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1.
PLoS One ; 14(9): e0221829, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31479473

RESUMO

Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) genome integrity is essential for proper mitochondrial respiratory chain function to generate cellular energy. Nuclear genes encode several proteins that function at the mtDNA replication fork, including mitochondrial single-stranded DNA-binding protein (SSBP1), which is a tetrameric protein that binds and protects single-stranded mtDNA (ssDNA). Recently, two studies have reported pathogenic variants in SSBP1 associated with hearing loss, optic atrophy, and retinal degeneration. Here, we report a 14-year-old Chinese boy with severe and progressive mitochondrial disease manifestations across the full Pearson, Kearns-Sayre, and Leigh syndromes spectrum, including infantile anemia and bone marrow failure, growth failure, ptosis, ophthalmoplegia, ataxia, severe retinal dystrophy of the rod-cone type, sensorineural hearing loss, chronic kidney disease, multiple endocrine deficiencies, and metabolic strokes. mtDNA genome sequencing identified a single large-scale 5 kilobase mtDNA deletion (m.8629_14068del5440), present at 68% and 16% heteroplasmy in the proband's fibroblast cell line and blood, respectively, suggestive of a mtDNA maintenance defect. On trio whole exome blood sequencing, the proband was found to harbor a novel de novo heterozygous mutation c.79G>A (p.E27K) in SSBP1. Size exclusion chromatography of p.E27K SSBP1 revealed it remains a stable tetramer. However, differential scanning fluorimetry demonstrated p.E27K SSBP1 relative to wild type had modestly decreased thermostability. Functional assays also revealed p.E27K SSBP1 had altered DNA binding. Molecular modeling of SSBP1 tetramers with varying combinations of mutant subunits predicted general changes in surface accessible charges, strength of inter-subunit interactions, and protein dynamics. Overall, the observed changes in protein dynamics and DNA binding behavior suggest that p.E27K SSBP1 can interfere with DNA replication and precipitate the introduction of large-scale mtDNA deletions. Thus, a single large-scale mtDNA deletion (SLSMD) with manifestations across the clinical spectrum of Pearson, Kearns-Sayre, and Leigh syndromes may result from a nuclear gene disorder disrupting mitochondrial DNA replication.

2.
Am J Hum Genet ; 105(2): 283-301, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31353023

RESUMO

The RNA polymerase II complex (pol II) is responsible for transcription of all ∼21,000 human protein-encoding genes. Here, we describe sixteen individuals harboring de novo heterozygous variants in POLR2A, encoding RPB1, the largest subunit of pol II. An iterative approach combining structural evaluation and mass spectrometry analyses, the use of S. cerevisiae as a model system, and the assessment of cell viability in HeLa cells allowed us to classify eleven variants as probably disease-causing and four variants as possibly disease-causing. The significance of one variant remains unresolved. By quantification of phenotypic severity, we could distinguish mild and severe phenotypic consequences of the disease-causing variants. Missense variants expected to exert only mild structural effects led to a malfunctioning pol II enzyme, thereby inducing a dominant-negative effect on gene transcription. Intriguingly, individuals carrying these variants presented with a severe phenotype dominated by profound infantile-onset hypotonia and developmental delay. Conversely, individuals carrying variants expected to result in complete loss of function, thus reduced levels of functional pol II from the normal allele, exhibited the mildest phenotypes. We conclude that subtle variants that are central in functionally important domains of POLR2A cause a neurodevelopmental syndrome characterized by profound infantile-onset hypotonia and developmental delay through a dominant-negative effect on pol-II-mediated transcription of DNA.

