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1.
Nutr Hosp ; 36(Spec No1): 130-134, 2019 Jul 02.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31232587

RESUMO

Introduction: Objectives: part of the cultural and social identity of a population is its gastronomy. Currently, the extensive offering of processed meals, the influence from different cuisines, and "fashionable trends" (such as the various "foodie" trends) has led to confusion amongst consumers and the abandonment of traditional recipes. Deep dive in the study of gastronomy, its evolution and the nutritional consequences. Methods: bibliographic search in relation to the subject in Google and other manual searches. Results: the gastronomy of the Canarian Community is characterized by its sobriety and by having simple recipes, with dishes made with few ingredients. The consumption of food per capita stands above the national average. They consume more non-alcoholic beverages (mineral water, juices and soft drinks), dairy products and derivatives, oils and fats, legumes, sugars and sweets, however the consumption of fruits and vegetables is slightly lower than the national average. Other food groups remain around the national average. As a result, this change in their dietary habits, together with physical inactivity has favoured an increase in obesity and diabetes. Conclusions: the link between nutrition, gastronomy and territory can help alleviate the health problems derived from poor food choices in the Canary Islands.

2.
Nutr. hosp ; 36(extr.1): 130-134, jun. 2019. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS-Express | ID: ibc-FGT-1840

RESUMO

Objetivos: la gastronomía forma parte de la identidad cultural y social de una población. La gran variedad y abundantes ofertas de alimentos procesados y de otras zonas, así como la moda foodie, entre otras, han ocasionado confusión en el consumidor, lo que ha provocado el abandono del recetario tradicional. Nuestro objetivo es profundizar en el estudio de la gastronomía y de su evolución y la implicación nutricional que se deriva. Métodos: búsqueda bibliográfica relacionada con el tema a través de Google y otros medios manuales. Resultados: la gastronomía de Canarias se caracteriza por su sobriedad y por poseer un recetario sencillo, con platos elaborados con pocos ingredientes. Registra un consumo per cápita en alimentación por encima de la media nacional. Se consumen más bebidas no alcohólicas (agua mineral, zumos y néctares), lácteos y derivados, aceites y grasas, legumbres, azúcares y dulces; sin embargo, el consumo de frutas es inferior y, sobre todo, el de verduras. El resto de alimentos se encuentra alrededor de la media. El cambio en el modelo alimentario ha favorecido, junto a la inactividad física, al aumento de la obesidad y de la diabetes. Conclusiones: la sinergia entre nutrición, gastronomía y territorio puede ayudar a paliar los problemas de salud derivados de una elección alimentaria errónea en Canarias


Objectives: part of the cultural and social identity of a population is its gastronomy. Currently, the extensive offering of processed meals, the influence from different cuisines, and "fashionable trends" (such as the various "foodie" trends) has led to confusion amongst consumers and the abandonment of traditional recipes. Deep dive in the study of gastronomy, its evolution and the nutritional consequences. Methods: bibliographic search in relation to the subject in Google and other manual searches. Results: the gastronomy of the Canarian Community is characterized by its sobriety and by having simple recipes, with dishes made with few ingredients. The consumption of food per capita stands above the national average. They consume more non-alcoholic beverages (mineral water, juices and soft drinks), dairy products and derivatives, oils and fats, legumes, sugars and sweets, however the consumption of fruits and vegetables is slightly lower than the national average. Other food groups remain around the national average. As a result, this change in their dietary habits, together with physical inactivity has favoured an increase in obesity and diabetes. Conclusions: the link between nutrition, gastronomy and territory can help alleviate the health problems derived from poor food choices in the Canary Islands

