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2.
Crit Care Med ; 2019 Oct 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31609775

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To identify the frequency, causes, and risk factors of early and late mortality among general adult patients discharged from ICUs. DESIGN: Multicenter, prospective cohort study. SETTING: ICUs of 10 tertiary hospitals in Brazil. PATIENTS: One-thousand five-hundred fifty-four adult ICU survivors with an ICU stay greater than 72 hours for medical and emergency surgical admissions or greater than 120 hours for elective surgical admissions. INTERVENTIONS: None. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: The main outcomes were early (30 d) and late (31 to 365 d) mortality. Causes of death were extracted from death certificates and medical records. Twelve-month cumulative mortality was 28.2% (439 deaths). The frequency of early mortality was 7.9% (123 deaths), and the frequency of late mortality was 22.3% (316 deaths). Infections were the leading cause of death in both early (47.2%) and late (36.4%) periods. Multivariable analysis identified age greater than or equal to 65 years (hazard ratio, 1.65; p = 0.01), pre-ICU high comorbidity (hazard ratio, 1.59; p = 0.02), pre-ICU physical dependence (hazard ratio, 2.29; p < 0.001), risk of death at ICU admission (hazard ratio per 1% increase, 1.008; p = 0.03), ICU-acquired infections (hazard ratio, 2.25; p < 0.001), and ICU readmission (hazard ratio, 3.76; p < 0.001) as risk factors for early mortality. Age greater than or equal to 65 years (hazard ratio, 1.30; p = 0.03), pre-ICU high comorbidity (hazard ratio, 2.28; p < 0.001), pre-ICU physical dependence (hazard ratio, 2.00; p < 0.001), risk of death at ICU admission (hazard ratio per 1% increase, 1.010; p < 0.001), and ICU readmission (hazard ratios, 4.10, 4.17, and 1.82 for death between 31 and 60 days, 61 and 90 days, and greater than 90 days after ICU discharge, respectively; p < 0.001 for all comparisons) were associated with late mortality. CONCLUSIONS: Infections are the main cause of death after ICU discharge. Older age, pre-ICU comorbidities, pre-ICU physical dependence, severity of illness at ICU admission, and ICU readmission are associated with increased risk of early and late mortality, while ICU-acquired infections are associated with increased risk of early mortality.

3.
Cancer Treat Rev ; 80: 101895, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31542591

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is one of the most lethal cancers worldwide. Recent studies have shown that 4-20% of patients with PDAC have a germline BReast CAncer (gBRCA) genes 1 and 2 mutation (m). Because homologous recombination is impaired in patients with gBRCAm, some reports suggested that these tumors may be more sensitive to platinum compounds. Therefore, this systematic review and meta-analysis focused on benefit of patients with gBRCAm receiving a platinum-based chemotherapy (PtCh) compared with those treated with a non-platinum-based chemotherapy (NPtCh). MATERIAL AND METHODS: The following electronic databases were searched from inception to May 12, 2018: PubMed (MEDLINE), EMBASE, and Cochrane Library. Abstracts from conferences were also reviewed for inclusion. Cohort, case-control and randomized studies of patients with PDAC and gBRCAm were eligible for inclusion if they provided data to compare patients receiving PtCh vs NPtCh. The primary endpoint was overall survival (OS) in the PtCh group vs the NPtCh group in patients with clinical stage III (locally advanced) or IV (metastatic) (CS III-IV) PDAC. RESULTS: Of 112 studies identified, 6 were included (total of 108 patients); of these, 4 provided sufficient data for meta-analysis. Half of the patients were males, with a mean age ranging from 58 to 63 years. The OS in the 85 patients with CS III-IV PDAC was higher in the PtCh group (23.7 vs 12.2 months; mean difference of 10.21 months, 95% confidence interval [CI] 5.05-15.37; P < 0.001; very low quality of evidence). PtCh was associated with a lower mortality (62.3 vs 87.5%; relative risk of 0.80, 95%CI 0.66-0.97; P = 0.021; very low quality of evidence). CONCLUSION: Our study confirmed the hypothesis that patients with CS III-IV gBRCAm preferably benefit from a PtCh compared with NPtCh. However the very low quality of evidence should induce to be careful about the risk of potential biases. The generated hypothesis should be prospectively investigated in homogenous clinical settings.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/genética , Genes BRCA1 , Genes BRCA2 , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/genética , Proteína BRCA1/genética , Proteína BRCA2/genética , Humanos , Compostos Organoplatínicos/administração & dosagem , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
4.
JAMA ; 322(3): 216-228, 2019 07 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31310297

