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2.
Int J Clin Pharm ; 2021 Sep 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34550540

RESUMO

Background Understanding how patient values and preferences towards polypharmacy and deprescribing have been studied is important to gain insight on current knowledge in this area and to identify knowledge gaps. Aim To describe methods and outcomes for studying patient values and preferences towards polypharmacy and deprescribing, and to identify gaps in the existing literature. Method A scoping review was conducted on English-language studies that examined patient preferences and values related to polypharmacy and/or deprescribing among community-dwelling adults. MEDLINE, Embase, PubMed, PsycINFO, EconLit, Social Science Citation Index, Science Citation Index Expanded, International Pharmaceutical Abstracts, and CINAHL/AgeLine were searched. Results Thirty articles were included. Surveys (n = 17, 56.7%), interviews/focus groups (n = 9, 30.0%), and mixed methods (n = 3, 10.0%), were commonly used methods. Patients Attitudes Towards Deprescribing (PATD) was the most common tool used (n = 9, 30.0%). Twelve themes related to attitudes, social pressure, and control of polypharmacy/deprescribing were identified. The most frequently-encountered themes included desire or willingness to reduce medication load and influence of healthcare provider on medication use. Conclusion PATD was commonly used to assess preferences and values towards polypharmacy and limited knowledge on patient-important outcomes were addressed. Future research should focus on shared decision-making and communicating risk versus benefit of medications.

3.
Transfus Med ; 31(4): 236-242, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33938051

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tranexamic acid (TXA) reduces transfusion in a wide range of surgical populations, although its real-world use in non-cardiac surgeries has not been well described. The objective of this study was to describe prophylactic TXA use in non-cardiac surgeries at high risk for transfusion. METHODS: This is a retrospective cohort study of all adult patients undergoing major non-cardiac surgery at ≥5% risk of perioperative transfusion at five Canadian hospitals between January 2014 and December 2016. Canadian Classification of Health Interventions procedure codes within the Discharge Abstract Database were linked to transfusion and laboratory databases. TXA use was ascertained electronically from The Ottawa Hospital Data Warehouse and via manual chart review for Winnipeg hospitals. For each surgery, we evaluated the percentage of patients who received TXA as well as the specifics of TXA dosing and administration. RESULTS: TXA use was evaluable in 14 300 patients. Overall, 17% of surgeries received TXA, ranging from 0% to 68% among individual surgeries. TXA use was more common in orthopaedic (n = 2043/4942; 41%) and spine surgeries (n = 239/1322; 18%) compared to other surgical domains (n = 109/8036; 1%). TXA was commonly administered as a bolus (n = 2097/2391; 88%). The median TXA dose was 1000 mg (IQR 1000-1000 mg). CONCLUSION: TXA is predominantly used in orthopaedic and spine surgeries, with little uptake in other non-cardiac surgeries at high risk for red blood cell transfusion. Further studies are needed to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of TXA and to understand the barriers to TXA administration in a broad range of non-cardiac surgeries.

4.
Can J Anaesth ; 68(7): 962-971, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33594597

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Tranexamic acid (TXA) reduces red blood cell transfusion in various orthopedic surgeries, yet the degree of practice variation in its use among anesthesiologists and surgeons has not been described. To target future knowledge transfer and implementation strategies, and to better understand determinants of variability in prophylactic TXA use, our primary objective was to evaluate the influence of surgical team members on the variability of prophylactic TXA administration. METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study of all adult patients undergoing primary total hip arthroplasty (THA), hip fracture surgery, and spine fusion ± vertebrectomy at two Canadian hospitals between January 2014 and December 2016. We used Canadian Classification of Health Interventions procedure codes within the Discharge Abstract Database which we linked to the Ottawa Data Warehouse. We described the percentage of patients that received TXA by individual surgery, the specifics of TXA dosing, and estimated the effect of anesthesiologists and surgeons on prophylactic TXA using multivariable mixed-effects logistic regression analyses. RESULTS: In the 3,900 patients studied, TXA was most commonly used in primary THA (85%; n = 1,344/1,582), with lower use in hip fracture (23%; n = 342/1,506) and spine fusion surgery (23%; n = 186/812). The median [interquartile range] total TXA dose was 1,000 [1,000-1,000] mg, given as a bolus in 92% of cases. Anesthesiologists and surgeons added significant variability to the odds of receiving TXA in hip fracture surgery and spine fusion, but not primary THA. Most of the variability in TXA use was attributed to patient and other factors. CONCLUSION: We confirmed the routine use of TXA in primary THA, while observing lower utilization with more variability in hip fracture and spine fusion surgery. Further study is warranted to understand variations in use and the barriers to TXA implementation in a broader population of orthopedic surgical patients at high risk for transfusion.


