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1.
Ann Oncol ; 31(1): 88-95, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31912801

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The phase II J003 (N = 169) and phase III RECOURSE (N = 800) trials demonstrated a significant improvement in survival with trifluridine (FTD)/tipiracil (TPI) versus placebo in patients with refractory metastatic colorectal cancer. This post hoc analysis investigated pharmacokinetic data of FTD/TPI exposure and pharmacodynamic markers, such as chemotherapy-induced neutropenia (CIN) and clinical outcomes. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 210 patients from RECOURSE were enrolled in this substudy. A limited sampling approach was used, with three pharmacokinetic samples drawn on day 12 of cycle 1. Patients were categorized as being above or below the median area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) for FTD and TPI. We conducted a post hoc analysis using the entire RECOURSE population to determine the correlations between CIN and clinical outcome. We then carried out a similar analysis on the J003 trial to validate the results. RESULTS: In the RECOURSE subset, patients in the high FTD AUC group had a significantly increased CIN risk. Analyses of the entire population demonstrated that FTD/TPI-treated patients with CIN of any grade in cycles 1 and 2 had significantly longer median overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) than patients who did not develop CIN and patients in the placebo group. Patients who required an FTD/TPI treatment delay had increased OS and PFS versus those in the placebo group and those who did not develop CIN. Similar results were obtained in the J003 cohort. CONCLUSIONS: In RECOURSE, patients with higher FTD drug exposure had an increased CIN risk. FTD/TPI-treated patients who developed CIN had improved OS and PFS versus those in the placebo group and those who did not develop CIN. Similar findings were reported in the J003 cohort, thus validating the RECOURSE results. The occurrence of CIN may be a useful predictor of treatment outcomes for FTD/TPI-treated patients. CLINICALTRIALS. GOV IDENTIFIER: NCT01607957 (RECOURSE). JAPAN PHARMACEUTICAL INFORMATION CENTER NUMBER: JapicCTI-090880 (J003).

2.
Drugs Today (Barc) ; 55(10): 653-659, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31720562

RESUMO

The Organization for Professionals in Regulatory Affairs (TOPRA) hosted its 2019 Annual Symposium in Dublin and gathered together professionals from regulatory agencies, pharmaceutical companies and associations worldwide. The key topics discussed were related to digital health, Brexit, expedited/facilitated regulatory pathways, European Medicines Agency (EMA) public hearings, medi-cal devices and health technology assessment (HTA).


Assuntos
Indústria Farmacêutica , Avaliação da Tecnologia Biomédica , Congressos como Assunto , Equipamentos e Provisões , Regulamentação Governamental , Humanos , Irlanda , Telemedicina
3.
Ann Oncol ; 30(12): 1969-1977, 2019 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31573612

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The phase III TRIBE and TRIBE2 studies randomized metastatic colorectal cancer patients to first-line FOLFOXIRI/bevacizumab or a doublet (FOLFIRI or FOLFOX)/bevacizumab. The studies demonstrated a significant benefit from the triplet at the price of an increased incidence of chemotherapy-related adverse events (AEs). In both trials, males and females aged between 18 and 70 years with ECOG PS ≤2 and between 71 and 75 years with ECOG PS = 0 were eligible. We investigated the effect of FOLFOXIRI/bevacizumab versus doublets/bevacizumab according to age and gender. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Subgroup analyses according to age (<70 versus 70-75 years) and gender were carried out for overall response rate (ORR), progression-free survival (PFS), and AE rates. RESULTS: Of 1187 patients, 1005 (85%) were aged <70 years and 182 (15%) 70-75 years; 693 (58%) were males and 494 (42%) females. There was no evidence of interaction between age or gender and the benefit provided by the intensification of the upfront chemotherapy in terms of ORR and PFS, or the increased risk of experiencing G3/4 AEs. Elderly patients and females experienced higher rates of overall G3/4 AEs (73% versus 60%, P < 0.01 and 69% versus 57%, P < 0.01, respectively). Notably, in the FOLFOXIRI/bevacizumab subgroup, G3/4 diarrhea and febrile neutropenia occurred in 27% and 16% of elderly patients, respectively, while females reported high incidences of any grade nausea (67%) and vomiting (50%). CONCLUSIONS: The improvements in terms of ORR and PFS of FOLFOXIRI/bevacizumab versus doublets/bevacizumab are independent of gender and age, with a similar relative increase in AEs among elderly patients and females. Initial dose reductions and possibly primary G-CSF prophylaxis should be recommended for patients between 70 and 75 years old treated with FOLFOXIRI/bevacizumab, and a careful management of antiemetic prophylaxis should be considered among females.

