDS) of sulfur-rich hydrocarbon fuels. Specifically, the edges of MoS2 nanostructures are known to be far more catalytically active as compared to unmodified basal planes. However, in the absence of the precise details of the geometric and electronic structure of the active catalytic sites, a rational means of modulating edge reactivity remain to be developed. Here we demonstrate using first-principles calculations, X-ray absorption spectroscopy, as well as scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM) imaging that edge corrugations yield distinctive spectroscopic signatures corresponding to increased localization of hybrid Mo 4d states. Independent spectroscopic signatures of such edge states are identified at both the S L2,3 and S K-edges with distinctive spatial localization of such states observed in S L2,3-edge STXM imaging. The presence of such low-energy hybrid states at the edge of the conduction band is seen to correlate with substantially enhanced electrocatalytic activity in terms of a lower Tafel slope and higher exchange current density. These results elucidate the nature of the edge electronic structure and provide a clear framework for its rational manipulation to enhance catalytic activity.

13.
J Am Chem Soc ; 140(11): 4144-4149, 2018 03 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29506380

RESUMO

Attachment of N-heterocyclic carbenes (NHCs) on the surface of metal nanoparticle (NP) catalysts permits fine-tuning of catalytic activity and product selectivity. Yet, NHC-coated Au NPs have been seldom used in catalysis beyond hydrogenation chemistry. One challenge in this field has been to develop a platform that permits arbitrary ligand modification without having to compromise NP stability toward aggregation or leaching. Herein, we exploit the strategy of supported dendrimer-encapsulated metal clusters (DEMCs) to achieve aggregation-stable yet active heterogeneous Au NP catalysts with NHC ligands. Dendrimers function as aggregation-inhibitors during the NP synthesis, and NHCs, well-known for their strong attachment to the gold surface, provide a handle to modify the stereochemistry, stereoelectronics, and chemical functionality of the NP surface. Indeed, compared to "ligandless" Au NPs which are virtually inactive below 80 °C, the NHC-ligated Au NP catalysts enable a model lactonization reaction to proceed at 20 °C on the same time scale (hours). Based on Eyring analysis, proto-deauration is the turnover-limiting step accelerated by the NHC ligands. Furthermore, the use of chiral NHCs led to asymmetric induction (up to 16% enantiomeric excess) in the lactonization transformations, which demonstrates the potential of supported DEMCs with ancillary ligands in enantioselective catalysis.


Assuntos
Ouro/química , Compostos Heterocíclicos/química , Lactonas/síntese química , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Metano/análogos & derivados , Catálise , Dendrímeros/química , Lactonas/química , Ligantes , Metano/química , Estrutura Molecular , Tamanho da Partícula , Propriedades de Superfície
14.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 115(12): 2902-2907, 2018 03 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29507243

RESUMO

Atomically dispersed catalysts refer to substrate-supported heterogeneous catalysts featuring one or a few active metal atoms that are separated from one another. They represent an important class of materials ranging from single-atom catalysts (SACs) and nanoparticles (NPs). While SACs and NPs have been extensively reported, catalysts featuring a few atoms with well-defined structures are poorly studied. The difficulty in synthesizing such structures has been a critical challenge. Here we report a facile photochemical method that produces catalytic centers consisting of two Ir metal cations, bridged by O and stably bound to a support. Direct evidence unambiguously supporting the dinuclear nature of the catalysts anchored on α-Fe2O3 is obtained by aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy (AC-STEM). Experimental and computational results further reveal that the threefold hollow binding sites on the OH-terminated surface of α-Fe2O3 anchor the catalysts to provide outstanding stability against detachment or aggregation. The resulting catalysts exhibit high activities toward H2O photooxidation.