Assuntos
Antifibrinolíticos , Artroplastia de Quadril , Cirurgiões , Ácido Tranexâmico , Adulto , Anestesiologistas , Perda Sanguínea Cirúrgica/prevenção & controle , Canadá , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos
5.
Transfus Med Rev ; 35(1): 16-21, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32994103

RESUMO

Perioperative bleeding is a major indication for red blood cell (RBC) transfusion, yet transfusion data in many major noncardiac surgeries are lacking and do not reflect recent blood conservation efforts. We aim to describe transfusion practices in noncardiac surgeries at high risk for RBC transfusion. We completed a retrospective cohort study to evaluate adult patients undergoing major noncardiac surgery at 5 Canadian hospitals between January 2014 and December 2016. We used Canadian Classification of Health Interventions procedure codes within the Discharge Abstract Database, which we linked to transfusion and laboratory databases. We studied all patients undergoing a major noncardiac surgery at ≥5% risk of perioperative RBC transfusion. For each surgery, we characterized the percentage of patients exposed to an RBC transfusion, the mean/median number of RBC units transfused, and platelet and plasma exposure. We identified 85 noncardiac surgeries with an RBC transfusion rate ≥5%, representing 25,607 patient admissions. The baseline RBC transfusion rate was 16%, ranging from 5% to 49% among individual surgeries. Of those transfused, the median (Q1, Q3) number of RBCs transfused was 2 U (1, 3 U); 39% received 1 U RBC, 36% received 2 U RBC, and 8% were transfused ≥5 U RBC. Platelet and plasma transfusions were overall low. In the era of blood conservation, we described transfusion practices in major noncardiac surgeries at high risk for RBC transfusion, which has implications for patient consent, preoperative surgical planning, and blood bank inventory management.

7.
Can Fam Physician ; 66(7): 509-517, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32675098

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the effect of mask use on viral respiratory infection risk. DATA SOURCES: MEDLINE and the Cochrane Library. STUDY SELECTION: Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) included in at least 1 published systematic review comparing the use of masks with a control group, either in community or health care settings, on the risk of viral respiratory infections. SYNTHESIS: In total, 11 systematic reviews were included and 18 RCTs of 26 444 participants were found, 12 in the community and 6 in health care workers. Included studies had limitations and were deemed at high risk of bias. Overall, the use of masks in the community did not reduce the risk of influenza, confirmed viral respiratory infection, influenzalike illness, or any clinical respiratory infection. However, in the 2 trials that most closely aligned with mask use in real-life community settings, there was a significant risk reduction in influenzalike illness (risk ratio [RR] = 0.83; 95% CI 0.69 to 0.99). The use of masks in households with a sick contact was not associated with a significant infection risk reduction in any analysis, no matter if masks were used by the sick individual, the healthy family members, or both. In health care workers, surgical masks were superior to cloth masks for preventing influenzalike illness (RR = 0.12; 95% CI 0.02 to 0.98), and N95 masks were likely superior to surgical masks for preventing influenzalike illness (RR = 0.78; 95% CI 0.61 to 1.00) and any clinical respiratory infections (RR = 0.95; 95% CI 0.90 to 1.00). CONCLUSION: This systematic review found limited evidence that the use of masks might reduce the risk of viral respiratory infections. In the community setting, a possible reduced risk of influenzalike illness was found among mask users. In health care workers, the results show no difference between N95 masks and surgical masks on the risk of confirmed influenza or other confirmed viral respiratory infections, although possible benefits from N95 masks were found for preventing influenzalike illness or other clinical respiratory infections. Surgical masks might be superior to cloth masks but data are limited to 1 trial.