4.
Ann Oncol ; 29(9): 1955-1963, 2018 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30010751

RESUMO

Background: Angiogenesis is critical to colorectal cancer (CRC) growth and metastasis. Phase I/II studies have demonstrated the efficacy of nintedanib, a triple angiokinase inhibitor, in patients with metastatic CRC. This global, randomized, phase III study investigated the efficacy and safety of nintedanib in patients with refractory CRC after failure of standard therapies. Patients and methods: Eligible patients (Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status 0-1, with histologically/cytologically confirmed metastatic/locally advanced CRC adenocarcinoma unamenable to surgery and/or radiotherapy) were randomized 1 : 1 to receive nintedanib (200 mg twice daily) or placebo (twice daily), until disease progression or undue toxicity. Patients were stratified by previous regorafenib, time from onset of metastatic disease to randomization, and region. Co-primary end points were overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) by central review. Secondary end points included objective tumor response and disease control by central review. Results: From October 2014 to January 2016, 768 patients were randomized; 765 were treated (nintedanib n = 384; placebo n = 381). Median follow-up was 13.4 months (interquartile range 11.1-15.7). OS was not improved [median OS 6.4 months with nintedanib versus 6.0 months with placebo; hazard ratio (HR), 1.01; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.86-1.19; P = 0.8659]. There was a significant but modest increase in PFS with nintedanib versus placebo (median PFS 1.5 versus 1.4 months, respectively; HR 0.58; 95% CI 0.49-0.69; P < 0.0001). There were no complete or partial responses. Adverse events (AEs) occurred in 97% of 384 nintedanib-treated patients and 93% of 381 placebo-treated patients. The most frequent grade ≥3 AEs were liver-related AEs (nintedanib 16%; placebo 8%) and fatigue (nintedanib 9%; placebo 6%). Conclusions: The study failed to meet both co-primary end points. Nintedanib did not improve OS and was associated with a significant but modest increase in PFS versus placebo. Nintedanib was well tolerated. ClinicalTrials.gov number: NCT02149108 (LUME-Colon 1).


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma/tratamento farmacológico , Antineoplásicos/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias Colorretais/tratamento farmacológico , Indóis/administração & dosagem , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/administração & dosagem , Adenocarcinoma/mortalidade , Adenocarcinoma/patologia , Administração Oral , Adulto , Idoso , Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/epidemiologia , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/etiologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/mortalidade , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Progressão da Doença , Método Duplo-Cego , Fadiga/induzido quimicamente , Fadiga/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Indóis/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Placebos/administração & dosagem , Placebos/efeitos adversos , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/efeitos adversos , Receptores de Fatores de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/antagonistas & inibidores , Critérios de Avaliação de Resposta em Tumores Sólidos
5.
Ann Oncol ; 2018 Apr 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29897402

RESUMO

Background: Right-sided metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) patients have poor prognosis and achieve limited benefit from first-line doublets plus a targeted agent. In this unplanned analysis of the TRIBE study, we investigated the prognostic and predictive impact of primary tumor sidedness in mCRC patients and the differential impact of the intensification of the chemotherapy in subgroups defined according to both primary tumor sidedness and RAS and BRAF mutational status. Patients and methods: Patients were randomized to receive upfront 5-fluoruracil, leucovorin, and irinotecan (FOLFIRI) plus bevacizumab or 5-fluoruracil, leucovorin, oxaliplatin, and irinotecan (FOLFOXIRI) plus bevacizumab. Tumors were defined as right- or left-sided if they originated from the caecum to the transverse colon or within the splenic flexure and beyond, respectively. Patients with available information about both primary sidedness and RAS and BRAF status were included in the present analysis. Progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS) and RECIST response rate were assessed according to tumor location and RAS and BRAF mutational status. Results: Information about primary sidedness and RAS and BRAF status was available for 358 (70.5%) out of 508 randomized patients. Patients with right-sided tumors (N = 173) presented shorter OS (23.7 vs 31.0 months, HR = 1.42 [95%CI, 1.09-1.84], P=0.010) and a trend toward shorter PFS (10.2 vs 11.5 months, HR = 1.24 [95%CI:0.98-1.56], P=0.083) than those with left-sided tumors (N = 185), but these associations were no longer evident when adjusting for RAS and BRAF status. Patients with right-sided tumors achieved more relative benefit from the intensification of the chemotherapy backbone in terms of both PFS (HR = 0.59 vs. 0.89, P-for-interaction=0.099) and OS (HR = 0.56 vs. 0.99, P-for-interaction=0.030) and this advantage was independent of their RAS and BRAF status. Conclusions: FOLFOXIRI plus bevacizumab may be regarded as a preferred first-line treatment option for clinically selected patients with right-sided metastatic colorectal cancer irrespective of their RAS and BRAF mutational status. Trial registration: clinicaltrials.gov identifier NCT00719797.

