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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32145755

RESUMO

Clozapine, an atypical antipsychotic, can cause potentially life-threating side effects such as agranulocytosis. Our case presents a picture of severe anemia without any depression of the white cells or platelet lines. A 36-year-old man with treatment-resistant schizophrenia was admitted to the Psychiatric Unit for therapy assessment. After admission, he was gradually switched to clozapine treatment, 400 mg/d. General laboratory test results were normal, with a hemoglobin (Hb) level of 15.2 g/dL. The Hb level gradually decreased to 7.1 g/dL 10 weeks after switching to clozapine, when the patient underwent blood transfusion and clozapine therapy was stopped. No evidence of bleeding was noted. The reticulocyte count was less than 60.000/µL. Other anemia causes were excluded. Bone marrow aspiration performed at 10 weeks revealed red cell hypocellularity, while myelopoietic and megakaryocytic cell lines were normal. All these findings confirmed the diagnosis of pure red cell aplasia. The Hb level gradually increased to 13.3 g/dL 4 weeks after clozapine discontinuation, and the patient was discharged with olanzapine 5 mg/d. Clozapine has been reported to cause hematological abnormalities. In our patient, the diagnosis of pure red cell aplasia was made on the basis of severe and selective anemia, reticulocytopenia, and erythroid aplasia. The pathogenesis of hematologic abnormalities due to clozapine treatment is not known. Suggested mechanisms include a direct toxic effect of clozapine, or its metabolite, on the erythroid precursor cells, or formation of a drug-antibody complex. These aspects call for further and deeper research and reports of clinical observations.
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3.
Eur J Intern Med ; 2020 Mar 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32173172

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Thrombocytopenia in cancer patients with an indication for anticoagulation poses a unique clinical challenge. There are guidelines for the setting of venous thromboembolism but not atrial fibrillation (AF). Evidence is lacking and current practice is unclear. OBJECTIVE: To identify patient and physician characteristics associated with anticoagulation management in hematological malignancy and thrombocytopenia. METHODS: A clinical vignette-based experiment was designed. Eleven hematologists were interviewed, identifying 5 relevant variable categories with 2-5 options each. Thirty hypothetical vignettes were generated. Each physician received 5 vignettes and selected a management strategy (hold anticoagulation; no change; transfuse platelets; modify type/dose). The survey was distributed to hematologists and thrombosis specialists in 3 countries. Poisson regression models with cluster robust variance estimates were used to calculate relative risks for using one management option over the other, for each variable in comparison to a reference variable. RESULTS: 168 physicians answered 774 cases and reported continuing anticoagulation for venous thromboembolism or AF in 607 (78%) cases, usually with dose reduction or platelet transfusion support. Overall, management was affected by platelet count, anticoagulation indication, time since indication, type of hematological disease and treatment, and prior major bleeding, as well as physician demographics and practice setting. The CHA2DS2-VASc score and time since AF diagnosis affected anticoagulation management in AF. CONCLUSION: This study indicates what the widely accepted management strategies are. These strategies, and possibly others, should be assessed prospectively to ascertain effectiveness. The decision process is intricate and compatible with current venous thromboembolism guidelines.

4.
G Ital Cardiol (Rome) ; 21(2): 103-110, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Italiano | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32051633

RESUMO

Clinical guidelines, while representing an objective reference to perform appropriate treatment choices, contain grey zones, where recommendations are not supported by solid evidence. In a conference held in Bergamo in October 2018, an attempt was made to highlight some of the main grey zones in Cardiology and, through a comparison between experts, to draw shared conclusions that can illuminate our clinical practice. This manuscript contains the statements of the symposium concerning the controversies regarding new oral anticoagulants (NOACs) and atrial fibrillation (AF). The manuscript represents the organization of the meeting, with an initial review of current guidelines on this topic, followed by an expert presentation of pros (white) and cons (black) related to the identified "gaps of evidence". For every issue is then reported the response derived from the votes of the experts and the public, the discussion and, finally, the highlights, which are intended as practical "take home messages" to be used in everyday clinical practice. The first topic concerns the indication for anticoagulant therapy in patients with subclinical AF revealed by implanted devices. The second issue examines the opportunity to use NOACs in oncological patients with AF. The third gap evaluates the necessity of anticoagulating patients with AF and CHA2DS2-VASc 1 or CHA2DS2-VASc 2 if women. The last "gap in evidence" concerns the preference of triple or double therapy in patients with AF and acute coronary syndrome/coronary stenting. The work has also been implemented with evidences deriving from important randomized studies published after the date of the Conference.