9.
Transfus Med Rev ; 34(1): 51-62, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31982293

RESUMO

Tranexamic acid (TXA) reduces transfusion requirements in cardiac surgery and total hip and knee arthroplasty, where it has become standard of care. Our objective is to determine the efficacy and safety of TXA in other surgeries associated with a high risk for red blood cell (RBC) transfusion. We identified randomized controlled trials in Medline, Embase, CENTRAL, and CAB abstracts from inception to June 2019. We included trials evaluating intraoperative IV TXA in adult patients undergoing a non-cardiac and non-hip and knee arthroplasty surgeries at high-risk for RBC transfusion, defined as a baseline transfusion rate ≥5% in comparator arm. We assessed risk of bias using the Cochrane Risk of Bias tool. We used GRADE methodology to assess certainty of evidence. From 8565 citations identified, we included 69 unique trials, enrolling 6157 patients. TXA reduces both the proportion of patients transfused RBCs (relative risk (RR) 0.59; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.48 to 0.72; low certainty evidence) and the volume of RBC transfused (MD -0.51 RBC units; 95%CI -0.13 to -0.9 units; low certainty evidence) when compared to placebo or usual care. TXA was not associated with differences in deep vein thrombosis, pulmonary embolism, all-cause mortality, hospital length of stay, need for re-operation due to hemorrhage, myocardial infarction, stroke or seizure. In patients undergoing a broad range of non-cardiac and non-hip and knee arthroplasty surgeries at high risk for RBC transfusion, perioperative TXA reduced exposure to RBC transfusion. No differences in thrombotic outcomes were identified; however, summary effect estimates were limited by lack of systemic screening and short duration of follow-up.

10.
J Bone Miner Metab ; 38(3): 371-377, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31894490

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: This study aimed to examine long-term persistence in new users of oral bisphosphonates in a population-wide cohort in Manitoba, Canada. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A longitudinal observational study was conducted using administrative health data characterizing long-term bisphosphonate persistence in those who started treatment between 1997 and 2018. Treatment discontinuation was evaluated using Kaplan-Meier methods. Cox regression was used to examine associations between discontinuation and osteoporosis diagnosis, previous fractures, and age. A sub-analysis of users with FRAX scores examined the relationship between 10-year fracture risk estimations and discontinuation. RESULTS: Of 42,249 new bisphosphonate users, median age was 71 years, with 88.6% being female. Median duration of bisphosphonate use was 0.95 years (IQR 0.25, 3.9 years). Overall, 47.9% of incident users persisted up to 1 year, 25.0% persisted up to 3 years, and 14.1% up to 5 years. Presence of an indication for bisphosphonate use was associated with decreased discontinuation risk. Persistence generally increased with age. Having a BMD test performed was a predictor of lower discontinuation. The strongest predictor was having an osteoporosis diagnosis [HR for discontinuation = 0.68 (95% CI 0.66, 0.70)]. In users with FRAX scores (n = 14,114), moderate-risk [HR = 0.86 (95% CI 0.77, 0.96)] and high-risk users [HR = 0.77 (95% CI 0.69, 0.85)] were less likely to discontinue compared to lower-risk users. CONCLUSIONS: A rapid decline in bisphosphonate persistence was shown. Almost half of users would not be expected to achieve clinically relevant benefits with a persistence of less than 1 year. Allowing informed choice in high-risk patients may be the best way to focus on those likely to benefit and persist with treatment.