6.
Ann Oncol ; 29(7): 1528-1534, 2018 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29873679

RESUMO

Background: Right-sided metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) patients have poor prognosis and achieve limited benefit from first-line doublets plus a targeted agent. In this unplanned analysis of the TRIBE study, we investigated the prognostic and predictive impact of primary tumor sidedness in mCRC patients and the differential impact of the intensification of the chemotherapy in subgroups defined according to both primary tumor sidedness and RAS and BRAF mutational status. Patients and methods: Patients were randomized to receive upfront 5-fluoruracil, leucovorin, and irinotecan (FOLFIRI) plus bevacizumab or 5-fluoruracil, leucovorin, oxaliplatin, and irinotecan (FOLFOXIRI) plus bevacizumab. Tumors were defined as right- or left-sided if they originated from the caecum to the transverse colon or within the splenic flexure and beyond, respectively. Patients with available information about both primary sidedness and RAS and BRAF status were included in the present analysis. Progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS) and RECIST response rate were assessed according to tumor location and RAS and BRAF mutational status. Results: Information about primary sidedness and RAS and BRAF status was available for 358 (70.5%) out of 508 randomized patients. Patients with right-sided tumors (N = 173) presented shorter OS [23.7 versus 31.0 months, HR = 1.42 (95% CI 1.09-1.84), P = 0.010] and a trend toward shorter PFS [10.2 versus 11.5 months, HR = 1.24 (95% CI: 0.98-1.56), P = 0.083] than those with left-sided tumors (N = 185), but these associations were no longer evident when adjusting for RAS and BRAF status. Patients with right-sided tumors achieved more relative benefit from the intensification of the chemotherapy backbone in terms of both PFS (HR = 0.59 versus 0.89, P for interaction = 0.099) and OS (HR = 0.56 versus 0.99, P for interaction = 0.030) and this advantage was independent of their RAS and BRAF status. Conclusions: FOLFOXIRI plus bevacizumab may be regarded as a preferred first-line treatment option for clinically selected patients with right-sided metastatic colorectal cancer irrespective of their RAS and BRAF mutational status. Trial registration: clinicaltrials.gov identifier NCT00719797.

7.
Ann Oncol ; 29(8): 1800-1806, 2018 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29860358

RESUMO

Background: Non-randomized studies showed that temozolomide (TMZ) achieves an average 10% response rate in heavily pretreated metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) patients with promoter methylation of the DNA repair gene O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT). In this phase II trial, irinotecan and temozolomide (TEMIRI) combination regimen was assessed in irinotecan-sensitive, MGMT methylated/microsatellite stable (MSS) pretreated mCRC patients. Patients and methods: Key inclusion criteria were centrally confirmed MGMT methylation by methylation-specific PCR, MSS mCRC, progression after at least two prior chemotherapy regimens for advanced disease and irinotecan-free interval >3 months. TEMIRI (TMZ 150 mg/m2 on days 1-5 plus irinotecan 100 mg/m2 on days 1, 15 q28 days) was administered for six cycles, followed by maintenance with TMZ. The primary end point was overall response rate (ORR). Exploratory translational analyses included MGMT immunohistochemistry (IHC) and methyl-BEAMing (MB). Results: Between December 2014 and June 2017, 25 patients were enrolled. The primary end point was met, since six patients achieved a partial response [ORR 24%, 95% confidence interval (CI) 11% to 43%]. At a median follow-up of 15.6 months, median progression-free survival (mPFS) and overall survival (mOS) were 4.4 and 13.8 months, respectively. Only four (16%) patients had ≥ grade 3 (CTCAE 4.0) adverse events. All patients whose cancer was MGMT-positive IHC were non-responders. Consistently, patients with MGMT-negative/low tumors had a significantly longer mPFS than others (6.9 versus 2.0 months; hazard ratio = 0.29, 95% CI 0.02-0.41; P = 0.003) and a non-significant trend for longer mOS. MB testing showed similar accuracy. Conclusions: TEMIRI regimen is a safe and active option in pre-treated, irinotecan-sensitive mCRC patients with MGMT methylation.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias Colorretais/tratamento farmacológico , Irinotecano/administração & dosagem , Terapia de Salvação/métodos , Temozolomida/administração & dosagem , Idoso , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/mortalidade , Metilação de DNA , Metilases de Modificação do DNA/genética , Enzimas Reparadoras do DNA/genética , Esquema de Medicação , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Irinotecano/efeitos adversos , Quimioterapia de Manutenção/efeitos adversos , Quimioterapia de Manutenção/métodos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas/genética , Terapia de Salvação/efeitos adversos , Temozolomida/efeitos adversos , Proteínas Supressoras de Tumor/genética
9.
Ann Oncol ; 29(6): 1394-1401, 2018 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29538669