RESUMO

Importance: The effects of intensive care unit (ICU) visiting hours remain uncertain. Objective: To determine whether a flexible family visitation policy in the ICU reduces the incidence of delirium. Design, Setting and Participants: Cluster-crossover randomized clinical trial involving patients, family members, and clinicians from 36 adult ICUs with restricted visiting hours (<4.5 hours per day) in Brazil. Participants were recruited from April 2017 to June 2018, with follow-up until July 2018. Interventions: Flexible visitation (up to 12 hours per day) supported by family education (n = 837 patients, 652 family members, and 435 clinicians) or usual restricted visitation (median, 1.5 hours per day; n = 848 patients, 643 family members, and 391 clinicians). Nineteen ICUs started with flexible visitation, and 17 started with restricted visitation. Main Outcomes and Measures: Primary outcome was incidence of delirium during ICU stay, assessed using the CAM-ICU. Secondary outcomes included ICU-acquired infections for patients; symptoms of anxiety and depression assessed using the HADS (range, 0 [best] to 21 [worst]) for family members; and burnout for ICU staff (Maslach Burnout Inventory). Results: Among 1685 patients, 1295 family members, and 826 clinicians enrolled, 1685 patients (100%) (mean age, 58.5 years; 47.2% women), 1060 family members (81.8%) (mean age, 45.2 years; 70.3% women), and 737 clinicians (89.2%) (mean age, 35.5 years; 72.9% women) completed the trial. The mean daily duration of visits was significantly higher with flexible visitation (4.8 vs 1.4 hours; adjusted difference, 3.4 hours [95% CI, 2.8 to 3.9]; P < .001). The incidence of delirium during ICU stay was not significantly different between flexible and restricted visitation (18.9% vs 20.1%; adjusted difference, -1.7% [95% CI, -6.1% to 2.7%]; P = .44). Among 9 prespecified secondary outcomes, 6 did not differ significantly between flexible and restricted visitation, including ICU-acquired infections (3.7% vs 4.5%; adjusted difference, -0.8% [95% CI, -2.1% to 1.0%]; P = .38) and staff burnout (22.0% vs 24.8%; adjusted difference, -3.8% [95% CI, -4.8% to 12.5%]; P = .36). For family members, median anxiety (6.0 vs 7.0; adjusted difference, -1.6 [95% CI, -2.3 to -0.9]; P < .001) and depression scores (4.0 vs 5.0; adjusted difference, -1.2 [95% CI, -2.0 to -0.4]; P = .003) were significantly better with flexible visitation. Conclusions and Relevance: Among patients in the ICU, a flexible family visitation policy, vs standard restricted visiting hours, did not significantly reduce the incidence of delirium. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02932358.


Assuntos
Delírio/prevenção & controle , Família/psicologia , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/organização & administração , Visitas a Pacientes , Ansiedade , Brasil , Esgotamento Profissional , Cuidados Críticos/psicologia , Estudos Cross-Over , Depressão , Feminino , Educação em Saúde , Hospitalização , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Tempo
5.
Eur J Health Econ ; 20(8): 1133-1145, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31286291

RESUMO

Micro-costing studies still deserving for methods orientation that contribute to achieve a patient-specific resource use level of analysis. Time-driven activity-based costing (TDABC) is often employed by health organizations in micro-costing studies with that objective. However, the literature shows many deviations in the implementation of TDABC, which might compromise the accuracy of the results obtained. One reason for that can be attributed to the non-existence of a step-by-step orientation to conduct cost analytics with the TDABC specific for micro-costing studies in healthcare. This article aimed at exploring the literature and practical cases to propose an eight-step framework to apply TDABC in micro-costing studies for health care organizations. The 8-step TDABC framework is presented and detailed exploring online spreadsheets already coded to demonstrate data structure and math formula building. A list of analyses that can be performed is suggested, including an explanation about the information that each analysis can provide to increase the organization capability to orient decision making. The case study developed show that actual micro-costing of health care processes can be achieved with the 8-step TDABC framework and its use in future researches can contribute to increase the number of studies that achieve high-quality level in cost information, and consequently, in health resource evaluation.