3.
Hum Mutat ; 40(5): 499-515, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30763462

RESUMO

Mitochondrial complex V (CV) generates cellular energy as adenosine triphosphate (ATP). Mitochondrial disease caused by the m.8993T>G pathogenic variant in the CV subunit gene MT-ATP6 was among the first described human mitochondrial DNA diseases. Due to a lack of clinically available functional assays, validating the definitive pathogenicity of additional MT-ATP6 variants remains challenging. We reviewed all reportedMT-ATP6 disease cases ( n = 218) to date, to assess for MT-ATP6 variants, heteroplasmy levels, and inheritance correlation with clinical presentation and biochemical findings. We further describe the clinical and biochemical features of a new cohort of 14 kindreds with MT-ATP6 variants of uncertain significance. Despite extensive overlap in the heteroplasmy levels of MT-ATP6 variant carriers with and without a wide range of clinical symptoms, previously reported symptomatic subjects had significantly higher heteroplasmy load (p = 2.2 x 10-16 ). Pathogenic MT-ATP6 variants resulted in diverse biochemical features. The most common findings were reduced ATP synthesis rate, preserved ATP hydrolysis capacity, and abnormally increased mitochondrial membrane potential. However, no single biochemical feature was universally observed. Extensive heterogeneity exists among both clinical and biochemical features of distinct MT-ATP6 variants. Improved mechanistic understanding and development of consistent biochemical diagnostic analyses are needed to permit accurate pathogenicity assessment of variants of uncertain significance in MT-ATP6.

4.
Cancer Res ; 79(7): 1318-1330, 2019 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30709931

RESUMO

Little is known about the spectrum of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations across pediatric malignancies. In this study, we analyzed matched tumor and normal whole genome sequencing data from 616 pediatric patients with hematopoietic malignancies, solid tumors, and brain tumors. We identified 391 mtDNA mutations in 284 tumors including 45 loss-of-function mutations, which clustered at four statistically significant hotspots in MT-COX3, MT-ND4, and MT-ND5, and at a mutation hotspot in MT-tRNA-MET. A skewed ratio (4.83) of nonsynonymous versus synonymous (dN/dS) mtDNA mutations with high statistical significance was identified on the basis of Monte Carlo simulations in the tumors. In comparison, opposite ratios of 0.44 and 0.93 were observed in 616 matched normal tissues and in 249 blood samples from children without cancer, respectively. mtDNA mutations varied by cancer type and mtDNA haplogroup. Collectively, these results suggest that deleterious mtDNA mutations play a role in the development and progression of pediatric cancers. SIGNIFICANCE: This pan-cancer mtDNA study establishes the landscape of germline and tumor mtDNA mutations and identifies hotspots of tumor mtDNA mutations to pinpoint key mitochondrial functions in pediatric malignancies.

5.
JAMA Pediatr ; 173(4): 404, 2019 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30801624
6.
J Med Genet ; 56(3): 123-130, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30683676

RESUMO

Primary genetic mitochondrial diseases are often difficult to diagnose, and the term 'possible' mitochondrial disease is used frequently by clinicians when such a diagnosis is suspected. There are now many known phenocopies of mitochondrial disease. Advances in genomic testing have shown that some patients with a clinical phenotype and biochemical abnormalities suggesting mitochondrial disease may have other genetic disorders. In instances when a genetic diagnosis cannot be confirmed, a diagnosis of 'possible' mitochondrial disease may result in harm to patients and their families, creating anxiety, delaying appropriate diagnosis and leading to inappropriate management or care. A categorisation of 'diagnosis uncertain', together with a specific description of the metabolic or genetic abnormalities identified, is preferred when a mitochondrial disease cannot be genetically confirmed.

7.
Hum Mol Genet ; 28(11): 1837-1852, 2019 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30668749

RESUMO

Cysteamine bitartrate is a US Food and Drug Administration-approved therapy for nephropathic cystinosis also postulated to enhance glutathione biosynthesis. We hypothesized this antioxidant effect may reduce oxidative stress in primary mitochondrial respiratory chain (RC) disease, improving cellular viability and organismal health. Here, we systematically evaluated the therapeutic potential of cysteamine bitartrate in RC disease models spanning three evolutionarily distinct species. These pre-clinical studies demonstrated the narrow therapeutic window of cysteamine bitartrate, with toxicity at millimolar levels directly correlating with marked induction of hydrogen peroxide production. Micromolar range cysteamine bitartrate treatment in Caenorhabditis elegans gas-1(fc21) RC complex I (NDUFS2-/-) disease invertebrate worms significantly improved mitochondrial membrane potential and oxidative stress, with corresponding modest improvement in fecundity but not lifespan. At 10 to 100 µm concentrations, cysteamine bitartrate improved multiple RC complex disease FBXL4 human fibroblast survival, and protected both complex I (rotenone) and complex IV (azide) Danio rerio vertebrate zebrafish disease models from brain death. Mechanistic profiling of cysteamine bitartrate effects showed it increases aspartate levels and flux, without increasing total glutathione levels. Transcriptional normalization of broadly dysregulated intermediary metabolic, glutathione, cell defense, DNA, and immune pathways was greater in RC disease human cells than in C. elegans, with similar rescue in both models of downregulated ribosomal and proteasomal pathway expression. Overall, these data suggest cysteamine bitartrate may hold therapeutic potential in RC disease, although not through obvious modulation of total glutathione levels. Careful consideration is required to determine safe and effective cysteamine bitartrate concentrations to further evaluate in clinical trials of human subjects with primary mitochondrial RC disease.