Assuntos
Difosfonatos/farmacologia , Administração Oral , Idoso , Conservadores da Densidade Óssea/efeitos adversos , Estudos de Coortes , Difosfonatos/efeitos adversos , Difosfonatos/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Osteoporose/complicações , Osteoporose/tratamento farmacológico , Probabilidade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Fatores de Tempo , Suspensão de Tratamento
11.
PLoS One ; 14(3): e0211319, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30840711

RESUMO

We aimed to describe medication use in pregnancies that resulted in births and abortions, as well as use after a pregnancy-related visit to characterize the receipt of medication after knowledge of pregnancy. Abortions included both spontaneous and induced abortions. Rates of medication use among women with a pregnancy outcome (2001-2013) were described using the Manitoba Population Research Data Repository at the Manitoba Centre for Health Policy. Use was determined as ≥ 1 prescription filled during pregnancies that resulted in births (livebirth/stillbirth) and abortions. Rates were calculated at any time during pregnancy and after a pregnancy-related visit. Rates were additionally characterized by risk in pregnancy using Briggs classification (2017). Of 174,848 birth pregnancies, overall 64.9% filled ≥ 1 prescription during pregnancy (a significant increase from 62.3% to 68.8% from 2001-2013, p<0.0001); 55.4% filled ≥ 1 prescription after a pregnancy-related visit. Of 71,967 abortions, 44.7% filled ≥ 1 prescription (a significant increase from 42.6% to 46.8% from 2001-2013, p<0.0001). Only 3.7% of birth pregnancies had at least one prescription for a contraindicated medication (according to Briggs classification), whereas 10.8% of abortions filled a prescription for a contraindicated medication. The most common drugs used in pregnancy were amoxicillin, doxylamine, codeine combinations, nitrofurantoin, cephalexin, salbutamol and ranitidine. Fewer women filled prescriptions for undesirable medications according to Briggs classification during pregnancy after a pregnancy-related visit.


Assuntos
Aborto Espontâneo/induzido quimicamente , Parto/efeitos dos fármacos , Medicamentos sob Prescrição/administração & dosagem , Medicamentos sob Prescrição/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Canadá , Feminino , Humanos , Manitoba , Gravidez , Resultado da Gravidez , Prescrições , Estudos Retrospectivos
12.
J Am Dent Assoc ; 150(2): 122-129, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30691570

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Overuse of opioids has become a health crisis in the United States and Canada. Opioid prescribing practices have subsequently come under scrutiny, with limited study regarding prescribing patterns of dentists. METHODS: A longitudinal analysis was conducted on all adult patients to whom an opioid was dispensed from 2014 through 2017 in Manitoba, Canada. Rates of dental opioid prescribing, milligram morphine equivalents (MMEs) per prescription, and guideline adherence were determined. Additional analyses evaluated the contribution of dentist prescribing to first opioid use and opioid use 90 days before and after first dental opioid prescription. RESULTS: Dentist prescriptions accounted for 3.8% of all opioid prescriptions and 0.58% of total MMEs. Codeine with acetaminophen combinations were the primary opioid prescribed (97.4%), followed by tramadol/acetaminophen (1.7%) and oxycodone with acetaminophen (0.7%). Overall, 30 or less tablets were supplied in 96.1% of prescriptions. Prescriptions were written for 5 or less days in 89.1% of cases and for 7 or less days in 95.2% of cases. In the 90-day before-after analysis, 87.8% of patients received only 1 prescription from their dentist, with an additional 9.8% receiving only 2 prescriptions. Dentists were responsible for 20.6% of first opioid prescriptions, with 5.6% written for 50 or more MMEs per day. CONCLUSIONS: Compared with available guidelines, prescribed quantities were mostly appropriate, suggesting that the overall contribution of dentists to opioid overuse is limited. PRACTICAL IMPLICATIONS: Dental opioid stewardship can be encouraged through an enhanced regulatory monitoring program with local review to guide efforts to further improve opioid prescribing. Continued efforts are warranted to prescribe smaller quantities and for greater avoidance of opioid use for dental pain.


Assuntos
Analgésicos Opioides , Padrões de Prática Médica , Adulto , Canadá , Odontólogos , Humanos , Manitoba , Estados Unidos
13.
Fam Pract ; 35(4): 455-460, 2018 07 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29237045