15.
Environ Sci Technol ; 52(2): 503-512, 2018 01 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26371540

RESUMO

Accurate mapping of the composition and structure of minerals and associated biological materials is critical in geomicrobiology and environmental research. Here, we have developed an apparatus that allows the correlation of cryogenic transmission electron microscopy (cryo-TEM) and synchrotron hard X-ray microprobe (SHXM) data sets to precisely determine the distribution, valence state, and structure of selenium in biofilms sampled from a contaminated aquifer near Rifle, CO. Results were replicated in the laboratory via anaerobic selenate-reducing enrichment cultures. 16S rRNA analyses of field-derived biofilm indicated the dominance of Betaproteobacteria from the Comamonadaceae family and uncultivated members of the Simplicispira genus. The major product in field and culture-derived biofilms is ∼25-300 nm red amorphous Se0 aggregates of colloidal nanoparticles. Correlative analyses of the cultures provided direct evidence for the microbial dissimilatory reduction of Se(VI) to Se(IV) to Se0. Extended X-ray absorption fine-structure spectroscopy showed red amorphous Se0 with a first shell Se-Se interatomic distance of 2.339 ± 0.003 Å. Complementary scanning transmission X-ray microscopy revealed that these aggregates are strongly associated with a protein-rich biofilm matrix. These findings have important implications for predicting the stability and mobility of Se bioremediation products and understanding of Se biogeochemical cycling. The approach, involving the correlation of cryo-SHXM and cryo-TEM data sets from the same specimen area, is broadly applicable to biological and environmental samples.


Assuntos
Água Subterrânea , Selênio , Biodegradação Ambiental , RNA Ribossômico 16S , Ácido Selênico
16.
Rev Sci Instrum ; 88(7): 073904, 2017 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28764488

RESUMO

X-ray emission spectroscopy is emerging as an important complement to x-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy, providing a characterization of the occupied electronic density of states local to the species of interest. Here, we present details of the design and performance of a compact x-ray emission spectrometer that uses a dispersive refocusing Rowland (DRR) circle geometry to achieve excellent performance for the 2-2.5 keV range, i.e., especially for the K-edge emission from sulfur and phosphorous. The DRR approach allows high energy resolution even for unfocused x-ray sources. This property enables high count rates in laboratory studies, approaching those of insertion-device beamlines at third-generation synchrotrons, despite use of only a low-powered, conventional x-ray tube. The spectrometer, whose overall scale is set by use of a 10-cm diameter Rowland circle and a new small-pixel complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor x-ray camera, is easily portable to synchrotron or x-ray free electron laser beamlines. Photometrics from measurements at the Advanced Light Source show excellent overall instrumental efficiency. In addition, the compact size of this instrument lends itself to future multiplexing to gain large factors in net collection efficiency or its implementation in controlled gas gloveboxes either in the lab or in an endstation.

17.
Nat Commun ; 8: 14393, 2017 02 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28233852

RESUMO

Arsenic and barium are ubiquitous environmental toxins that accumulate in higher trophic-level organisms. Whereas metazoans have detoxifying organs to cope with toxic metals, sponges lack organs but harbour a symbiotic microbiome performing various functions. Here we examine the potential roles of microorganisms in arsenic and barium cycles in the sponge Theonella swinhoei, known to accumulate high levels of these metals. We show that a single sponge symbiotic bacterium, Entotheonella sp., constitutes the arsenic- and barium-accumulating entity within the host. These bacteria mineralize both arsenic and barium on intracellular vesicles. Our results indicate that Entotheonella sp. may act as a detoxifying organ for its host.


Assuntos
Bactérias/metabolismo , Substâncias Perigosas/metabolismo , Microbiota/fisiologia , Simbiose/fisiologia , Theonella/microbiologia , Animais , Arsênico/metabolismo , Arsênico/toxicidade , Bactérias/citologia , Bactérias/ultraestrutura , Fenômenos Fisiológicos Bacterianos , Bário/metabolismo , Bário/toxicidade , Calcificação Fisiológica/fisiologia , Vesículas Citoplasmáticas/metabolismo , Vesículas Citoplasmáticas/ultraestrutura , Substâncias Perigosas/toxicidade , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 16S , Theonella/fisiologia
18.
Int J Phytoremediation ; 17(8): 753-65, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26030363

RESUMO

Neighbors of Se hyperaccumulators Stanleya pinnata and Astragalus bisulcatus were found earlier to have elevated Se levels. Here we investigate whether Se hyperaccumulators affect Se localization and speciation in surrounding soil and neighboring plants. X-ray fluorescence mapping and X-ray absorption near-edge structure spectroscopy were used to analyze Se localization and speciation in leaves of Artemisia ludoviciana, Symphyotrichum ericoides and Chenopodium album growing next to Se hyperaccumulators or non-accumulators at a seleniferous site. Regardless of neighbors, A. ludoviciana, S. ericoides and C. album accumulated predominantly (73-92%) reduced selenocompounds with XANES spectra similar to the C-Se-C compounds selenomethionine and methyl-selenocysteine. Preliminary data indicate that the largest Se fraction (65-75%), both in soil next to hyperaccumulator S. pinnata and next to nonaccumulator species was reduced Se with spectra similar to C-Se-C standards. These same C-Se-C forms are found in hyperaccumulators. Thus, hyperaccumulator litter may be a source of organic soil Se, but soil microorganisms may also contribute. These findings are relevant for phytoremediation and biofortification since organic Se is more readily accumulated by plants, and more effective for dietary Se supplementation.