8.
Curr Genet Med Rep ; 6(2): 52-61, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30386685

RESUMO

Purpose of review: The groundwork for mitochondrial medicine was laid 30 years ago with identification of the first disease-causing mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations in 1988. Three decades later, mutations in nearly 300 genes involving every possible mode of inheritance within both nuclear and mitochondrial genomes are now recognized to collectively comprise the largest class of inherited metabolic disease affecting at least 1 in 4,300 individuals across all ages. Significant progress has been made in recent years to improve understanding of mitochondrial biology and disease pathophysiology. Recent findings: Markedly improved understanding of the highly diverse molecular etiologies of multi-systemic phenotypes in primary mitochondrial disease has resulted from massively parallel genomic sequencing technologies and improved bioinformatic resources that enable identification in individual patients of their disease's precise genetic etiology. Key informatics resources of particular utility to the mitochondrial disease genomics community have been developed, including: (1) Mitocarta 2.0 repository of 1200+ verified mitochondria-localized proteins, (2) MITOMAP Web resource of curated mtDNA genome variants, and (3) Mitochondrial Disease Sequence Data Resource (MSeqDR) that centralizes Web curation and annotation of mitochondrial disease genes and variants in both genomes, ontology-defined phenotypes, and access to many analytic tools to support genomic data mining and interpretation. Gene and mutation-based disease categorization has proven particularly useful to identify the full clinical spectrum of disease that may affect a given individual. Summary: Extensive genomic advances, both in technologic platforms and bioinformatics resources, have facilitated dramatic improvement in the accurate recognition and understanding of primary mitochondrial disease.

9.
Curr Genet Med Rep ; 6(2): 62-72, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30393588

RESUMO

Purpose of review: Primary mitochondrial disease encompasses an impressive range of inherited energy deficiency disorders having highly variable molecular etiologies as well as clinical onset, severity, progression, and response to therapies of multi-system manifestations. Significant progress has been made in primary mitochondrial disease diagnostic approaches, clinical management, therapeutic options, and preventative strategies that are tailored to major mitochondrial disease phenotypes and subclasses. Recent findings: The extensive phenotypic pleiotropy of individual mitochondrial diseases from an organ-based perspective is reviewed. Improved consensus on standards for mitochondrial disease patient care are being complemented by emerging therapies that target specific molecular subtypes of mitochondrial disease. Reproductive counseling options now include preimplantation genetic diagnosis at the time of in vitro fertilization for familial mutations in nuclear genes and some mtDNA disorders. Mitochondrial replacement technologies have promise for some mtDNA disorders, although practical and societal challenges remain to allow their further research analyses and clinical utilization. Summary: A dramatic increase has occurred in recent years in the recognition, understanding, treatment options, and preventative strategies for primary mitochondrial disease.

10.
Curr Opin Pediatr ; 30(6): 714-724, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30199403

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Primary mitochondrial disease (PMD) is a genetically and phenotypically diverse group of inherited energy deficiency disorders caused by impaired mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) capacity. Mutations in more than 350 genes in both mitochondrial and nuclear genomes are now recognized to cause primary mitochondrial disease following every inheritance pattern. Next-generation sequencing technologies have dramatically accelerated mitochondrial disease gene discovery and diagnostic yield. Here, we provide an up-to-date review of recently identified, novel mitochondrial disease genes and/or pathogenic variants that directly impair mitochondrial structure, dynamics, and/or function. RECENT FINDINGS: A review of PubMed publications was performed from the past 12 months that identified 16 new PMD genes and/or pathogenic variants, and recognition of expanded phenotypes for a wide variety of mitochondrial disease genes. SUMMARY: Broad-based exome sequencing has become the standard first-line diagnostic approach for PMD. This has facilitated more rapid and accurate disease identification, and greatly expanded understanding of the wide spectrum of potential clinical phenotypes. A comprehensive dual-genome sequencing approach to PMD diagnosis continues to improve diagnostic yield, advance understanding of mitochondrial physiology, and provide strong potential to develop precision therapeutics targeted to diverse aspects of mitochondrial disease pathophysiology.