RESUMO

Background: Antimicrobial stewardship (AS) programs promote the optimal use of antimicrobials and safe patient care. With most antimicrobials prescribed in the ambulatory setting, establishing benchmark data is imperative to gauge the impact of future AS initiatives. Objectives: To determine the frequency of potentially inappropriate antimicrobial prescribing in primary care practices in Manitoba, Canada and to assess the association between potentially inappropriate antimicrobial prescribing and patient, prescriber and practice-related factors. Methods: A retrospective cohort study using the Manitoba Primary Care Research Network repository of de-identified Electronic Medical Records from consenting primary care practices. Descriptive statistics and logistic regressions detailed patients with bacterial or viral infections of interest and antimicrobial prescriptions. Results: Eighteen percent (n = 35 574) of primary care visits for common infections were associated with a potentially inappropriate antimicrobial prescription. Among antimicrobials prescribed to patients diagnosed with bacterial infections, 37.8% (n = 2168) had a potentially inappropriate antimicrobial prescribed and 19.6% (n = 1126) had an antimicrobial prescribed for a duration outside of guideline-based ranges. Female patients, younger age and less office visits were associated with potentially inappropriate antimicrobial prescribing for bacterial infections. Among physician visits for viral infection, 15.9% (n = 29 833) were associated with an antimicrobial prescription. Older patients, those with more comorbidity, more office visits and those who were seen in larger or rural practices, were associated with potentially inappropriate antimicrobial prescribing for viral infections. Conclusions: High frequency of potentially inappropriate antimicrobial prescribing, especially in certain patient populations, suggests the need for coordinated community-based AS programs to optimize prescribing and improve patient care.


Assuntos
Gestão de Antimicrobianos/normas , Prescrição Inadequada , Padrões de Prática Médica , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Anti-Infecciosos/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Manitoba , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Visita a Consultório Médico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores Sexuais , Viroses/tratamento farmacológico
14.
CMAJ Open ; 5(2): E517-E523, 2017 Jun 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28655728

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Opioid use has increased dramatically in North America. The safety of opioids in pregnancy is uncertain, but they are associated with several fetal abnormalities and contribute to rising rates of neonatal abstinence syndrome. We examined opioid use before and during pregnancy in a complete population-based cohort. METHODS: We examined opioid use in a cohort of all pregnant women in Manitoba, Canada, from 2001 to 2013. Opioid use was defined by prescriptions for opioids, converted to oral morphine equivalents (MEQ), during the 3 months before pregnancy and for each trimester. Given that the exposure per person may vary (because not all women complete all time periods), we determined a weighted number of pregnancies in each period. RESULTS: During the study period, 174 848 completed pregnancies were eligible for analysis (173 680 live births and 1168 stillbirths and intrauterine deaths), which represented a weighted value of 175 174 pregnancies. Among these pregnancies, 6.7% of the women filled opioid prescriptions in the 3 months before pregnancy. Use declined to 4.2% during the first trimester and further declined to 3.0% and 2.9% in the second and third trimesters, respectively. Over the study period, there was a modest increase in opioid use overall (from 7.3% to 7.7%). MEQ did not decline during pregnancy, and the mean MEQ increased significantly over the study period (from 284 mg to 1218 mg). Prescriptions for codeine were filled by 96.9% of the users, accounting for 66.2% of MEQ. INTERPRETATION: Although many of the women using opioids before pregnancy discontinued or reduced use of these drugs during pregnancy, the volume of opioids consumed by those who continued opioid use did not decline during pregnancy. The increasing dosage and increased use of higher-potency opioids by pregnant women highlights the need for continued evaluation of and education about the benefits and risks of this practice.