RESUMO

Background: Recognition of rare molecular subgroups is a challenge for precision oncology and may lead to tissue-agnostic approval of targeted agents. Here we aimed to comprehensively characterize the clinical, pathological and molecular landscape of RET rearranged metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). Patients and methods: In this case series, we compared clinical, pathological and molecular characteristics of 24 RET rearranged mCRC patients with those of a control group of 291 patients with RET negative tumors. RET rearranged and RET negative mCRCs were retrieved by systematic literature review and by taking advantage of three screening sources: (i) Ignyta's phase 1/1b study on RXDX-105 (NCT01877811), (ii) cohorts screened at two Italian and one South Korean Institutions and (iii) Foundation Medicine Inc. database. Next-generation sequencing data were analyzed for RET rearranged cases. Results: RET fusions were more frequent in older patients (median age of 66 versus 60 years, P = 0.052), with ECOG PS 1-2 (90% versus 50%, P = 0.02), right-sided (55% versus 32%, P = 0.013), previously unresected primary tumors (58% versus 21%, P < 0.001), RAS and BRAF wild-type (100% versus 40%, P < 0.001) and MSI-high (48% versus 7%, P < 0.001). Notably, 11 (26%) out of 43 patients with right-sided, RAS and BRAF wild-type tumors harbored a RET rearrangement. At a median follow-up of 45.8 months, patients with RET fusion-positive tumors showed a significantly worse OS when compared with RET-negative ones (median OS 14.0 versus 38.0 months, HR: 4.59; 95% CI, 3.64-32.66; P < 0.001). In the multivariable model, RET rearrangements were still associated with shorter OS (HR: 2.97; 95% CI, 1.25-7.07; P = 0.014), while primary tumor location, RAS and BRAF mutations and MSI status were not. Conclusions: Though very rare, RET rearrangements define a new subtype of mCRC that shows poor prognosis with conventional treatments and is therefore worth of a specific management.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Rearranjo Gênico , Proteínas de Fusão Oncogênica/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-ret/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Metástase Neoplásica , Prognóstico , Taxa de Sobrevida , Adulto Jovem
10.
Ann Oncol ; 29(4): 924-930, 2018 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29324972

RESUMO

Background: Neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio (NLR), defined as absolute neutrophils count divided by absolute lymphocytes count, has been reported as poor prognostic factor in several neoplastic diseases but only a few data are available about unresectable metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) patients (pts). The aim of our study was to evaluate the prognostic and predictive role of NLR in the TRIBE trial. Patients and methods: Pts enrolled in TRIBE trial were included. TRIBE is a multicentre phase III trial randomizing unresectable and previously untreated mCRC pts to receive FOLFOXIRI or FOLFIRI plus bevacizumab. A cut-off value of 3 was adopted to discriminate pts with low (NLR < 3) versus high (NLR ≥ 3) NLR, as primary analysis. As secondary analysis, NLR was treated as an ordinal variable with three levels based on terciles distribution. Results: NLR at baseline was available for 413 patients. After multiple imputation at univariate analysis, patients with high NLR had significantly shorter progression-free survival (PFS) [hazard ratio (HR) 1.27 (95% CI 1.05-1.55), P = 0.017] and overall survival (OS) [HR 1.56 (95% CI 1.25-1.95), P < 0.001] than patients with low NLR. In the multivariable model, NLR retained a significant association with OS [HR 1.44 (95% CI 1.14-1.82), P = 0.014] but not with PFS [HR 1.18 (95% CI 0.95-1.46), P = 0.375]. No interaction effect between treatment arm and NLR was evident in terms of PFS (P for interaction = 0.536) or OS (P for interaction = 0.831). Patients with low [HR 0.84 (95% CI 0.64-1.08)] and high [HR 0.73 (95% CI 0.54-0.97)] NLR achieved similar PFS benefit from the triplet and consistent results were obtained in terms of OS [HR 0.83 (95% CI 0.62-1.12) for low NLR; HR 0.82 (95% CI 0.59-1.12) for high NLR]. Conclusion: This study confirmed the prognostic role of NLR in mCRC pts treated with bevacizumab plus chemotherapy in the first line, showing the worse prognosis of pts with high NLR. The advantage of the triplet is independent of NLR at baseline.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/sangue , Contagem de Linfócitos , Metástase Neoplásica , Neutrófilos/citologia , Adulto , Idoso , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/administração & dosagem , Bevacizumab/administração & dosagem , Camptotecina/administração & dosagem , Camptotecina/análogos & derivados , Neoplasias Colorretais/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Feminino , Fluoruracila/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Leucovorina/administração & dosagem , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Compostos Organoplatínicos/administração & dosagem , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos
11.
Eur J Cancer ; 91: 99-106, 2018 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29353165