3.
Environ Entomol ; 48(4): 1012-1023, 2019 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31114874

RESUMO

We describe the biodiversity, seasonal variation, and the possible edge effect of Coleoptera found in the canopy of the cloud forest in Tlanchinol in the state of Hidalgo. The coleopterans were collected by means of three fogging events during the dry season and another three during the rainy season in three sites of the forest: the edge, an intermediate, and an internal site. In total, 3,487 coleopterans were collected, belonging to 325 morphospecies from 52 families. The family with the largest number of morphospecies and abundance was Staphylinidae, followed by Curculionidae and Chrysomelidae. Species richness and abundance were higher in the dry season than in the rainy season. The biodiversity analyses, however, suggest that the rainy season showed the highest biodiversity levels, mainly because of the pronounced dominance of some species in the dry season. Species composition was different between the dry and rainy seasons. The internal site showed the lowest biodiversity compared with the intermediate and edge sites. The main edge effect detected was that species composition in the edge site differed from the intermediate and internal sites. Species composition did not differ significantly between the two latter sites. These results suggest that the study zone had a considerable level of biodiversity of Coleoptera and that it was very likely in a well-preserved condition, which supports the findings of another study previously performed in the same site using flight intercept traps.

4.
PLoS One ; 14(4): e0214920, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30978221

RESUMO

We studied the saproxylic beetle community inhabiting deadwood in remnants of riparian cloud forests in "La Antigua" basin, in central Veracruz (Mexico). We assessed the influence of deadwood features (tree species, trunk position, trunk diameter, trunk volume and decomposition stages) on saproxylic beetle diversity. In order to assess the stability of beetle species-deadwood interactions, we also analyzed the ecological networks structure. A total of 63 deadwood trunks, belonging to four tree species, were sampled by standardized hand-collection throughout well-preserved remnants of riparian cloud forest. We found that tree species and deadwood decay stage are the main drivers that determine the diversity and stability of saproxylic beetle species interactions. Our results indicate that Quercus corrugata is the main tree species in terms of maintaining the significantly highest saproxylic beetle diversity, but with no stable interactions (saproxylic beetle-deadwood). A nested network structure was detected for Clethra mexicana and Liquidambar styraciflua, with a pool of core (generalist) saproxylic beetle species. We observed that beetle diversity from the early and late deadwood stages comprises distinct assemblages and the four stages of decomposition showed a nested network structure. During deadwood succession, community composition and guilds changed among networks; the early successional stage had more specialized xylophagous beetles, while other guilds (mycophagous, saprophagous and zoophagous) arrive later and become the core species in the advanced stages of decomposition networks. Heliscus tropicus (Passalidae) is a key species constituting the core of all of the networks and could be considered an ecosystem engineer in cloud forests. By exploring links between saproxylic beetles and deadwood characteristics, we can further our understanding of species interaction in order to develop management strategies oriented towards the protection of species and their habitats in this threatened ecosystem.

5.
Front Immunol ; 10: 132, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30787926

RESUMO

Characterization of a pandemic 2009 H1N1 influenza virus isolated from a fatal case patient (F-IAV), showed the presence of three different mutations; potential determinants of its high pathogenicity that were located in the polymerase subunits (PB2 A221T and PA D529N) and the hemagglutinin (HA S110L). Recombinant viruses containing individually or in combination the polymerase mutations in the backbone of A/California/04/09 (CAL) showed that PA D529N was clearly involved in the increased pathogenicity of the F-IAV virus. Here, we have evaluated the contribution of HA S110L to F-IAV pathogenicity, through introduction of this point mutation in CAL recombinant virus (HA mut). The HA S110L protein has similar pH stability, comparable mobility, and entry properties both in human and mouse cultured cells that wild type HA. The change HA S110L leads to a non-significant trend to reduce the replication capacity of influenza virus in tissue culture, and HA mut is better neutralized than CAL virus by monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies against HA from CAL strain. In addition, recombinant viruses containing HA S110L alone or in combination with polymerase mutations considerably increased the LD50 in infected mice. Characterization of the lungs of HA mut infected animals showed reduced lung damage and inflammation compared with CAL infected mice. Accordingly, lower virus replication, decreased presence in bronchioli and parenchyma and lower leukocytes and epithelial infected cells were found in the lungs of HA mut-infected animals. Our results indicate that, mutation HA S110L constitutes a determinant of attenuation and suggest that its interaction with components of the respiratory tract mucus and lectins, that play an important role on influenza virus outcome, may constitute a physical barrier impeding the infection of the target cells, thus compromising the infection outcome.