6.
Crit Care ; 23(1): 213, 2019 06 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31186070

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: As more patients are surviving intensive care, mental health concerns in survivors have become a research priority. Among these, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) can have an important impact on the quality of life of critical care survivors. However, data on its burden are conflicting. Therefore, this systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to evaluate the prevalence of PTSD symptoms in adult critical care patients after intensive care unit (ICU) discharge. METHODS: We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, LILACS, Web of Science, PsycNET, and Scopus databases from inception to September 2018. We included observational studies assessing the prevalence of PTSD symptoms in adult critical care survivors. Two reviewers independently screened studies and extracted data. Studies were meta-analyzed using a random-effects model to estimate PTSD symptom prevalence at different time points, also estimating confidence and prediction intervals. Subgroup and meta-regression analyses were performed to explore heterogeneity. Risk of bias was assessed using the Joanna Briggs Institute tool and the GRADE approach. RESULTS: Of 13,267 studies retrieved, 48 were included in this review. Overall prevalence of PTSD symptoms was 19.83% (95% confidence interval [CI], 16.72-23.13; I2 = 90%, low quality of evidence). Prevalence varied widely across studies, with a wide range of expected prevalence (from 3.70 to 43.73% in 95% of settings). Point prevalence estimates were 15.93% (95% CI, 11.15-21.35; I2 = 90%; 17 studies), 16.80% (95% CI, 13.74-20.09; I2 = 66%; 13 studies), 18.96% (95% CI, 14.28-24.12; I2 = 92%; 13 studies), and 20.21% (95% CI, 13.79-27.44; I2 = 58%; 7 studies) at 3, 6, 12, and > 12 months after discharge, respectively. CONCLUSION: PTSD symptoms may affect 1 in every 5 adult critical care survivors, with a high expected prevalence 12 months after discharge. ICU survivors should be screened for PTSD symptoms and cared for accordingly, given the potential negative impact of PTSD on quality of life. In addition, action should be taken to further explore the causal relationship between ICU stay and PTSD, as well as to propose early measures to prevent PTSD in this population. TRIAL REGISTRATION: PROSPERO, CRD42017075124 , Registered 6 December 2017.

7.
BMJ Open ; 9(6): e028570, 2019 Jun 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31243035

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: There is an increasing demand for multi-organ donors for organ transplantation programmes. This study protocol describes the Donation Network to Optimise Organ Recovery Study, a planned cluster randomised controlled trial that aims to evaluate the effectiveness of the implementation of an evidence-based, goal-directed checklist for brain-dead potential organ donor management in intensive care units (ICUs) in reducing the loss of potential donors due to cardiac arrest. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: The study will include ICUs of at least 60 Brazilian sites with an average of ≥10 annual notifications of valid potential organ donors. Hospitals will be randomly assigned (with a 1:1 allocation ratio) to the intervention group, which will involve the implementation of an evidence-based, goal-directed checklist for potential organ donor maintenance, or the control group, which will maintain the usual care practices of the ICU. Team members from all participating ICUs will receive training on how to conduct family interviews for organ donation. The primary outcome will be loss of potential donors due to cardiac arrest. Secondary outcomes will include the number of actual organ donors and the number of organs recovered per actual donor. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The institutional review board (IRB) of the coordinating centre and of each participating site individually approved the study. We requested a waiver of informed consent for the IRB of each site. Study results will be disseminated to the general medical community through publications in peer-reviewed medical journals. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT03179020; Pre-results.

8.
Int J Health Care Qual Assur ; 32(2): 474-487, 2019 Mar 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31017060

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The purpose of this paper is to identify and describe hospital quality indicators, classifying them according to Donabedian's structure, process and outcome model and in specific domains (quality, safety, infection and mortality) in two care divisions: inpatient and emergency services. DESIGN/METHODOLOGY/APPROACH: A systematic review identified hospital clinical indicators. Two independent investigators evaluated 70 articles/documents located in electronic databases and nine documents from the grey literature, 35 were included in the systematic review. FINDINGS: In total, 248 hospital-based indicators were classified as infection, safety, quality and mortality domains. Only 10.2 percent were identified in more than one article/document and 47 percent showed how they were calculated/obtained. Although there are scientific papers on developing, validating and hospital indicator assessment, most indicators were obtained from technical reports, government publications or health professional associations. RESEARCH LIMITATIONS/IMPLICATIONS: This review identified several hospital structure, process and outcome quality indicators, which are used by different national and international groups in both research and clinical practice. Comparing performance between healthcare organizations was difficult. Common clinical care standard indicators used by different networks, programs and institutions are essential to hospital quality benchmarking. ORIGINALITY/VALUE: To the authors' knowledge, this is the first systematic review to identify and describe hospital quality indicators after a comprehensive search in MEDLINE/PubMed, etc., and the grey literature, aiming to identify as many indicators as possible. Few studies evaluate the indicators, and most are found only in the grey literature, and have been published mostly by government agencies. Documents published in scientific journals usually refer to a specific indicator or to constructing an indicator. However, indicators most commonly found are not supported by reliability or validity studies.