Assuntos
Magnoliopsida/metabolismo , Selênio/metabolismo , Poluentes do Solo/metabolismo , Biodegradação Ambiental , Colorado , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Espectrometria por Raios X , Espectroscopia por Absorção de Raios X
19.
PLoS One ; 10(5): e0124150, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25970330

RESUMO

Ectopic calcification is a driving force for a variety of diseases, including kidney stones and atherosclerosis, but initiating factors remain largely unknown. Given its importance in seemingly divergent disease processes, identifying fundamental principal actors for ectopic calcification may have broad translational significance. Here we establish a Drosophila melanogaster model for ectopic calcification by inhibiting xanthine dehydrogenase whose deficiency leads to kidney stones in humans and dogs. Micro X-ray absorption near edge spectroscopy (µXANES) synchrotron analyses revealed high enrichment of zinc in the Drosophila equivalent of kidney stones, which was also observed in human kidney stones and Randall's plaques (early calcifications seen in human kidneys thought to be the precursor for renal stones). To further test the role of zinc in driving mineralization, we inhibited zinc transporter genes in the ZnT family and observed suppression of Drosophila stone formation. Taken together, genetic, dietary, and pharmacologic interventions to lower zinc confirm a critical role for zinc in driving the process of heterogeneous nucleation that eventually leads to stone formation. Our findings open a novel perspective on the etiology of urinary stones and related diseases, which may lead to the identification of new preventive and therapeutic approaches.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Transporte de Cátions/metabolismo , Proteínas de Drosophila/metabolismo , Drosophila melanogaster/metabolismo , Cálculos Renais/metabolismo , Xantina Desidrogenase/metabolismo , Zinco/metabolismo , Alopurinol/farmacologia , Animais , Proteínas de Transporte de Cátions/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas de Transporte de Cátions/genética , Quelantes/farmacologia , Proteínas na Dieta/farmacologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Cães , Proteínas de Drosophila/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas de Drosophila/genética , Drosophila melanogaster/genética , Etilenodiaminas/farmacologia , Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Rim/metabolismo , Rim/patologia , Cálculos Renais/genética , Cálculos Renais/patologia , Cálculos Renais/prevenção & controle , Túbulos de Malpighi/química , Túbulos de Malpighi/efeitos dos fármacos , Túbulos de Malpighi/patologia , RNA Interferente Pequeno/genética , RNA Interferente Pequeno/metabolismo , Espectroscopia por Absorção de Raios X , Xantina Desidrogenase/antagonistas & inibidores , Xantina Desidrogenase/genética
20.
New Phytol ; 205(2): 583-95, 2015 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25262627

RESUMO

Past studies have identified herbivory as a likely selection pressure for the evolution of hyperaccumulation, but few have tested the origin(s) of hyperaccumulation in a phylogenetic context. We focused on the evolutionary history of selenium (Se) hyperaccumulation in Stanleya (Brassicaceae). Multiple accessions were collected for all Stanleya taxa and two outgroup species. We sequenced four nuclear gene regions and performed a phylogenetic analysis. Ancestral reconstruction was used to predict the states for Se-related traits in a parsimony framework. Furthermore, we tested the taxa for Se localization and speciation using X-ray microprobe analyses. True hyperaccumulation was found in three taxa within the S. pinnata/bipinnata clade. Tolerance to hyperaccumulator Se concentrations was found in several taxa across the phylogeny, including the hyperaccumulators. X-ray analysis revealed two distinct patterns of leaf Se localization across the genus: marginal and vascular. All taxa accumulated predominantly (65-96%) organic Se with the C-Se-C configuration. These results give insight into the evolution of Se hyperaccumulation in Stanleya and suggest that Se tolerance and the capacity to produce organic Se are likely prerequisites for Se hyperaccumulation in Stanleya.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Brassicaceae/metabolismo , Selênio/metabolismo , Brassicaceae/genética , Brassicaceae/fisiologia , Filogenia , Folhas de Planta/genética , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/fisiologia
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