15.
Can J Psychiatry ; 62(8): 543-550, 2017 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28545329

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To describe the extent of increase in use and the rate of continuation versus discontinuation of psychotropic agents before, during, and after pregnancy. METHODS: Rates of psychotropic use (antidepressants, anxiolytic/sedative-hypnotics, antiepileptics, antipsychotics, lithium, stimulants) among women with a hospital-recorded pregnancy outcome were assessed using databases at the Manitoba Centre for Health Policy. Rate of use was defined as ≥1 prescription over the total number of pregnancies in the 3-12 months before pregnancy, 0-3 months before pregnancy, during pregnancy, or 3 months after pregnancy. Continued use was defined as ≥2 prescriptions with gap ≤14 days. Poisson regression was used to analyze trends. RESULTS: Over the study period, a psychotropic drug was used before, during, or after pregnancy in 41,923 of 224,762 pregnancies. From 2001 to 2013, psychotropic use increased 1.5-fold from 11.1% to 16.2% ( p < 0.0001) in the 3-12 months before pregnancy, 1.6-fold from 6.4% to 10.5% ( p < 0.0001) in the 3 months before pregnancy, 1.8-fold from 3.3% to 6.0% ( p < 0.0001) during pregnancy, and 1.5-fold from 6.2% to 9.5% ( p < 0.0001) in the 3 months postpartum. Among the 13,579 women who received at least 1 psychotropic agent in the 3 months prior to pregnancy, 38.5% stopped the agent prior to pregnancy and only 10.3% continued use throughout pregnancy. Continued use throughout pregnancy was higher (56.9%) among the 6693 women who received at least 2 prescriptions for a psychotropic agent and were at least 80% adherent in the 3 months prior to pregnancy. CONCLUSION: The use of psychotropic agents increased over 12 years. The safety of continuing versus discontinuing these agents during pregnancy remains uncertain, but we observed a decrease in psychotropic drug use during the pregnancy period.


Assuntos
Transtornos Mentais/complicações , Complicações na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Psicotrópicos/uso terapêutico , Adolescente , Adulto , Canadá/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Transtornos Mentais/tratamento farmacológico , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gravidez , Complicações na Gravidez/tratamento farmacológico , Resultado da Gravidez , Adulto Jovem
16.
Can J Diabetes ; 41(4): 385-391, 2017 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28410881

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Considerable attention has been paid to the rising costs of the use of blood glucose test strips (BGTS). Insulin users have generally been treated as a single homogeneous group, resulting in policies that cap usage (8.2 strips/day) in provincial drug insurance programs. The objective of this study was to conduct a utilization review of BGTS by insulin users and to evaluate use patterns against current insulin use patterns and BGTS policy. METHODS: BGTS usage was examined in a cohort of insulin users with type 1 and type 2 diabetes over a 12-year period (2001 to 2013) using the population-based administrative data in Manitoba, Canada. RESULTS: Total BGTS strip use increased by 121%, from $4.3 to $9.5 million. However, the number of insulin users also increased by 115%. Use has been stable at 1.5 strips per day per person since 2004 by insulin users with type 2 diabetes but has risen from 1.9 to 3.0 strips per day per person in those with type 1 diabetes. Mean daily test strip use was below the number of daily tests recommended for patients using insulin as per the current Canadian guidelines, with 11% and 15% of insulin users with type 1 and type 2 diabetes not claiming any BGTS use and a further 15% (type 1) and 28% (type 2) using fewer than 1 strip per day. CONCLUSIONS: BGTS use per insulin user has been stable for most of the past decade, and the vast majority of use falls well below provincial insurance caps. The amount of low-level testing (0 to <1 strip/day) suggests that greater attention should be directed to ensuring a safe level of testing by all insulin users.


Assuntos
Glicemia/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus/sangue , Política de Saúde/tendências , Insulina/uso terapêutico , Revisão da Utilização de Recursos de Saúde/tendências , Automonitorização da Glicemia/tendências , Estudos de Coortes , Diabetes Mellitus/diagnóstico , Diabetes Mellitus/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Fitas Reagentes , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Tempo
17.
BMC Infect Dis ; 17(1): 69, 2017 01 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28086817