5.
J Thromb Haemost ; 18(2): 278-284, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31999063

RESUMO

Venous thromboembolism is a common complication of asparaginase-based chemotherapy regimens for the treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Thrombosis associated with asparaginase administration poses a number of specific and often clinically challenging management decisions. This review provides guidance on the prevention and treatment of thrombosis associated with asparaginase in adults including discussions on antithrombin repletion, pharmacologic thromboprophylaxis, cerebral venous thrombosis, and therapeutic anticoagulation.

6.
J Clin Oncol ; 38(5): 496-520, 2020 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31381464

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To provide updated recommendations about prophylaxis and treatment of venous thromboembolism (VTE) in patients with cancer. METHODS: PubMed and the Cochrane Library were searched for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and meta-analyses of RCTs published from August 1, 2014, through December 4, 2018. ASCO convened an Expert Panel to review the evidence and revise previous recommendations as needed. RESULTS: The systematic review included 35 publications on VTE prophylaxis and treatment and 18 publications on VTE risk assessment. Two RCTs of direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) for the treatment of VTE in patients with cancer reported that edoxaban and rivaroxaban are effective but are linked with a higher risk of bleeding compared with low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) in patients with GI and potentially genitourinary cancers. Two additional RCTs reported on DOACs for thromboprophylaxis in ambulatory patients with cancer at increased risk of VTE. RECOMMENDATIONS: Changes to previous recommendations: Clinicians may offer thromboprophylaxis with apixaban, rivaroxaban, or LMWH to selected high-risk outpatients with cancer; rivaroxaban and edoxaban have been added as options for VTE treatment; patients with brain metastases are now addressed in the VTE treatment section; and the recommendation regarding long-term postoperative LMWH has been expanded. Re-affirmed recommendations: Most hospitalized patients with cancer and an acute medical condition require thromboprophylaxis throughout hospitalization. Thromboprophylaxis is not routinely recommended for all outpatients with cancer. Patients undergoing major cancer surgery should receive prophylaxis starting before surgery and continuing for at least 7 to 10 days. Patients with cancer should be periodically assessed for VTE risk, and oncology professionals should provide patient education about the signs and symptoms of VTE.Additional information is available at www.asco.org/supportive-care-guidelines.

7.
Intern Emerg Med ; 2019 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31691119

RESUMO

Male patients, especially the young, are at a higher risk of recurrent venous thromboembolism (RVTE) than females. Recent scientific reports show the use of D-dimer does not help predict RVTE risk in males. In the present report, we reviewed the data obtained in the DULCIS study (main report published in Blood 2014), focusing on D-dimer results recorded in non-elderly patients of both genders included in the study, and their relationship with RVTE events occurring during follow-up. Using specifically designed cutoff values for positive/negative interpretation, serial D-dimer measurements (performed during warfarin treatment and up to 3 months after discontinuation of anticoagulation) in 475 patients (males 57.3%) aged ≤ 65 years were obtained. D-dimer resulted positive in 46.3% and 30.5% of males and females, respectively (p = 0.001). Following management procedure, anticoagulation was stopped in 53.7% of males and 69.5% of females, who had persistently negative D-dimer results. The rate of subsequent recurrent events was 1.7% (95% CI 0.5-4.5%) and 0.4% (95% CI 0-2.5%) patient-years in males and females, respectively, with upper limits of confidence intervals always below the level of risk considered acceptable by international scientific societies for stopping anticoagulation (< 5%). In conclusion, using sensitive quantitative assays with specifically designed cutoff values and serial measurements during and after discontinuation of anticoagulation, D-dimer testing is useful to predict the risk of RVTE and is of help in deciding the duration of anticoagulation in both male and female adult patients aged up to 65 years.