9.
J Crit Care ; 52: 115-125, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31035186

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The present systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to synthesize data on subject outcomes associated with post-ICU follow-up. MATERIALS AND METHODS: MEDLINE, PsycINFO, CINAHL, Cochrane CENTRAL, and EMBASE databases were searched according to pre-specified criteria (PROSPERO- CRD42017074734). Non-randomized and randomized studies assessing patient and family outcomes associated with post-ICU follow-up were included. RESULTS: Twenty-six studies were included. Sixteen (61%) were randomized trials; of these, 15 were meta-analyzed. Non-randomized studies reported benefits in survival, functional status, anxiety, depression, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, and satisfaction. In randomized trials, post-ICU follow-up models focusing on physical therapy were associated with fewer depression symptoms (mean difference [MD], -1.21 (see Fig. 2); 95% confidence interval [CI], -2.31 to -0.11; I2 = 0%) and better mental health-related quality of life scores (standardized MD [SMD], 0.26; 95%CI, 0.02 to 0.51; I2 = 6%) in the short term. Post-ICU follow-up models focusing on psychological or medical management interventions were associated with fewer PTSD symptoms (SMD, -0.21; 95%CI, -0.37 to -0.05; I2 = 0%) in the medium term. CONCLUSIONS: Post-ICU follow-up may improve depression symptoms and mental health-related quality of life in the short term for models focusing on physical therapy and PTSD symptoms in the medium term for models focusing on psychological or medical management interventions.

10.
PLoS One ; 14(2): e0212173, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30794574

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the labeling preferences of medication users and characterize their perceptions of the comprehensibility and readability of medication labels. METHODS: We conducted a population-based cross-sectional study of medication users aged 18 years or older in 10 Brazilian capital cities. Perceptions of the comprehensibility and readability of medication labels in relation to sociodemographic characteristics were evaluated by Poisson regression models with robust variance. Labeling preferences were assessed through questions addressing possible improvements and through the use of digitally simulated packages. RESULTS: Of 6,255 medication users interviewed, more than half found it difficult or very difficult to read (50.8%) and/or understand (52.0%) medication labels. Difficulties were more pronounced for participants aged 40 years or older, with lower levels of education, and non-whites. Increasing the font size (93.7%), describing the indications for use (95.9%) and contraindications (95.6%) on the label, and highlighting the expiration date (96.3%) were the most widely accepted improvements. In the evaluation of simulated packages, users preferred factors that improved readability, such as increased font size, use of graphic elements and color to highlight the concentration of the active ingredient, and contrast between the font color and background. The new simulated package design, with increased font size, color to highlight the concentration and contrast between the font color and background, was preferred over the standard design by 77.0% of participants. CONCLUSION: Based on users' perceptions, increased font size and use of graphic elements and color to emphasize critical information, such as expiration date and concentration, are factors that contribute to making medication labels clearer to users. Pharmaceutical industries and policy makers should consider these items when developing labels and defining policies on this issue.


Assuntos
Compreensão , Rotulagem de Medicamentos , Embalagem de Medicamentos , Preferência do Paciente , Leitura , Percepção Visual , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Brasil , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
11.
Rev. bras. ter. intensiva ; 30(4): 405-413, out.-dez. 2018. tab, graf
Artigo em Português | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-977985

RESUMO

RESUMO Objetivo: Avaliar a prevalência de incapacidades físicas, cognitivas e psiquiátricas, fatores associados e sua relação com qualidade de vida em pacientes sobreviventes de internação em unidades de terapia intensiva brasileiras. Métodos: Um estudo de coorte prospectivo multicêntrico está sendo conduzido em dez unidades de terapia intensiva adulto clínico-cirúrgicas representativas das cinco regiões geopolíticas do Brasil. Pacientes com idade ≥ 18 anos que receberam alta das unidades de terapia intensiva participantes e permaneceram internados na unidade de terapia intensiva por 72 horas ou mais, nos casos de internação clínica ou cirúrgica de urgência, e por 120 horas ou mais, nos casos de internação cirúrgica eletiva, serão incluídos de forma consecutiva. Estes pacientes serão seguidos por 1 ano, por meio de entrevistas telefônicas estruturadas 3, 6 e 12 meses pós-alta da unidade de terapia intensiva. Dependência funcional, disfunção cognitiva, sintomas de ansiedade e depressão, sintomas de estresse pós-traumático, qualidade de vida relacionada à saúde, re-hospitalizações e mortalidade em longo prazo serão avaliados como desfechos. Discussão: O presente estudo tem o potencial de contribuir para o conhecimento a respeito da prevalência e dos fatores associados à síndrome pós-cuidados intensivos na população de pacientes adultos sobreviventes de internação em unidades de terapia intensiva brasileiras. Ademais, a associação entre síndrome pós-cuidados intensivos e qualidade de vida relacionada à saúde poderá ser estabelecida.