6.
Environ Entomol ; 48(1): 88-96, 2019 02 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30590465

RESUMO

Cactus-dominated semiarid scrubland covers 40% of Mexican territory. This ecosystem is highly dynamic and undergoes drastic changes caused by seasonality. These temporal changes influence saprophagous insect communities associated with Cactaceae species. In this study, we analyzed the beetle community associated with decayed cactus species at the Barranca de Metztitlán Biosphere Reserve in central Mexico. We compared the diversity and composition of beetle communities in rainy and dry seasons; moreover, the network architecture of cactus-beetle interactions was examined. High dominance and abundance were detected in rainy assemblages, whereas the dry season had less abundance but more ecological diversity. A nested structure was found between individual cactus species and beetle species, as well as in an intrapopulation network between fragments of the columnar cacti Isolatocereus dumortieri (Scheidw.) Backeb. (Cactaceae), and beetle species for both seasons (rainy and dry). This finding shows more generalist than specialist beetle species inhabiting cactus species. Further research is still needed to understand whether the presence of these beetle species is determined by microhabitat conditions or the abundance of prey associated with decayed cacti. This is the first step in untangling the complex interactions among cactus-beetle species involved in the decomposition process of cacti in semiarid environments. This study provides evidence of temporal shifts in abundance and diversity patterns of these beetles associated with decayed cacti; furthermore, we did not detect an influence of seasonality on the structure of cactus-beetle interactions.


Assuntos
Cactaceae , Besouros , Ecossistema , Estações do Ano , Animais , México
7.
Viruses ; 10(8)2018 08 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30127258

RESUMO

In the context of long-term screening for viruses on Western Palaearctic bats, we tested for the presence of adenovirus 1392 oropharyngeal swabs and 325 stool samples taken from 27 bat species. Adenoviruses were detected in 12 species of the Vespertilionidae and the Rhinolophidae families. Fifty positive respiratory and 26 positive stool samples were studied. Phylogenetic analyses of partial hexon protein and partial DNA-dependent DNA polymerase genes indicate that all these bat adenoviruses belong to the genus Mastadenovirus but without constituting a monophyletic cluster. According to genetic identities, the new groups are distinct to the previously described Bat mastadenovirus A and B species and contribute with potentially new members. Our data support that diversity of bat mastadenovirus is host-dependent and increase the knowledge of potentially pathogenic virus from bats. Due to the active role of bats as viral reservoirs, the characterization of these viruses is relevant for Public Health.


Assuntos
Infecções por Adenoviridae/veterinária , Quirópteros/virologia , Genoma Viral , Mastadenovirus/genética , Filogenia , Proteínas Virais/genética , Infecções por Adenoviridae/epidemiologia , Infecções por Adenoviridae/virologia , África do Norte/epidemiologia , Animais , Ásia/epidemiologia , Proteínas do Capsídeo/genética , DNA Polimerase Dirigida por DNA/genética , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Fezes/virologia , Expressão Gênica , Mastadenovirus/classificação , Mastadenovirus/isolamento & purificação , Orofaringe/virologia , Filogeografia
8.
Nutrients ; 10(7)2018 Jun 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29941818