10.
Haematologica ; 2019 Sep 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31558668

RESUMO

In cancer patients, hypercoagulability is a common finding and it has been associated to an increased risk of venous thromboembolisms, but also to tumor proliferation and progression. In this prospective study, in a large cohort of patients with breast cancer, we aimed to evaluate whether pre-chemotherapy abnormalities in hemostatic biomarkers levels: 1. are associated with breast cancer-specific clinicopathological features; and 2. can predict for disease recurrence. D-dimer, fibrinogen, prothrombin fragment 1+2, and FVIIa/antithrombin levels were measured in 701 early-stage resected breast cancer patients, candidate to adjuvant chemotherapy and prospectively enrolled in the HYPERCAN study. Significant prognostic parameters for disease recurrence were identified by Cox-regression multivariate analysis and used for generating a risk assessment model. Pre-chemotherapy D-dimer, fibrinogen, and prothrombin fragment 1+2 levels were significantly associated with tumor size and lymph node metastasis. After 3.4 years follow-up, 71 patients experienced a recurrence. Cox-multivariate analysis identified prothrombin fragment 1+2, tumor size, and Luminal B HER2-neg or triple negative molecular subtypes as independent risk factors for disease recurrence. Based on these variables, we generated a risk assessment model that significantly differentiated patients at low- and high-risk of recurrence (cumulative incidence: 6.2 vs 20.7%; HR=3.5; p<0.001). Our prospective clinical and laboratory data from the HYPERCAN study were crucial for generating a scoring model for disease recurrence risk assessment in resected breast cancer patients, candidate to systemic chemotherapy. This finding stimulates future investigations addressing the role of plasma prothrombin fragment 1+2 in breast cancer patients' management, and in providing the rationale for new therapeutic strategies.

11.
Blood Cancer J ; 9(8): 61, 2019 08 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31395856

RESUMO

This article presents the results of a group discussion among an ad hoc constituted Panel of experts aimed at highlighting unmet clinical needs (UCNs) in the management of thrombotic risk and thrombotic events associated with Philadelphia-negative myeloproliferative neoplasms (Ph-neg MPNs). With the Delphi technique, the challenges in Ph-neg MPN-associated thrombosis were selected. The most clinically relevant UCNs resulted in: (1) providing evidence of the benefits and risks of direct oral anticoagulants, (2) providing evidence of the benefits and risks of cytoreduction in patients with splanchnic vein thrombosis without hypercythemia, (3) improving knowledge of the role of the mutated endothelium in the pathogenesis of thrombosis, (4) improving aspirin dosing regimens in essential thrombocythemia, (5) improving antithrombotic management of Ph-neg MPN-associated pregnancy, (6) providing evidence for the optimal duration of anticoagulation for prophylaxis of recurrent VTE, (7) improving knowledge of the association between somatic gene mutations and risk factors for thrombosis, and (8) improving the grading system of thrombosis risk in polycythemia vera. For each of these issues, proposals for advancement in research and clinical practice were addressed. Hopefully, this comprehensive overview will serve to inform the design and implementation of new studies in the field.