RESUMO

Indication for primary tumour resection (PTR) in asymptomatic metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) patients is unclear. Previous retrospective analyses suggest a survival benefit for patients who underwent PTR. The aim was to evaluate the prognostic value of PTR in patients with synchronous mCRC by analysis of recent large RCTs including systemic therapy with modern targeted agents. Individual patient data (IPD) of 3423 patients enrolled into 8 randomised controlled trials (RCTs) with first-line systemic therapy in the ARCAD (Aide et Recherche en Cancérologie Digestive) database were analysed. The number of patients with unresected synchronous mCRC, resected synchronous mCRC and metachronous mCRC was 710 (21%), 1705 (50%) and 1008 (29%), respectively. Adjusting for age, gender, performance status (PS) and prior chemotherapy, the unresected group had a significantly worse median overall survival (16.4 m) compared with the synchronous resected (22.2 m; hazard ratio [HR] 1.60, 95% CI 1.43-1.78) and metachronous (22.4 m; HR 1.81, 95% CI 1.58-2.07) groups. Similarly, median progression-free survival was significantly worse for the unresected group compared with the synchronous resected (HR 1.31, 95% CI 1.19-1.44) and metachronous (HR 1.47, 95% CI 1.30-1.66) groups. In a multivariate analysis, the observed associations remained significant. This largest IPD analysis of mCRC trials to date demonstrates an improved survival in synchronous mCRC patients after PTR. These results may be subject to bias since reasons for (non)resection were not available. Until results of ongoing RCTs are available, both upfront PTR followed by systemic treatment and upfront systemic treatment are considered appropriate treatment strategies.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Colorretais/cirurgia , Neoplasias Primárias Múltiplas/cirurgia , Idoso , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Quimioterapia Adjuvante , Colectomia/efeitos adversos , Colectomia/mortalidade , Neoplasias Colorretais/mortalidade , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Bases de Dados Factuais , Progressão da Doença , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Análise Multivariada , Metástase Neoplásica , Neoplasias Primárias Múltiplas/mortalidade , Neoplasias Primárias Múltiplas/patologia , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
12.
Ann Oncol ; 28(12): 3009-3014, 2017 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29045518

RESUMO

Background: Refining the selection of metastatic colorectal cancer patients candidates for anti-epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) monoclonal antibodies beyond RAS and BRAF testing is a challenge of precision oncology. Several uncommon genomic mechanisms of primary resistance, leading to activation of tyrosine kinase receptors other than EGFR or downstream signalling pathways, have been suggested by preclinical and retrospective studies. Patients and methods: We conducted this multicentre, prospective, case-control study to demonstrate the negative predictive impact of a panel of rare genomic alterations [PRESSING (PRimary rESiStance IN RAS and BRAF wild-type metastatic colorectal cancer patients treated with anti-eGfr monoclonal antibodies) panel], including HER2/MET amplifications, ALK/ROS1/NTRK1-3/RET fusions and PIK3CA mutations. Hypothesizing a prevalence of candidate alterations of 15% and 0% in resistant and sensitive RAS and BRAF wild-type patients, respectively, with two-sided α and ß errors of 0.05 and 0.20, 47 patients per group were needed. Results: Forty-seven patients per group were included. PRESSING panel alterations were significantly more frequent in resistant (24 out of 47, 51.1%) than in sensitive (1 out of 47, 2.1%) patients (P < 0.001) and in right- (12 out of 29, 41.4%) than left-sided (13 out of 65, 20.0%) tumours (P = 0.03). The predictive accuracy of PRESSING panel and sidedness was 75.3% and 70.2%, respectively. Among hyper-selected patients, right-sidedness was still associated with resistance (P = 0.002). The predictive accuracy of the combined evaluation of PRESSING panel and sidedness was 80.4%. As a secondary analysis, 8 (17.0%) resistant and 0 sensitive patients showed microsatellite instability (P < 0.001). Conclusion: The investigated panel of genomic alterations allows refining the selection of RAS and BRAF wild-type metastatic colorectal cancer patients candidates for anti-EGFRs, partially explaining and further corroborating the predictive ability of primary tumour sidedness.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/terapia , Receptores ErbB/antagonistas & inibidores , Anticorpos Monoclonais/imunologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Neoplasias Colorretais/enzimologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/imunologia , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Receptores ErbB/imunologia , Humanos , Instabilidade de Microssatélites , Seleção de Pacientes , Estudos Prospectivos , Taxa de Sobrevida
13.
Ann Oncol ; 28(11): 2780-2785, 2017 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29045529