RESUMO

International scientific experts in food, nutrition, dietetics, endocrinology, physical activity, paediatrics, nursing, toxicology and public health met in Lisbon on 2⁻4 July 2017 to develop a Consensus on the use of low- and no-calorie sweeteners (LNCS) as substitutes for sugars and other caloric sweeteners. LNCS are food additives that are broadly used as sugar substitutes to sweeten foods and beverages with the addition of fewer or no calories. They are also used in medicines, health-care products, such as toothpaste, and food supplements. The goal of this Consensus was to provide a useful, evidence-based, point of reference to assist in efforts to reduce free sugars consumption in line with current international public health recommendations. Participating experts in the Lisbon Consensus analysed and evaluated the evidence in relation to the role of LNCS in food safety, their regulation and the nutritional and dietary aspects of their use in foods and beverages. The conclusions of this Consensus were: (1) LNCS are some of the most extensively evaluated dietary constituents, and their safety has been reviewed and confirmed by regulatory bodies globally including the World Health Organisation, the US Food and Drug Administration and the European Food Safety Authority; (2) Consumer education, which is based on the most robust scientific evidence and regulatory processes, on the use of products containing LNCS should be strengthened in a comprehensive and objective way; (3) The use of LNCS in weight reduction programmes that involve replacing caloric sweeteners with LNCS in the context of structured diet plans may favour sustainable weight reduction. Furthermore, their use in diabetes management programmes may contribute to a better glycaemic control in patients, albeit with modest results. LNCS also provide dental health benefits when used in place of free sugars; (4) It is proposed that foods and beverages with LNCS could be included in dietary guidelines as alternative options to products sweetened with free sugars; (5) Continued education of health professionals is required, since they are a key source of information on issues related to food and health for both the general population and patients. With this in mind, the publication of position statements and consensus documents in the academic literature are extremely desirable.


Assuntos
Bebidas/normas , Qualidade de Produtos para o Consumidor/normas , Inocuidade dos Alimentos , Alimentos/normas , Adoçantes não Calóricos/normas , Adoçantes Calóricos/normas , Valor Nutritivo , Animais , Bebidas/efeitos adversos , Glicemia/metabolismo , Consenso , Diabetes Mellitus/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus/terapia , Ingestão de Energia , Alimentos/efeitos adversos , Rotulagem de Alimentos/normas , Humanos , Adoçantes não Calóricos/efeitos adversos , Adoçantes Calóricos/efeitos adversos , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Obesidade/terapia , Recomendações Nutricionais , Medição de Risco , Perda de Peso
9.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 1230, 2018 01 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29352168

RESUMO

Influenza virus stablishes a network of virus-host functional interactions, which depends on chromatin dynamic and therefore on epigenetic modifications. Using an unbiased search, we analyzed the epigenetic changes at DNA methylation and post-translational histone modification levels induced by the infection. DNA methylation was unaltered, while we found a general decrease on histone acetylation, which correlates with transcriptional inactivation and may cooperate with the impairment of cellular transcription that causes influenza virus infection. A particular increase in H3K79 methylation was observed and the use of an inhibitor of the specific H3K79 methylase, Dot1L enzyme, or its silencing, increased influenza virus replication. The antiviral response was reduced in conditions of Dot1L downregulation, since decreased nuclear translocation of NF-kB complex, and IFN-ß, Mx1 and ISG56 expression was detected. The data suggested a control of antiviral signaling by methylation of H3K79 and consequently, influenza virus replication was unaffected in IFN pathway-compromised, Dot1L-inhibited cells. H3K79 methylation also controlled replication of another potent interferon-inducing virus such as vesicular stomatitis virus, but did not modify amplification of respiratory syncytial virus that poorly induces interferon signaling. Epigenetic methylation of H3K79 might have an important role in controlling interferon-induced signaling against viral pathogens.


Assuntos
Metilação de DNA , Epigênese Genética , Código das Histonas , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Orthomyxoviridae/fisiologia , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Cães , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Interferon beta/metabolismo , Células Madin Darby de Rim Canino , Metiltransferases/genética , Metiltransferases/metabolismo , Proteínas de Resistência a Myxovirus/metabolismo , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Replicação Viral
10.
PLoS Pathog ; 13(10): e1006650, 2017 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29023600

RESUMO

Influenza A virus (IAV) infection can be severe or even lethal in toddlers, the elderly and patients with certain medical conditions. Infection of apparently healthy individuals nonetheless accounts for many severe disease cases and deaths, suggesting that viruses with increased pathogenicity co-circulate with pandemic or epidemic viruses. Looking for potential virulence factors, we have identified a polymerase PA D529N mutation detected in a fatal IAV case, whose introduction into two different recombinant virus backbones, led to reduced defective viral genomes (DVGs) production. This mutation conferred low induction of antiviral response in infected cells and increased pathogenesis in mice. To analyze the association between low DVGs production and pathogenesis in humans, we performed a genomic analysis of viruses isolated from a cohort of previously healthy individuals who suffered highly severe IAV infection requiring admission to Intensive Care Unit and patients with fatal outcome who additionally showed underlying medical conditions. These viruses were compared with those isolated from a cohort of mild IAV patients. Viruses with fewer DVGs accumulation were observed in patients with highly severe/fatal outcome than in those with mild disease, suggesting that low DVGs abundance constitutes a new virulence pathogenic marker in humans.