ABSTRACT Objective: To establish the prevalence of physical, cognitive and psychiatric disabilities, associated factors and their relationship with the qualities of life of intensive care survivors in Brazil. Methods: A prospective multicenter cohort study is currently being conducted at 10 adult medical-surgical intensive care units representative of the 5 Brazilian geopolitical regions. Patients aged ≥ 18 years who are discharged from the participating intensive care units and stay 72 hours or more in the intensive care unit for medical or emergency surgery admissions or 120 hours or more for elective surgery admissions are consecutively included. Patients are followed up for a period of one year by means of structured telephone interviews conducted at 3, 6 and 12 months after discharge from the intensive care unit. The outcomes are functional dependence, cognitive dysfunction, anxiety and depression symptoms, posttraumatic stress symptoms, health-related quality of life, rehospitalization and long-term mortality. Discussion: The present study has the potential to contribute to current knowledge of the prevalence and factors associated with postintensive care syndrome among adult intensive care survivors in Brazil. In addition, an association might be established between postintensive care syndrome and health-related quality of life.

12.
Trials ; 19(1): 636, 2018 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30454019

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Most adult intensive care units (ICUs) worldwide adopt restrictive family visitation models (RFVMs). However, evidence, mostly from non-randomized studies, suggests that flexible adult ICU visiting hours are safe policies that can result in benefits such as prevention of delirium and increase in satisfaction with care. Accordingly, the ICU Visits Study was designed to compare the effectiveness and safety of a flexible family visitation model (FFVM) vs. an RFVM on delirium prevention among ICU patients, and also to analyze its potential effects on family members and ICU professionals. METHODS/DESIGN: The ICU Visits Study is a cluster-randomized crossover trial which compares an FFVM (12 consecutive ICU visiting hours per day) with an RFVM (< 4.5 ICU visiting hours per day) in 40 Brazilian adult ICUs. Participant ICUs are randomly assigned to either an FFVM or RFVM in a 1:1 ratio. After enrollment and follow-up of 25 patients, each ICU is crossed over to the other visitation model, until 25 more patients per site are enrolled and followed. The primary outcome is the cumulative incidence of delirium measured by the Confusion Assessment Method for the ICU. Secondary and tertiary outcomes include relevant measures of effectiveness and safety of ICU visiting policies among patients, family members, and ICU professionals. Herein, we describe all primary statistical procedures that will be used to evaluate the results and perform exploratory and sensitivity analyses of this study. This pre-specified statistical analysis plan was written and submitted without knowledge of the study data. DISCUSSION: This a priori statistical analysis plan aims to enhance the transparency of our study, facilitating unbiased analyses of ICU visit study data, and provide guidance for statistical analysis for groups conducting studies in the same field. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02932358 . Registered on 11 October 2016.

13.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 12(9): e0006836, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30265663

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chagas disease is a neglected tropical disease. About 6 to 8 million people are chronically infected and 10% to 15% develop irreversible gastrointestinal disorders, including megaesophagus. Treatment focuses on improving symptoms, and isosorbide and nifedipine may be used for this purpose. METHODOLOGY: We conducted a systematic review to evaluate the effectiveness of pharmacological treatment for Chagas' megaesophagus. We searched MEDLINE, Embase and LILACS databases up to January 2018. We included both observational studies and RCTs evaluating the effects of isosorbide or nifedipine in adult patients with Chagas' megaesophagus. Two reviewers screened titles and abstracts, selected eligible studies and extracted data. We assessed the risk of bias using NIH 'Quality Assessment Tool for Before-After (Pre-Post) Studies with No Control Group' and RoB 2.0 tool. Overall quality of evidence was assessed using GRADE. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We included eight studies (four crossover RCTs, four before-after studies). Three studies evaluated the effect of isosorbide on lower esophageal sphincter pressure (LESP), showing a significant reduction (mean difference -10.52mmHg, 95%CI -13.57 to-7.47, very low quality of evidence). Three studies reported the effect of isosorbide on esophageal emptying, showing a decrease in esophageal retention rates (mean difference -22.16%, 95%CI -29.94 to -14.38, low quality of evidence). In one study, patients on isosorbide reported improvement in the frequency and severity of dysphagia (moderate quality of evidence). Studies evaluating nifedipine observed a decrease in LESP but no effect on esophageal emptying (very low and low quality of evidence, respectively). Isosorbide had a higher incidence of headache as a side effect than nifedipine. CONCLUSIONS: Although limited, available evidence shows that both isosorbide and nifedipine are effective in reducing esophageal symptoms. Isosorbide appears to be more effective, and its use is supported by a larger number of studies; nifedipine, however, appears to have a better tolerability profile. TRIAL REGISTRATION: PROSPERO CRD42017055143. ClinicalTrials.gov CRD42017055143.