RESUMO

Background: The MAPK-interacting kinase 1 (MKNK1) is localized downstream of the RAS/RAF/ERK and the MAP3K1/MKK/p38 signaling pathway. Through phosphorylation MKNK1 regulates the function of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E, a key player in translational control, whose expression is often upregulated in metastatic colorectal cancer patients (mCRC). Preclinical data suggest that MKNK1 increases angiogenesis by upregulating angiogenic factors. We therefore hypothesize that variations in the MKNK1 gene predict outcome in mCRC patients treated with first-line FOLFIRI and bevacizumab (bev). Patients and methods: A total of 567 patients with KRAS wild-type mCRC in the randomized phase III FIRE-3 and TRIBE trials treated with first-line FOLFIRI/bev (discovery and validation cohorts) or FOLFIRI and cetuximab (cet) (control cohort) were included in this study. Five single-nucleotide polymorphisms in the MAPK signaling pathway were analyzed. Results: AA genotype carriers of the MKNK1 rs8602 single-nucleotide polymorphism treated with FOLFIRI/bev in the discovery cohort (FIRE-3) had a shorter progression-free survival (PFS) than those harboring any C (7.9 versus 10.3 months, Hazard ratio (HR) 1.73, P = 0.038). This association could be confirmed in the validation cohort (TRIBE) in multivariable analysis (PFS 9.0 versus 11.0 months, HR 3.04, P = 0.029). Furthermore, AA carriers in the validation cohort had a decreased overall response rate (25% versus 66%, P = 0.049). Conversely, AA genotype carriers in the control group receiving FOLFIRI/cet did not show a shorter PFS. By combining both FOLFIRI/bev cohorts the worse outcome among AA carriers became more significant (PFS 9.0 versus 10.5 months) in univariable (HR 1.74, P = 0.015) and multivariable analysis (HR 1.76, P = 0.022). Accordingly, AA carriers did also exhibit an inferior overall response rate compared with those harboring any C (36% versus 65%, P = 0.005). Conclusion: MKNK1 polymorphism rs8602 might serve as a predictive marker in KRAS wild-type mCRC patients treated with FOLFIRI/bev in the first-line setting. Additionally, MKNK1 might be a promising target for drug development.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/mortalidade , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular/genética , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/mortalidade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/genética , Bevacizumab/administração & dosagem , Camptotecina/administração & dosagem , Camptotecina/análogos & derivados , Neoplasias Colorretais/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/secundário , Fluoruracila/administração & dosagem , Seguimentos , Genótipo , Humanos , Irinotecano , Leucovorina/administração & dosagem , Metástase Linfática , Invasividade Neoplásica , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/tratamento farmacológico , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/genética , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/patologia , Grupos Populacionais , Prognóstico , Taxa de Sobrevida
14.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 21(9): 2157-2166, 2017 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28537668

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the association of clinicopathologic and molecular features with loco-regional recurrence (LRR) in post-mastectomy breast cancer patients with or without adjuvant radiotherapy (PMRT). PATIENTS AND METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed data of patients undergone to mastectomy followed or not by PMRT between January 2004 and June 2013. The patients were divided according to clinicopathologic and molecular sub-classification features. LRR and Cancer Specific Survival (CSS) were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method; the prognostic factors were compared using long-rank tests and Cox regression model. RESULTS: A total of 912 patients underwent to mastectomy of whom 269 (29.5%) followed by PMRT and 643 (70.5%) not; among the PMRT group, 77 underwent to the chest wall (CW) and 202 to the chest wall and lymphatic drainage (CWLD) irradiation. The median follow-up was 54 months (range, 3-118). No significant difference in terms of LRR and CSS was found between non-PMRT and PMRT group (p=0.175; and p=0.628). The multivariate analysis of LRR for patients who did not undergo PMRT showed a significant correlation with the presence of extracapsular extension (ECE) (p=0.049), Ki-67>30% (p=0.048) and triple negative status (p=0.001). In the PMRT group, triple negative status resulted as the only variable significantly correlated to LRR (p=0.006) at the multivariate analysis and T-stage also showed a trend to significance (p=0.073). Finally, no difference in LRR control was shown between CW and CWLD-PMRT (p=0.078). CONCLUSIONS: After mastectomy ECE, a cut off of Ki-67>30% and triple negative status were strictly correlated with LRR regardless of clinicopathologic stage. PMRT has a positive impact in decreasing LRR in patients with this molecular profile. Besides, CW might represent a valid option for patients with one to three positive nodes.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/terapia , Mastectomia , Adulto , Idoso , Neoplasias da Mama/mortalidade , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Terapia Combinada , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia , Prognóstico , Radioterapia Adjuvante , Estudos Retrospectivos
16.
Pharmacogenomics J ; 17(3): 258-264, 2017 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26927284