11.
Genet Med ; 2018 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30245513

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Pathogenic variants in KAT6A have recently been identified as a cause of syndromic developmental delay. Within 2 years, the number of patients identified with pathogenic KAT6A variants has rapidly expanded and the full extent and variability of the clinical phenotype has not been reported. METHODS: We obtained data for patients with KAT6A pathogenic variants through three sources: treating clinicians, an online family survey distributed through social media, and a literature review. RESULTS: We identified 52 unreported cases, bringing the total number of published cases to 76. Our results expand the genotypic spectrum of pathogenic variants to include missense and splicing mutations. We functionally validated a pathogenic splice-site variant and identified a likely hotspot location for de novo missense variants. The majority of clinical features in KAT6A syndrome have highly variable penetrance. For core features such as intellectual disability, speech delay, microcephaly, cardiac anomalies, and gastrointestinal complications, genotype- phenotype correlations show that late-truncating pathogenic variants (exons 16-17) are significantly more prevalent. We highlight novel associations, including an increased risk of gastrointestinal obstruction. CONCLUSION: Our data expand the genotypic and phenotypic spectrum for individuals with genetic pathogenic variants in KAT6A and we outline appropriate clinical management.

12.
Hum Mol Genet ; 27(19): 3305-3312, 2018 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29917077

RESUMO

Leigh syndrome is a frequent, heterogeneous pediatric presentation of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) disease, manifesting with psychomotor retardation and necrotizing lesions in brain deep gray matter. OXPHOS occurs at the inner mitochondrial membrane through the integrated activity of five protein complexes, of which complex V (CV) functions in a dimeric form to directly generate adenosine triphosphate (ATP). Mutations in several different structural CV subunits cause Leigh syndrome; however, dimerization defects have not been associated with human disease. We report four Leigh syndrome subjects from three unrelated Ashkenazi Jewish families harboring a homozygous splice-site mutation (c.87 + 1G>C) in a novel CV subunit disease gene, USMG5. The Ashkenazi population allele frequency is 0.57%. This mutation produces two USMG5 transcripts, wild-type and lacking exon 3. Fibroblasts from two Leigh syndrome probands had reduced wild-type USMG5 mRNA expression and undetectable protein. The mutation did not alter monomeric CV expression, but reduced both CV dimer expression and ATP synthesis rate. Rescue with wild-type USMG5 cDNA in proband fibroblasts restored USMG5 protein, increased CV dimerization and enhanced ATP production rate. These data demonstrate that a recurrent USMG5 splice-site founder mutation in the Ashkenazi Jewish population causes autosomal recessive Leigh syndrome by reduction of CV dimerization and ATP synthesis.

13.
PLoS One ; 13(5): e0197513, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29771953

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Clinical treatment trials are increasingly being designed in primary mitochondrial disease (PMD), a phenotypically and genetically heterogeneous collection of inherited multi- system energy deficiency disorders that lack effective therapy. We sought to identify motivating factors and barriers to clinical trial participation in PMD. METHODS: A survey study was conducted in two independent mitochondrial disease subject cohorts. A discovery cohort invited subjects with well-defined biochemical or molecularly- confirmed PMD followed at a single medical center (CHOP, n = 30/67 (45%) respondents). A replication cohort included self-identified PMD subjects in the Rare Disease Clinical Research Network (RDCRN) national contact registry (n = 290/1119 (26%) respondents). Five-point Likert scale responses were analyzed using descriptive and quantitative statistics. Experienced and prioritized symptoms for trial participation, and patient attitudes toward detailed aspects of clinical trial drug features and study design. RESULTS: PMD subjects experienced an average of 16 symptoms. Muscle weakness, chronic fatigue, and exercise intolerance were the lead symptoms encouraging trial participation. Motivating trial design factors included a self-administered study drug; vitamin, antioxidant, natural or plant-derivative; pills; daily treatment; guaranteed treatment access during and after study; short travel distances; and late-stage (phase 3) participation. Relative trial participation barriers included a new study drug; discontinuation of current medications; disease progression; daily phlebotomy; and requiring participant payment. Treatment trial type or design preferences were not influenced by population age (pediatric versus adult), prior research trial experience, or disease severity. CONCLUSIONS: These data are the first to convey clear PMD subject preferences and priorities to enable improved clinical treatment trial design that cuts across the complex diversity of disease. Partnering with rare disease patient communities is essential to effectively design robust clinical trials that engage patients and enable meaningful evaluation of emerging treatment interventions.