Assuntos
Genoma Viral/genética , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H1N1/genética , Virus da Influenza A Subtipo H5N1/genética , Influenza Humana/virologia , Infecções por Orthomyxoviridae/virologia , Replicação Viral/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Animais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H1N1/patogenicidade , Virus da Influenza A Subtipo H5N1/patogenicidade , Masculino , Camundongos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infecções por Orthomyxoviridae/genética , Virulência/genética , Adulto Jovem
12.
Front Microbiol ; 8: 575, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28421062

RESUMO

Several amino acid changes have been previously implicated in adaptation of avian influenza viruses to human hosts, among them the D701N change in the PB2 polymerase subunit that also is the main determinant of avian virus pathogenesis in animal models. However, previous studies using recombinant viruses did not provide conclusive information of the contribution of this PB2 residue to pathogenicity in human influenza virus strains. We identified this mutation in an A(H1N1)pdm09-like human influenza virus isolated from an infected patient with pneumonia and acute respiratory failure, admitted to the intensive care unit. An exhaustive search has revealed PB2-D701 as a highly conserved position in all available H1N1 human virus sequences in NCBI database, showing a very low prevalence of PB2-D701N change. Presence of PB2-701N amino acid correlates with severe or fatal outcome in those scarce cases with known disease outcome of the infection. In these patients, the residue PB2-701N may contribute to pathogenicity as it was previously reported in humans infected with avian viruses. This study helps to clarify a debate that has arisen regarding the role of PB2-D701N in human influenza virus pathogenicity.

13.
MBio ; 7(2): e00085-16, 2016 Apr 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27094326

RESUMO

UNLABELLED: Influenza A viruses generate annual epidemics and occasional pandemics of respiratory disease with important consequences for human health and the economy. Therefore, a large effort has been devoted to the development of new anti-influenza virus drugs directed to viral targets, as well as to the identification of cellular targets amenable to anti-influenza virus therapy. Here we have addressed the identification of such potential cellular targets by screening collections of drugs approved for human use. We reasoned that screening with a green fluorescent protein-based recombinant replicon system would identify cellular targets involved in virus transcription/replication and/or gene expression and hence address an early stage of virus infection. By using such a strategy, we identified Montelukast (MK) as an inhibitor of virus multiplication. MK inhibited virus gene expression but did not alter viral RNA synthesis in vitro or viral RNA accumulation in vivo The low selectivity index of MK prevented its use as an antiviral, but it was sufficient to identify a new cellular pathway suitable for anti-influenza virus intervention. By deep sequencing of RNA isolated from mock- and virus-infected human cells, treated with MK or left untreated, we showed that it stimulates the PERK-mediated unfolded protein stress response. The phosphorylation of PERK was partly inhibited in virus-infected cells but stimulated in MK-treated cells. Accordingly, pharmacological inhibition of PERK phosphorylation led to increased viral gene expression, while inhibition of PERK phosphatase reduced viral protein synthesis. These results suggest the PERK-mediated unfolded protein response as a potential cellular target to modulate influenza virus infection. IMPORTANCE: Influenza A viruses are responsible for annual epidemics and occasional pandemics with important consequences for human health and the economy. The unfolded protein response is a defense mechanism fired by cells when the demand of protein synthesis and folding is excessive, for instance, during an acute virus infection. In this report, we show that influenza virus downregulates the unfolded protein response mediated by the PERK sensor, while Montelukast, a drug used to treat asthma in humans, specifically stimulated this response and downregulated viral protein synthesis and multiplication. Accordingly, we show that PERK phosphorylation was reduced in virus-infected cells and increased in cells treated with Montelukast. Hence, our studies suggest that modulation of the PERK-mediated unfolded protein response is a target for influenza virus inhibition.