RESUMO

Production of lactate even in the presence of sufficient levels of oxygen (aerobic glycolysis) seems the prevalent energy metabolism pathway in cancer cells. The analysis of altered expression of effectors causing redirection of glucose metabolism would help to characterize this phenomenon with possible therapeutic implications. We analyzed mRNA expression of the key enzymes involved in aerobic glycolysis in normal mucosa (NM), primary tumor (PT) and liver metastasis (LM) of colorectal cancer (CRC) patients (pts) who underwent primary tumor surgery and liver metastasectomy. Tissues of 48 CRC pts were analyzed by RT-qPCR for mRNA expression of the following genes: hexokinase-1 (HK-1) and 2 (HK-2), embryonic pyruvate kinase (PKM-2), lactate dehydrogenase-A (LDH-A), glucose transporter-1 (GLUT-1), voltage-dependent anion-selective channel protein-1 (VDAC-1). Differences in the expression of the candidate genes between tissues and associations with clinical/pathologic features were studied. GLUT-1, LDH-A, HK-1, PKM-2 and VDAC-1 mRNA expression levels were significantly higher in PT/LM tissues compared with NM. There was a trend for higher expression of these genes in LM compared with PT tissues, but differences were statistically significant for LDH-A expression only. RAS mutation-positive disease was associated with high GLUT-1 mRNA expression levels only. Right-sided colon tumors showed significantly higher GLUT-1, PKM-2 and LDH-A mRNA expression levels. High glycolytic profile was significantly associated with poor prognosis in 20 metastatic, RAS-mutated pts treated with first-line chemotherapy plus Bevacizumab. Altered expression of effectors associated with upregulated glucose uptake and aerobic glycolysis occurs in CRC tissues. Additional analyses are warranted for addressing the role of these changes in anti-angiogenic resistance and for developing novel therapeutics.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Glicólise/genética , Neoplasias Hepáticas/genética , Idoso , Inibidores da Angiogênese/uso terapêutico , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Colectomia , Neoplasias Colorretais/enzimologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/terapia , Progressão da Doença , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/genética , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação Enzimológica da Expressão Gênica , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Hepatectomia , Humanos , Itália , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Neoplasias Hepáticas/enzimologia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/secundário , Neoplasias Hepáticas/terapia , Masculino , Metastasectomia/métodos , Mutação , Farmacogenética , Variantes Farmacogenômicos , Fenótipo , RNA Mensageiro/genética , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
17.
Leukemia ; 31(8): 1727-1734, 2017 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28008174

RESUMO

In newly diagnosed myeloma patients, upfront autologous transplant (ASCT) prolongs progression-free survival 1 (PFS1) compared with chemotherapy plus lenalidomide (CC+R). Salvage ASCT at first relapse may still effectively rescue patients who did not receive upfront ASCT. To evaluate the long-term benefit of upfront ASCT vs CC+R and the impact of salvage ASCT in patients who received upfront CC+R, we conducted a pooled analysis of 2 phase III trials (RV-MM-209 and EMN-441). Primary endpoints were PFS1, progression-free survival 2 (PFS2), overall survival (OS). A total of 268 patients were randomized to 2 courses of melphalan 200 mg/m2 and ASCT (MEL200-ASCT) and 261 to CC+R. Median follow-up was 46 months. MEL200-ASCT significantly improved PFS1 (median: 42 vs 24 months, HR 0.53; P<0.001), PFS2 (4 years: 71 vs 54%, HR 0.53, P<0.001) and OS (4 years: 84 vs 70%, HR 0.51, P<0.001) compared with CC+R. The advantage was noticed in good and bad prognosis patients. Only 53% of patients relapsing from CC+R received ASCT at first relapse. Upfront ASCT significantly reduced the risk of death (HR 0.51; P=0.007) in comparison with salvage ASCT. In conclusion, these data confirm the role of upfront ASCT as the standard approach for all young myeloma patients.