12.
Cancer Treat Res ; 179: 11-36, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31317478

RESUMO

Thrombosis is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in cancer patients. The pathogenesis of blood coagulation activation in oncological patients is complex and involves both clinical and biological factors. Abnormalities in one or more coagulation test are common in cancer patients, even without thrombotic manifestations, indicating an ongoing hypercoagulable condition. Moreover, venous thromboembolism (VTE) can be the first symptom of an occult malignancy in an otherwise healthy individual. The levels of laboratory markers of activation of blood coagulation parallel the development of malignancy, being the coagulant mechanisms important for both thrombogenesis and tumor progression. Besides general clinical risk factors for VTE, also disease-specific clinical factors, i.e., type and stage of the tumor, and anticancer therapies increase the thrombotic risk in these patients. Furthermore, biological factors, including the cancer cell-specific prothrombotic properties together with the host cell inflammatory response to the tumor, are relevant as well as unique players in the pathogenesis of the cancer-associated hypercoagulability. Cancer cells produce and release procoagulant and fibrinolytic proteins, inflammatory cytokines, and procoagulant microparticles. They also express adhesion molecules binding to the receptors of host vascular cells (i.e., endothelial cells, platelets, and leukocytes), thereby stimulating the prothrombotic properties of these normal cells, including the shed of cell-specific microparticles and neutrophil extracellular traps. Of interest, several genes responsible for the cellular neoplastic transformation drive the programs of hemostatic properties expressed by cancer tissues. A better understanding of such mechanisms will help the development of novel strategies to prevent and treat the Trousseau's syndrome (i.e., cancer-associated thrombosis).


Assuntos
Neoplasias/fisiopatologia , Trombose/fisiopatologia , Coagulação Sanguínea/fisiologia , Humanos , Neoplasias/complicações , Trombose/etiologia
14.
Minerva Med ; 110(3): 251-258, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30990000

RESUMO

Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with cancer. For over a decade, the gold standard of treatment and secondary prevention of cancer-associated thrombosis (CAT) has been represented by low-molecular-weight heparins (LMWHs), which are currently recommended as the first-line treatment for CAT. Among the LMWHs that were more extensively tested in patients with CAT, tinzaparin is a LMWH produced by the enzymatic degradation of porcine-derived unfractionated heparin. The efficacy of tinzaparin in this setting is supported by well-grounded evidence. However, there is a need to discuss the positioning of tinzaparin in the continuously evolving treatment scenario of VTE therapy in cancer patients. In this paper, which was developed by a group of clinicians with wide experience in the treatment of VTE in cancer patients, we discuss the current therapeutic options and the role of tinzaparin for the treatment of CAT.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Heparina de Baixo Peso Molecular/uso terapêutico , Tinzaparina/uso terapêutico , Tromboembolia Venosa/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Neoplasias/complicações , Tromboembolia Venosa/complicações , Tromboembolia Venosa/etiologia
15.
Thromb Haemost ; 119(1): 163-174, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30597510

RESUMO

Data on anti-platelet therapy (APT) for prevention of atherothrombotic events in thrombocytopaenic cancer patients is lacking. We aimed to identify patient and physician characteristics associated with APT management in thrombocytopaenic patients with haematological malignancy. A clinical vignette-based experiment was designed. Eleven haematologists were interviewed, identifying five variable categories. Next, 18 hypothetical vignettes were generated. Each physician received three vignettes and chose to: hold all APT; continue APT without platelet transfusion support; or continue APT with platelet transfusion support. The survey was distributed to haematologists and thrombosis specialists in three countries. Multivariate cluster robust Poisson regression models were used to calculate relative risks (RRs) of using one management option (over the other) for each variable in comparison to a reference variable. A total of 145 physicians answered 434 cases. Clinicians were more likely to hold APT in case of 20,000/µL platelets (vs. 40,000/µL; RR for continuing: 0.82 [95% confidence interval: 0.75-0.91]), recent major gastrointestinal bleeding (vs. none; RR 0.81 [0.72-0.92]) and when the physician worked at a university-affiliated community hospital (vs. non-academic community hospital; RR 0.84 [0.72-0.98]). Clinicians were more likely to continue APT in ST elevation myocardial infarction with dual APT (vs. unstable angina with single APT; RR 1.31 [1.18-1.45]) and when there were institutional protocols guiding management (vs. none; RR 1.15 [1.03-1.27]). When APT was continued, increased platelet transfusion targets were used in 34%. In summary, the decision process is complex and affected by multiple patient and physician characteristics. Platelet transfusions were frequently chosen to support APT, although no evidence supports this practice.