Assuntos
Acetatos/farmacologia , Vírus da Influenza A/efeitos dos fármacos , Influenza Humana/enzimologia , Quinolinas/farmacologia , Resposta a Proteínas não Dobradas , eIF-2 Quinase/metabolismo , Humanos , Vírus da Influenza A/genética , Vírus da Influenza A/fisiologia , Influenza Humana/genética , Influenza Humana/fisiopatologia , Influenza Humana/virologia , Fosforilação , Resposta a Proteínas não Dobradas/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas Virais/genética , Proteínas Virais/metabolismo , Replicação Viral/efeitos dos fármacos , eIF-2 Quinase/genética
14.
PeerJ ; 4: e1809, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26989638

RESUMO

We evaluated the structure of intrapopulation howler monkey-plant interactions by focusing on the plant species consumed by different sex and age classes in continuous and fragmented forests in southern Mexico. For this we used network analysis to evaluate the impact of fragmentation on howler population traits and on resource availability and food choice. A total of 37 tree and liana species and seven plant items (bark, immature fruits, flowers, mature fruits, immature leaves, mature leaves and petioles) were consumed, but their relative consumption varied according to sex and age classes and habitat type. Overall, adult females consumed the greatest number of plant species and items while infants and juveniles the lowest. For both continuous and fragmented forests, we found a nested diet for howler monkey-plant networks: diets of more selective monkeys represent subsets of the diets of other individuals. Nestedness was likely due to the high selectivity of early life stages in specific food plants and items, which contrasts with the generalized foraging behaviour of adults. Information on the extent to which different plant species and primate populations depend on such interactions in different habitats will help to make accurate predictions about the potential impact of disturbances on plant-animal interaction networks.

15.
PLoS One ; 11(1): e0146461, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26731271

RESUMO

Tropical rain forest fragmentation affects biotic interactions in distinct ways. Little is known, however, about how fragmentation affects animal trophic guilds and their patterns of interactions with host plants. In this study, we analyzed changes in biotic interactions in forest fragments by using a multitrophic approach. For this, we classified arthropods associated with Heliconia aurantiaca herbs into broad trophic guilds (omnivores, herbivores and predators) and assessed the topological structure of intrapopulation plant-arthropod networks in fragments and continuous forests. Habitat type influenced arthropod species abundance, diversity and composition with greater abundance in fragments but greater diversity in continuous forest. According to trophic guilds, coleopteran herbivores were more abundant in continuous forest and overall omnivores in fragments. Continuous forest showed a greater diversity of interactions than fragments. Only in fragments, however, did the arthropod community associated with H aurantiaca show a nested structure, suggesting novel and/or opportunistic host-arthropod associations. Plants, omnivores and predators contributed more to nestedness than herbivores. Therefore, Heliconia-arthropod network properties do not appear to be maintained in fragments mainly caused by the decrease of herbivores. Our study contributes to the understanding of the impact of fragmentation on the structure and dynamics of multitrophic arthropod communities associated with a particular plant species of the highly biodiverse tropical forests. Nevertheless, further replication of study sites is needed to strengthen the conclusion that forest fragmentation negatively affects arthropod assemblages.


Assuntos
Artrópodes/fisiologia , Biodiversidade , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Herbivoria/fisiologia , Plantas , Floresta Úmida , Animais , Ecossistema , Árvores
16.
Virol J ; 12: 48, 2015 Mar 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25888921