14.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 12(8): e0006742, 2018 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30125291

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chagas disease is a neglected chronic condition caused by Trypanosoma cruzi, with high prevalence and burden in Latin America. Ventricular arrhythmias are common in patients with Chagas cardiomyopathy, and amiodarone has been widely used for this purpose. The aim of our study was to assess the effect of amiodarone in patients with Chagas cardiomyopathy. METHODOLOGY: We searched MEDLINE, Embase and LILACS up to January 2018. Data from randomized and observational studies evaluating amiodarone use in Chagas cardiomyopathy were included. Two reviewers selected the studies, extracted data and assessed risk of bias. Overall quality of evidence was accessed using Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE). PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We included 9 studies (3 before-after studies, 5 case series and 1 randomized controlled trial). Two studies with a total of 38 patients had the full dataset, allowing individual patient data (IPD) analysis. In 24-hour Holter, amiodarone reduced the number of ventricular tachycardia episodes in 99.9% (95%CI 99.8%-100%), ventricular premature beats in 93.1% (95%CI 82%-97.4%) and the incidence of ventricular couplets in 79% (RR 0.21, 95%CI 0.11-0.39). Studies not included in the IPD analysis showed a reduction of ventricular premature beats (5 studies), ventricular tachycardia (6 studies) and ventricular couplets (1 study). We pooled the incidence of adverse side effects with random effects meta-analysis; amiodarone was associated with corneal microdeposits (61.1%, 95%CI 19.0-91.3, 5 studies), gastrointestinal events (16.1%, 95%CI 6.61-34.2, 3 studies), sinus bradycardia (12.7%, 95%CI 3.71-35.5, 6 studies), dermatological events (10.6%, 95%CI 4.77-21.9, 3 studies) and drug discontinuation (7.68%, 95%CI 4.17-13.7, 5 studies). Quality of evidence ranged from moderate to very low. CONCLUSIONS: Amiodarone is effective in reducing ventricular arrhythmias, but there is no evidence for hard endpoints (sudden death, hospitalization). Although our findings support the use of amiodarone, it is important to balance the potential benefits and harms at the individual level for decision-making.

15.
Health Res Policy Syst ; 16(1): 63, 2018 Jul 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30005679

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Practice guidelines require a substantial investment of resources and time, often taking between 1 and 3 years from conceptualisation to publication. However, urgent situations require the development of recommendations in a shorter timeframe. In this third and final article in the series exploring challenges and solutions in developing rapid guidelines (RGs), we propose guiding principles for the development of RGs. METHODS: We utilised the Guideline International Network-McMaster Guideline Development Checklist (GDC) as a starting point for elements to consider during RG development. We built on those elements using the findings from a systematic review of guideline manuals, a survey of international organisations conducting RGs, and interviews of guideline developers within WHO. We reviewed initial findings and developed an intermediate list of elements, as well as narrative guidance. We then invited experts to validate the intermediate list, reviewing for placement, brevity and redundancy. We used this iterative process and group consensus to determine the final elements for RG development guidance. RESULTS: Our work identified 21 principles within the topics of the Guideline International Network-McMaster GDC to guide the planning and development of RGs. Principles fell within 15 of the 18 checklist topics, highlighting strategies to streamline and expedite the guideline development process. CONCLUSIONS: We defined principles to guide the development of RGs, while maintaining a standardised, rigorous and transparent process. These principles will serve as guidance for guideline developers responding to urgent situations such as public health urgencies. Integration of these principles within currently disseminated guideline development standards will facilitate the use of those tools in situations necessitating RG recommendations.