Assuntos
Plaquetas/efeitos dos fármacos , Cardiologia/métodos , Neoplasias Hematológicas/terapia , Hematologia/métodos , Trombocitopenia/terapia , Cardiologia/normas , Tomada de Decisões , Neoplasias Hematológicas/complicações , Hematologia/normas , Hemorragia/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Israel , Itália , Infarto do Miocárdio/prevenção & controle , Países Baixos , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/uso terapêutico , Transfusão de Plaquetas , Distribuição de Poisson , Distribuição Aleatória , Inquéritos e Questionários , Trombocitopenia/complicações
17.
Blood Transfus ; 17(3): 171-180, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30418130

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Management of venous thromboembolism (VTE) in patients with haematologic malignancies and thrombocytopenia is clinically challenging due to the related risks. No prospective studies or clinical trials have been carried out and, therefore, no solid evidence on this compelling issue is available. METHODS: Given this, an expert panel endorsed by the Gruppo Italiano Malattie Ematologiche dell'Adulto Working Party on Thrombosis and Haemostasis was set up to produce a formal consensus, according to the RAND method, in order to issue clinical recommendations about the platelet (PLT) cut-off for safe administration of low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) in thrombocytopenic (PLT <100×109/L) adult patients with haematologic malignancies affected by acute (<1 month) or non-acute VTE. RESULTS: In acute VTE, the panel suggests safe anticoagulation with LMWH at therapeutic doses for PLT between ≥50<100×109/L and at 50% dose reduction for PLT ≥30<50×109/L. In acute VTE for PLT <30×109/L, the following interventions are recommended: positioning of an inferior vena cava (IVC) filter with prophylactic LMWH administration and platelet transfusion. In non-acute VTE, anticoagulation with LMWH at therapeutic doses for PLT between ≥50<100×109/L or over and at 50% dose reduction for PLT ≥30<50×109/L is considered appropriate. The discontinuation of full or reduced therapeutic dose of LMWH is recommended for PLT <30×109/L, both in acute and non-acute VTE. DISCUSSION: We suggest using dose-adjusted LMWH according to PLT to optimise anticoagulant treatment in patients at high bleeding risk.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Plaquetas/metabolismo , Consenso , Neoplasias Hematológicas , Heparina de Baixo Peso Molecular/uso terapêutico , Trombocitopenia , Tromboembolia Venosa , Neoplasias Hematológicas/sangue , Neoplasias Hematológicas/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Contagem de Plaquetas , Trombocitopenia/sangue , Trombocitopenia/tratamento farmacológico , Tromboembolia Venosa/sangue , Tromboembolia Venosa/tratamento farmacológico
18.
Front Oncol ; 8: 480, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30410870

RESUMO

PALB2 (partner and localizer of BRCA2) was initially identified as a binding partner of BRCA2. It interacts also with BRCA1 forming a complex promoting DNA repair by homologous recombination. Germline pathogenic variants in BRCA1, BRCA2 and PALB2 DNA repair genes are associated with high risk of developing breast cancer. Mutation screening in these breast cancer predisposition genes is routinely performed and allows the identification of individuals who carry pathogenic variants and are at risk of developing the disease. However, variants of uncertain significance (VUSs) are often detected and establishing their pathogenicity and clinical relevance remains a central challenge for the risk assessment of the carriers and the clinical decision-making process. Many of these VUSs are missense variants leading to single amino acid substitutions, whose impact on protein function is uncertain. Typically, VUSs are rare and due to the limited genetic, clinical, and pathological data the multifactorial approaches used for classification cannot be applied. Thus, these variants can only be characterized through functional analyses comparing their effect with that of normal and mutant gene products used as positive and negative controls. The two missense variants BRCA2:c.91T >G (p.Trp31Gly) and PALB2:c.3262C >T (p.Pro1088Ser) were detected in two breast cancer probands originally ascertained at Breast Cancer Units of Institutes located in Milan and Bergamo (Northern Italy), respectively. These variants were located in the BRCA2-PALB2 interacting domains, were predicted to be deleterious by in silico analyses, and were very rare and clinically not classified. Therefore, we initiate to study their functional effect by exploiting a green fluorescent protein (GFP)-reassembly in vitro assay specifically designed to test the BRCA2-PALB2 interaction. This functional assay proved to be easy to develop, robust and reliable. It also allows testing variants located in different genes. Results from these functional analyses showed that the BRCA2:p.Trp31Gly and the PALB2:p.Pro1088Ser prevented the BRCA2-PALB2 binding. While caution is warranted when the interpretation of the clinical significance of rare VUSs is based on functional studies only, our data provide initial evidences in favor of the possibility that these variants are pathogenic.