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The majority of pandemic 2009 H1N1 (A(H1N1)pdm09) influenza virus (IV) caused mild symptoms in most infected patients, however, a greater rate of severe disease was observed in healthy young adults and children without co-morbid conditions. The purpose of this work was to study in ferrets the dynamics of infection of two contemporary strains of human A(H1N1)pdm09 IV, one isolated from a patient showing mild disease and the other one from a fatal case. METHODS: Viral strains isolated from a patient showing mild disease-M (A/CastillaLaMancha/RR5661/2009) or from a fatal case-F (A/CastillaLaMancha/RR5911/2009), both without known comorbid conditions, were inoculated in two groups of ferrets and clinical and pathological conditions were analysed. RESULTS: Mild to severe clinical symptoms were observed in animals from both groups. A clinical score distribution was applied in which ferrets with mild clinical signs were distributed on a non-severe group (NS) and ferrets with severe clinical signs on a severe group (S), regardless of the virus used in the infection. Animals on S showed a significant decrease in body weight compared to animals on NS at 4 to 7 days post-infection (dpi). Clinical progress correlated with histopathological findings. Concentrations of haptoglobin (Hp) and serum amyloid A (SAA) increased on both groups after 2 dpi. Clinically severe infected ferrets showed a stronger antibody response and higher viral titres after infection (p = 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The severity in the progress of infection was independent from the virus used for infection suggesting that the host immune response was determinant in the outcome of the infection. The diversity observed in ferrets mimicked the variability found in the human population.


Assuntos
Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H1N1/fisiologia , Influenza Humana/virologia , Adulto , Animais , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Furões/virologia , Humanos , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H1N1/imunologia , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H1N1/isolamento & purificação , Influenza Humana/sangue , Influenza Humana/patologia , Pulmão/patologia , Pulmão/virologia , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
17.
J Gen Virol ; 95(Pt 5): 1033-42, 2014 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24531414

RESUMO

Murine hybridomas producing neutralizing mAbs specific to the pandemic influenza virus A/California/07/2009 haemagglutinin (HA) were isolated. These antibodies recognized at least two different but overlapping new epitopes that were conserved in the HA of most Spanish pandemic isolates. However, one of these isolates (A/Extremadura/RR6530/2010) lacked reactivity with the mAbs and carried two unique mutations in the HA head (S88Y and K136N) that were required simultaneously to eliminate reactivity with the murine antibodies. This unusual requirement directly illustrates the phenomenon of enhanced antigenic change proposed previously for the accumulation of simultaneous amino acid substitutions at antigenic sites of the influenza A virus HA during virus evolution (Shih et al., Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, 104 , 6283-6288, 2007). The changes found in the A/Extremadura/RR6530/2010 HA were not found in escape mutants selected in vitro with one of the mAbs, which contained instead nearby single amino acid changes in the HA head. Thus, either single or double point mutations may similarly alter epitopes of the new antigenic site identified in this work in the 2009 H1N1 pandemic virus HA. Moreover, this site is relevant for the human antibody response, as shown by competition of mAbs and human post-infection sera for virus binding. The results are discussed in the context of the HA antigenic structure and challenges posed for identification of sequence changes with possible antigenic impact during virus surveillance.


Assuntos
Antígenos Virais/genética , Antígenos Virais/imunologia , Glicoproteínas de Hemaglutininação de Vírus da Influenza/genética , Glicoproteínas de Hemaglutininação de Vírus da Influenza/imunologia , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H1N1/genética , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H1N1/imunologia , Animais , Anticorpos Monoclonais/imunologia , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Epitopos/genética , Epitopos/imunologia , Humanos , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H1N1/isolamento & purificação , Influenza Humana/virologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Proteínas Mutantes/genética , Proteínas Mutantes/imunologia , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , RNA Viral/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Espanha
18.
PLoS One ; 8(1): e53515, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23326447

RESUMO

Pandemic 2009 H1N1 (pH1N1) influenza viruses caused mild symptoms in most infected patients. However, a greater rate of severe disease was observed in healthy young adults and children without co-morbid conditions. Here we tested whether influenza strains displaying differential virulence could be present among circulating pH1N1 viruses. The biological properties and the genotype of viruses isolated from a patient showing mild disease (M) or from a fatal case (F), both without known co-morbid conditions were compared in vitro and in vivo. The F virus presented faster growth kinetics and stronger induction of cytokines than M virus in human alveolar lung epithelial cells. In the murine model in vivo, the F virus showed a stronger morbidity and mortality than M virus. Remarkably, a higher proportion of mice presenting infectious virus in the hearts, was found in F virus-infected animals. Altogether, the data indicate that strains of pH1N1 virus with enhanced pathogenicity circulated during the 2009 pandemic. In addition, examination of chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5) genotype, recently reported as involved in severe influenza virus disease, revealed that the F virus-infected patient was homozygous for the deleted form of CCR5 receptor (CCR5Δ32).