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Around 30% of the population will experience herpes zoster (HZ), 10% of whom develop postherpetic neuralgia (PHN). Together, these illnesses produce a significant economic burden to the healthcare system. METHODS: Administrative healthcare data collected over the period of April 1st 1997 to March 31st 2014 were analyzed to determine the healthcare system burden of HZ using direct medical costs. Episodes of HZ were identified using international classification of disease (ICD) codes. Trends in age-adjusted (AA) HZ-rates were analyzed by piecewise-regression. Total annual and per-episode costs were determined for drug treatment, medical care, and hospitalizations within each year. RESULTS: The incidence of HZ increased by 49.5% from 1997/98 to 2013/14. Piecewise-regression of AA-rates revealed a steady AA-rate of 4.7 episodes/1000 person-years (PY) from 1997/98 to a breakpoint in 2008/09, after which rates began to increase reaching 5.7 episodes/1000 PY in 2013/14. Drug costs rose significantly (p <0.03) from $89.77/episode (95% CI: $82.96, $96.59) to $127.34/episode (95% CI: $117.24, $137.44). Medical costs increased (p <0.0001) from $57.98/episode (95% CI; $55.26, $60.70) to $78.84/episode (95% CI; $74.08, $83.61). Hospitalization rates declined from 3.10% in 1997/98 to 1.36% in 2011/12, resulting in cost dropping from $397/episode (95% CI; $284, $511) to $195/episode (95% CI; $129, $260). Total annual costs of HZ and PHN were $1,997,183 in 2011/12, 4.7% lower than the 1997/98 costs of $2,095,633. CONCLUSION: A significant increase in annual number of HZ cases was observed, driven largely by demographic factors. A 21% increase in the AA-incidence reveals changes in HZ rates beyond those expected by population shifts. The large increase in incidence of HZ, with rising per episode medical and prescription costs were offset by dramatic drops in hospitalization rates, the net effect of which has been to hold the total costs relatively constant. However, the decrease in hospitalization rates slowed over the last half of the study, settling at 1.3% in the last 4 study years. The likely future of HZ burden is one of rising costs, primarily driven by the demographic shifts of an increasing and aging population.


Assuntos
Custos de Cuidados de Saúde , Herpes Zoster/economia , Neuralgia Pós-Herpética/economia , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Custos e Análise de Custo , Custos de Medicamentos , Feminino , Herpes Zoster/tratamento farmacológico , Herpes Zoster/epidemiologia , Herpesvirus Humano 3 , Hospitalização/economia , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Manitoba/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neuralgia Pós-Herpética/tratamento farmacológico , Neuralgia Pós-Herpética/epidemiologia , Análise de Regressão , Estudos Retrospectivos
18.
Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis ; 11: 3101-3108, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27994449

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the first initiation, sequence of addition, and appropriate prescribing of COPD medications in Manitoba, Canada. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A population-based cohort study of COPD medication use was conducted using administrative health care data (1997-2012). Those aged ≥35 years with COPD based on three or more COPD-related outpatient visits over a rolling 24-month window or at least one COPD-related hospitalization were included. The first medication(s) dispensed on or after the date of COPD diagnosis were determined based on pharmacy claims. The next medication(s) in sequence were determined to be additions or switches to the previous regimen. Evaluation of guideline-based appropriateness to receive inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) was based on exacerbation history and past medication use. RESULTS: Of 13,369 patients dispensed COPD medications after diagnosis, 66.0% were dispensed short-acting bronchodilators as first medications. Although long-acting bronchodilators alone were uncommonly used as first or subsequent medications, ICS were dispensed as first medications in 28.2% of patients. Over the study period, use of short-acting bronchodilators as first medications declined from 70.6% to 59.4% (P<0.0001), whereas the use of ICS as a first medication increased from 23.5% to 34.4% (P<0.0001). Dispensation of an ICS plus a long-acting ß-agonist increased dramatically from 1.2% to 27.3% (P<0.0001). By the end of the study period, the majority of patients (53.3%) were being initiated on two or more medications. Of 5,823 patients dispensed an ICS, 52.4% met Canadian guideline criteria for initiating an ICS, whereas 0.3% met Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease guideline criteria. CONCLUSION: The use of first-line medications has declined over time, replaced primarily by combination inhalers prescribed early without prior trials of appropriate next step medications. This, along with an increasingly predominant use of multiple first medications, indicates a significant degree of medication burden in this already complex patient population.