20.
Oncologist ; 23(11): 1372-1381, 2018 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30104289

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aim of this prospective study was to identify the most clinically relevant hypercoagulability biomarkers in lung adenocarcinoma patients for elaboration of an improved risk assessment model (RAM) for venous thromboembolism (VTE). SUBJECTS, MATERIALS, AND METHODS: One hundred fifty ambulatory patients with lung adenocarcinoma were prospectively enrolled. Thrombin generation, procoagulant phospholipid-dependent clotting time (Procoag-PPL), tissue factor activity (TFa), factor VIIa (FVIIa), factor V (FV), antithrombin, D-Dimers, P-selectin, and heparanase levels were assessed in platelet-poor plasma at inclusion (baseline) and at the end of the third chemotherapy cycle (third chemotherapy). Cox regression analysis was used to identify independent VTE predictors. RESULTS: At baseline, patients had significantly attenuated thrombin generation, shorter Procoag-PPL, higher levels of TFa, D-Dimers, and heparanase, and lower levels of FVIIa and P-selectin, compared with controls. A significant increase in Procoag-PPL, FV, and FVIIa and a decrease of P-selectin levels were observed between baseline and third chemotherapy. Hospitalization within the last 3 months prior to assessment, time since cancer diagnosis less than 6 months, mean rate index (MRI) of thrombin generation, and Procoag-PPL were independently associated with symptomatic VTE. Accordingly, a prediction model including Procoag-PPL and MRI showed significant discriminating capacity (area under the curve: 0.84). CONCLUSION: Ambulatory patients with lung adenocarcinoma may display pronounced blood hypercoagulability due to decreased Procoag-PPL, increased endothelial cell activation, and increased degradation of fibrin. Incorporation of Procoag-PPL and MRI of thrombin generation may improve the accuracy of a VTE-RAM in the above setting. IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: The prospective ROADMAP-CAT study identified two biomarkers of hypercoagulability, the procoagulant phospholipid-dependent clotting time (Procoag-PPL) and the mean rate index (MRI) of the propagation phase of thrombin generation assessed with the Calibrated Automated Thrombinoscope, as being clinically relevant for the classification of ambulatory patients with lung adenocarcinoma receiving a maximum of one cycle of chemotherapy into high and intermediate/low risk for venous thromboembolism. Measurement of Procoag-PPL and MRI within 1 month after the administration of the first chemotherapy cycle provides significant accuracy of the assessment. Association of the Procoag-PPL and MRI with the clinical risk assessment model for cancer-associated thrombosis in ambulatory patients with solid tumors (COMPASS-CAT RAM) further improved its accuracy.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma de Pulmão/sangue , Adenocarcinoma de Pulmão/complicações , Biomarcadores/sangue , Trombofilia/sangue , Trombofilia/diagnóstico , Trombose/diagnóstico , Adenocarcinoma de Pulmão/patologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Trombose/etiologia , Trombose/patologia , Adulto Jovem
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