Assuntos
Lista de Checagem , Surtos de Doenças , Emergências , Medicina Baseada em Evidências , Disseminação de Informação , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Saúde Pública , Atitude , Consenso , Análise Custo-Benefício , Tomada de Decisões , Assistência à Saúde , Recursos em Saúde , Humanos , Formulação de Políticas , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto/normas , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Organização Mundial da Saúde
16.
Health Res Policy Syst ; 16(1): 62, 2018 Jul 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30005710

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Situations such as public health emergencies and outbreaks necessitate the development and publication of high-quality recommendations within a condensed timeframe. For example, WHO has produced examples of and guidance for the development of rapid guidelines (RGs). However, more information is needed to understand the experiences and perceptions of guideline developers. This is the second of a series of three articles addressing methodological issues around RGs. This study describes the perceptions and experiences of guideline developers at WHO about RGs. METHODS: We conducted interviews consisting of open- and closed-ended questions with guideline developers at WHO. Our analysis described the definition and rationale of RGs, the differences from regular guidelines with regard to timelines from topic definition until publication, barriers to identifying the evidence and the lack of a standard methodology to develop RGs. RESULTS: We interviewed 10 participants, the majority of whom were comfortable with the current WHO definition of RGs. Most stated that the rationale for developing RGs should be in response to new evidence about efficacy, cost-effectiveness or safety. Respondents differed with regards to the amount of time RGs should take. While the majority of participants agreed that guidelines should be based on a systematic review, this step in the process was considered the most time and resource intensive. Challenges for developing RGs included limited personnel and financial resources as well as the lack of evidence. Facilitators, in turn, that may improve RG development include additional financial and personnel resources as well as the use of virtual meetings. CONCLUSIONS: While our study suggests a strong need and rationale for the development of RGs, standardisation of timelines and guidance on panel composition, peer-review process, conduct of meetings and sources of permissible evidence require further research.


Assuntos
Pessoal Administrativo , Surtos de Doenças , Emergências , Medicina Baseada em Evidências , Disseminação de Informação , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Saúde Pública , Atitude , Análise Custo-Benefício , Tomada de Decisões , Assistência à Saúde , Recursos em Saúde , Humanos , Formulação de Políticas , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto/normas , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Organização Mundial da Saúde
17.
Health Res Policy Syst ; 16(1): 61, 2018 Jul 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30005712

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Guidelines in the healthcare field generally should contain evidence-based recommendations to inform healthcare decisions. Guidelines often require 2 years or more to develop, but certain circumstances necessitate the development of rapid guidelines (RGs) in a short period of time. Upholding methodological rigor while meeting the reduced development timeframe presents a challenge for developing RGs. Our objective was to review current practices and standards for the development of RGs. This is the first of a series of three articles addressing methodological issues around RGs. METHODS: We conducted a systematic survey of methods manuals and published RGs to identify reasons for the development of RGs. Data sources included existing guideline manuals, published RGs, Trip Medical Database, MEDLINE, EMBASE and communication with guideline developers until February 2018. RESULTS: We identified 46 guidelines that used a shortened timeframe for their development. Nomenclature describing RGs varied across organisations, wherein the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention produced 'Interim Guidelines', the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence in the United Kingdom developed 'Short Clinical Guidelines', and WHO provided 'Rapid Advice'. The rationale for RGs included response to emergencies, rapid increases in cases of a condition or disease severity, or new evidence regarding treatment. In general, the methods to assess the quality of evidence, the consensus process and the management of the conflict of interest were not always clear. While we identified another 11 RGs from other institutions, there was no reference to timeframe and reasons for conducting a RG. The three organisations mentioned above provide guidance for the development of RGs. CONCLUSIONS: There is a lack of standardised nomenclature and definitions regarding RGs and there is inconsistency in the methods described in manuals and in RG. It is therefore important that all RGs provide a detailed and transparent description of their methods in order for readers and end-users to be able to assess their quality and validate their findings.


Assuntos
Surtos de Doenças , Emergências , Medicina Baseada em Evidências , Disseminação de Informação , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Saúde Pública , Consenso , Bases de Dados Factuais , Tomada de Decisões , Assistência à Saúde , Recursos em Saúde , Humanos , Formulação de Políticas , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto/normas , Publicações , Inquéritos e Questionários , Reino Unido , Estados Unidos
18.
BMJ Open ; 8(6): e021170, 2018 Jun 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29880568