Assuntos
Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H1N1/fisiologia , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Influenza Humana/virologia , Pandemias , Adulto , Alelos , Aminoácidos/genética , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Células Cultivadas , Citocinas/metabolismo , Células Epiteliais/patologia , Células Epiteliais/virologia , Feminino , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H1N1/genética , Influenza Humana/patologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Infecções por Orthomyxoviridae/patologia , Infecções por Orthomyxoviridae/virologia , Alvéolos Pulmonares/patologia , Alvéolos Pulmonares/virologia , Receptores CCR5/genética , Carga Viral , Replicação Viral
19.
World Rev Nutr Diet ; 105: 43-9, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23075585

RESUMO

Early nutrition can help to improve energy and protein intake and decrease the negative impact of the metabolic response to surgery. A key goal is to identify patients who exhibit increased respiration risk before beginning oral alimentation. Once a simple bedside 3-oz (90 ml) challenge, or early intervention in the oral care, administered by a trained provider is passed, specific diet recommendations can be made safely and confidently without the need for further objective dysphagia testing. Gastrointestinal motility disorders occur as part of the pathophysiology of diseases and critical illness, or are a result of medication therapies or enteral feeding complications. Inadequate energy intake in the first 7 days following extubation have recently been described. It would be highly beneficial to determine when it is best to initiate timely oral alimentation for recovering extubated intensive care unit (ICU) and more specifically surgical ICU patients to support the maintenance and rebuilding of lean body mass, maintain hydration, and permit the ingestion of oral medications. In a cross-sectional multicenter study conducted in 18 Spanish ICUs, within the scope of the 2007 European Nutrition Day, only 95 of 348 investigated patients (27.3%) received oral nutritional support. Constipation and diarrhea were common adverse effects. Unexpectedly, however, constipation episodes were more frequent than diarrhea in the patients not receiving oral nutritional support.


Assuntos
Nutrição Enteral/efeitos adversos , Nutrição Parenteral/efeitos adversos , Administração Oral , Constipação Intestinal/diagnóstico , Constipação Intestinal/etiologia , Estado Terminal/terapia , Estudos Transversais , Diarreia/diagnóstico , Diarreia/etiologia , Dieta , Ingestão de Energia , Nutrição Enteral/métodos , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Avaliação Nutricional , Necessidades Nutricionais , Estado Nutricional , Nutrição Parenteral/métodos
20.
Virus Res ; 169(1): 282-8, 2012 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22820404

RESUMO

The 3'proximal one-third of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) genome encodes the structural proteins and eight accessory proteins, including 3a, 3b, 6, 7a, 7b, 8a, 8b and 9b, varying in length from 39 to 274aa which do not share significant homology with viral proteins of known coronaviruses. The SARS-CoV protein 6 is 63 amino acids in length and has been previously involved in virus pathogenicity and replication. To further analyze this functions, the interaction of SARS-CoV protein 6 with other viral and/or cellular factors has been analyzed during SARS-CoV infective cycle. Protein 6 immunoprecipitation from extracts of SARS-CoV infected cells and mass spectrometry analysis revealed an interaction of viral proteins 6 and 9b in biologically relevant conditions. This interaction has been reinforced by co-localization of both proteins in the cytoplasm of SARS-CoV infected cells.


Assuntos
Mapeamento de Interação de Proteínas , Vírus da SARS/fisiologia , Proteínas Virais Reguladoras e Acessórias/metabolismo , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Cercopithecus aethiops , Imunoprecipitação , Espectrometria de Massas , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Células Vero
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