Assuntos
Mieloma Múltiplo/terapia , Transplante de Células-Tronco , Talidomida/análogos & derivados , Administração Oral , Adulto , Idoso , Ensaios Clínicos Fase III como Assunto , Humanos , Lenalidomida , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mieloma Múltiplo/mortalidade , Terapia de Salvação , Talidomida/uso terapêutico , Transplante Autólogo
18.
Ann Oncol ; 28(3): 555-561, 2017 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27864220

RESUMO

Background: Regorafenib and TAS-102 have recently demonstrated statistically significant survival gains in patients with refractory metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). Life expectancy ≥12 weeks was an inclusion criterion in registrative trials, and the identification of proper clinical selection tools for the daily use of these drugs in heavily pre-treated patients is needed to improve the cost-benefit ratio. We aimed at building a nomogram able to predict death probability within 12 weeks from the date of assessment of refractory mCRC. Patients and methods: Four hundred eleven refractory mCRC patients with ECOG performance status (PS) ≤2 receiving regorafenib, TAS-102 or other treatments were used as developing set. Putative prognostic variables were selected using a random forest model and included in a binary logistic model from which the nomogram was developed. The nomogram was externally validated and its performance was evaluated by examining calibration (how close predictions were to the actual outcome) and discriminative ability (Harrell C index) both on developing (internal validation) and validating (external validation) sets. Results: Four variables were selected and included in the nomogram: PS (P < 0.0001), primary tumor resection (P = 0.027), LDH value (P = 0.0001) and peritoneal involvement (P = 0.081). In the developing set, the nomogram discriminative ability was high (C = 0.778), and was confirmed in the validating set (C = 0.778), where the overall outcome was better as a consequence of the enrichment in patients receiving regorafenib or TAS-102 (46% versus 34%; P < 0.0001). Conclusions: Our nomogram may be a useful tool to predict the probability of death within 12 weeks in patients with refractory mCRC. Based on four easy-to-collect variables, the 'Colon Life' nomogram and free app for smartphones may improve mCRC patients' selection for later-line therapies and assist researchers for the enrollment in clinical trials in this setting.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Análise Custo-Benefício , Nomogramas , Idoso , Colo/efeitos dos fármacos , Colo/patologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/mortalidade , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Combinação de Medicamentos , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Metástase Neoplásica , Compostos de Fenilureia/administração & dosagem , Prognóstico , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Piridinas/administração & dosagem , Pirrolidinas , Trifluridina/administração & dosagem , Uracila/administração & dosagem , Uracila/análogos & derivados
19.
Support Care Cancer ; 25(1): 209-212, 2017 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27614868

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Supportive care in oncology is a primary need for every oncology department nowadays. In 2012, in our institution, a dedicated supportive care service (SCS) was created in order to deal with any need our on-treatment patients might have (e.g. tumour-related or treatment-related symptoms). We hypothesized that this service had a positive impact on the number of unplanned hospitalizations; to confirm our hypothesis, we decided to review admission data in 2011 and 2012. METHODS: Using our internal software, we compared admission data in 2011 (that is, the year before the dedicated service was created) and 2012 (when such service began, that is April of that year). We also made an evaluation of the costs of these hospitalizations. RESULTS: Despite an increase of the number of patients treated in our day hospital (+6.5 %), the number of unplanned hospital admissions decreased by 3.2 % (from 17.3 to 14.1 %). The number of patients accessing to emergency room went from 66 to 61 % (a reduction of 5 %). The costs of these hospitalizations were reduced by 2.2 %. CONCLUSIONS: The introduction of the dedicated SCS in our oncology department caused a net reduction by 3.2 % of the number of unplanned hospitalizations of on-treatment cancer patients.


Assuntos
Instituições de Assistência Ambulatorial/organização & administração , Prestação Integrada de Cuidados de Saúde/organização & administração , Neoplasias/terapia , Cuidados Paliativos/organização & administração , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Instituições de Assistência Ambulatorial/economia , Instituições de Assistência Ambulatorial/estatística & dados numéricos , Custos e Análise de Custo , Prestação Integrada de Cuidados de Saúde/economia , Prestação Integrada de Cuidados de Saúde/métodos , Prestação Integrada de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/economia , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Hospitalização/economia , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Teóricos , Pacientes Ambulatoriais/estatística & dados numéricos , Cuidados Paliativos/economia , Cuidados Paliativos/métodos , Cuidados Paliativos/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
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