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Human papillomavirus (HPV) is associated with the development of genital warts and different types of cancer, including virtually all cervical cancers and a considerable number of penile, anal and oropharyngeal cancers. Data regarding the prevalence of HPV infection in Brazil are limited and fragmented. We aim to determine HPV prevalence in sexually active women and men aged 16-25 years and to investigate regional differences in virus prevalence and types. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This is a nationwide, multicentric, cross-sectional, prospective study that will include participants aged 16-25 years from all Brazilian capital cities. Recruitment will occur in primary health units by trained health professionals who will be responsible for collecting biological samples and interviewing the volunteers. After signing informed consent, all participants will answer a questionnaire that will collect sociodemographic and behavioural data. All samples will be processed in a certified central laboratory, and strict quality control will be performed by many different procedures, including double data entry, training and certification of primary care health professionals responsible for data collection, simulation of interviews, and auditing and monitoring of visits. The sample size will be standardised based on the population distribution of each capital using SAS and R statistical software. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The project was approved by the research ethics committee of the main institution and the corresponding ethics committees of the recruitment sites. This will be the first Brazilian nationwide study to determine overall HPV prevalence and to examine regional differences and social, demographic and behavioural factors related to HPV infection. Critical analysis of the study results will contribute to epidemiological knowledge and will set a baseline for future evaluation of the impact of the National HPV Vaccination Program.

19.
BMJ Open ; 8(4): e021193, 2018 04 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29654049

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Flexible intensive care unit (ICU) visiting hours have been proposed as a means to improve patient-centred and family-centred care. However, randomised trials evaluating the effects of flexible family visitation models (FFVMs) are scarce. This study aims to compare the effectiveness and safety of an FFVM versus a restrictive family visitation model (RFVM) on delirium prevention among ICU patients, as well as to analyse its potential effects on family members and ICU professionals. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: A cluster-randomised crossover trial involving adult ICU patients, family members and ICU professionals will be conducted. Forty medical-surgical Brazilian ICUs with RFVMs (<4.5 hours/day) will be randomly assigned to either an RFVM (visits according to local policies) or an FFVM (visitation during 12 consecutive hours per day) group at a 1:1 ratio. After enrolment and follow-up of 25 patients, each ICU will be switched over to the other visitation model, until 25 more patients per site are enrolled and followed. The primary outcome will be the cumulative incidence of delirium among ICU patients, measured twice a day using the Confusion Assessment Method for the ICU. Secondary outcome measures will include daily hazard of delirium, ventilator-free days, any ICU-acquired infections, ICU length of stay and hospital mortality among the patients; symptoms of anxiety and depression and satisfaction among the family members; and prevalence of burnout symptoms among the ICU professionals. Tertiary outcomes will include need for antipsychotic agents and/or mechanical restraints, coma-free days, unplanned loss of invasive devices and ICU-acquired pneumonia, urinary tract infection or bloodstream infection among the patients; self-perception of involvement in patient care among the family members; and satisfaction among the ICU professionals. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The study protocol has been approved by the research ethics committee of all participant institutions. We aim to disseminate the findings through conferences and peer-reviewed journals. TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT02932358.

20.
Breast Cancer Res Treat ; 170(3): 455-476, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29654416

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Randomized clinical trials are inconclusive regarding the role of physical exercise in anthropometric measurements, quality of life, and survival in breast cancer patients. Our aim was to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess the effects of physical exercise on these outcomes in women who went through curative treatment of early-stage breast cancer. METHODS: Pubmed, Embase, Cochrane Library were searched for randomized clinical trial comparing physical exercise (counseling or structured programs with supervised/individualized exercise sessions) with usual care in women that went through for breast cancer treatment. Primary outcomes were overall survival and disease-free survival, while secondary outcomes were weight loss, body mass index, waist-hip ratio, percentage of body fat, and quality of life. RESULTS: We found 60 randomized clinical trials, only one of them showed mortality data; the HR for mortality was 0.45 (95% CI 0.21-0.97) for the intervention group when compared to the control group. Physical exercise was associated with weight reduction (- 1.36 kg, 95% CI - 2.51 to - 0.21, p = 0.02), lower body mass index (- 0.89 kg/m2, 95% CI - 1.50 to - 0.28, p < 0.01), and lower percentage of body fat (- 1.60 percentage points, 95% CI - 2.31 to - 0.88, p < 0.01). There was an increase in the quality of life (standardized mean difference of 0.45, 95% CI 0.20-0.69, p < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: The articles found had heterogeneous types of intervention, but they showed significant effects on anthropometric measures and quality of life. Among them, only one study had mortality as outcome and it showed physical exercise as a protective intervention. Despite these findings, publication bias and poor methodological quality were presented. Physical exercise should be advised for breast cancer survivors since it has no adverse effects and can improve anthropometrics measures and quality of life. PROSPERO registry: CRD42014008743.

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