Assuntos
Corticosteroides/administração & dosagem , Agonistas de Receptores Adrenérgicos beta 2/administração & dosagem , Broncodilatadores/administração & dosagem , Intervenção Médica Precoce , Pulmão/efeitos dos fármacos , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Administração por Inalação , Demandas Administrativas em Assistência à Saúde , Adulto , Idoso , Bases de Dados Factuais , Esquema de Medicação , Combinação de Medicamentos , Prescrições de Medicamentos , Substituição de Medicamentos , Quimioterapia Combinada , Revisão de Uso de Medicamentos , Feminino , Fidelidade a Diretrizes , Humanos , Prescrição Inadequada , Estudos Longitudinais , Pulmão/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Manitoba , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nebulizadores e Vaporizadores , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Padrões de Prática Médica , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/diagnóstico , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/fisiopatologia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
19.
J Pain Res ; 9: 543-50, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27536159

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pain is a main symptom of herpes zoster (HZ), and postherpetic neuralgia (PHN) is a frequent complication occurring in 5% to 15% of cases, causing moderate to severe neuropathic pain. A population-based observational study was conducted to evaluate the treatment patterns and economic burden of prescription drug treatment of HZ and PHN pain in the province of Manitoba (Canada) over a period of 15 years. METHODS: Administrative health care data, including medical and hospital separation records, were examined to identify episodes of HZ using International Classification of Diseases-9/10 codes between April 1, 1997 and March 31, 2014. Episodes of PHN were identified using medical and prescription claims. Incident use of analgesic, antidepressant, or anticonvulsant drugs was used to determine prescription pain costs. RESULTS: The age-adjusted incidence of HZ increased from 4.7 episodes/1,000 person-years in 1997/98 to 5.7/1,000 person-years in 2013/14. PHN occurred in 9.2% of HZ cases, a rate that did not change over the study period (P=0.57). The annual cost to treat HZ pain rose by 174% from 1997/98, reaching CAD $332,981 in 2011/12, 82.8% (95% confidence interval [CI] 81.2%, 84.3%) of which was related to PHN. The per episode cost of HZ rose by 111% from $31.59 (95% CI $25.35, $37.84) to $66.81 (95% CI $56.84, $76.78) and by 94% for PHN from $292 (95% CI $225, $358) to $566 (95% CI $478, $655). These increases were driven by increasing use of anticonvulsants, primarily gabapentin, which accounted for 57% of the increase in cost. CONCLUSION: There has been an increase in the incidence of HZ and PHN and in the average cost associated with the prescription treatment of their resultant neuropathic pain. The primary driver of the increased episodic cost is the increased use of gabapentin. These changes have resulted in a substantial increase in the economic burden associated with HZ and PHN.

20.
Clinicoecon Outcomes Res ; 8: 207-14, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27284258

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Herpes zoster (HZ) is a common viral disease that produces a painful vesicular rash. Early use of antiviral medications is recommended, as it reduces pain and speeds healing. A population-based observational study was conducted to evaluate the changing burden of HZ in the province of Manitoba (Canada) over a period of 17 years. METHODS: Administrative health care data including medical and hospital records were examined, and International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification and International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision, Clinical Modification codes were used to identify episodes of HZ between April 1, 1997 and March 31, 2014 in persons aged 20 or over. Annual age-adjusted incidence and hospitalization rates were calculated. Prescription records of HZ-diagnosed persons for acyclovir, valacyclovir, and famciclovir were used to calculate the rates and costs of antiviral treatment. RESULTS: There were 73,893 identified cases of HZ and 1,245 HZ-related hospitalizations between 1997 and 2013. Of these episodes, 42,270 (57.2%) were treated with antiviral medications at a total cost of $4,708,065 (CAD). The age-adjusted incidence of HZ rose from 4.67/1,000 person years in 1997/1998 to 5.67/1,000 person years in 2013/2014, a 21.9% increase. Antiviral treatment rates increased from 41.7% to 66.2% of all diagnosed episodes. Mean treatment costs per episode dropped from $127.29 in 1997/1998 to $56.06 in 2013/2014, primarily due to the introduction of generic antiviral medications. The total cost of antiviral treatment peaked in 2005/2006 at $329,935 and dropped steadily thereafter to $223,973 in 2013/2014. HZ-related hospitalization rates decreased from 3.1% to 0.9%. CONCLUSION: While both the incidence of HZ and the rates of antiviral treatment have risen substantially, the economic burden from antiviral treatment has been decreasing since a peak in 2005/2006 and was only 3.2% higher in 2013/2014 than in 1997/1998. This drop in cost is attributed to the introduction of generic antiviral drugs.

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