15.
Mol Genet Metab ; 123(4): 449-462, 2018 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29526616

RESUMO

Oxidative stress is a known contributing factor in mitochondrial respiratory chain (RC) disease pathogenesis. Yet, no efficient means exists to objectively evaluate the comparative therapeutic efficacy or toxicity of different antioxidant compounds empirically used in human RC disease. We postulated that pre-clinical comparative analysis of diverse antioxidant drugs having suggested utility in primary RC disease using animal and cellular models of RC dysfunction may improve understanding of their integrated effects and physiologic mechanisms, and enable prioritization of lead antioxidant molecules to pursue in human clinical trials. Here, lifespan effects of N-acetylcysteine (NAC), vitamin E, vitamin C, coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10), mitochondrial-targeted CoQ10 (MS010), lipoate, and orotate were evaluated as the primary outcome in a well-established, short-lived C. elegans gas-1(fc21) animal model of RC complex I disease. Healthspan effects were interrogated to assess potential reversal of their globally disrupted in vivo mitochondrial physiology, transcriptome profiles, and intermediary metabolic flux. NAC or vitamin E fully rescued, and coenzyme Q, lipoic acid, orotic acid, and vitamin C partially rescued gas-1(fc21) lifespan toward that of wild-type N2 Bristol worms. MS010 and CoQ10 largely reversed biochemical pathway expression changes in gas-1(fc21) worms. While nearly all drugs normalized the upregulated expression of the "cellular antioxidant pathway", they failed to rescue the mutant worms' increased in vivo mitochondrial oxidant burden. NAC and vitamin E therapeutic efficacy were validated in human fibroblast and/or zebrafish complex I disease models. Remarkably, rotenone-induced zebrafish brain death was preventable partially with NAC and fully with vitamin E. Overall, these pre-clinical model animal data demonstrate that several classical antioxidant drugs do yield significant benefit on viability and survival in primary mitochondrial disease, where their major therapeutic benefit appears to result from targeting global cellular, rather than intramitochondria-specific, oxidative stress. Clinical trials are needed to evaluate whether the two antioxidants, NAC and vitamin E, that show greatest efficacy in translational model animals significantly improve the survival, function, and feeling of human subjects with primary mitochondrial RC disease.

17.
J Endocr Soc ; 2(4): 361-373, 2018 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29594260

RESUMO

Context: Endocrine disorders are common in individuals with mitochondrial disease. To develop evidence-based screening practices in this high-risk population, updated age-stratified estimates of the prevalence of endocrine conditions are needed. Objective: To measure the point prevalence of selected endocrine disorders in individuals with mitochondrial disease. Design Setting and Patients: The North American Mitochondrial Disease Consortium Patient Registry is a large, prospective, physician-curated cohort study of individuals with mitochondrial disease. Participants (n = 404) are of any age, with a diagnosis of primary mitochondrial disease confirmed by molecular genetic testing. Main Outcome Measures: Age-specific prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM), abnormal growth and sexual maturation (AGSM), hypoparathyroidism, and hypothyroidism. Results: The majority of our sample was pediatric (<18 years; 60.1%), female (56.9%), and white (85.9%). DM affected 2% of participants aged <18 years [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.4% to 5.7%] and 24.4% of adult participants (95% CI: 18.6% to 30.9%). DM prevalence was highest in individuals with mitochondrial encephalomyopathy, lactic acidosis, and strokelike episodes syndrome (MELAS; 31.9%, of whom 86.2% had the m.3243A>G mutation). DM occurred more often with mitochondrial DNA defects (point mutations and/or deletions) than with nuclear DNA mutations (23.3% vs 3.7%, respectively; P < 0.001). Other prevalence estimates were 44.1% (95% CI: 38.8% to 49.6%) for AGSM; 0.3% (95% CI: 0% to 1.6%) for hypoparathyroidism; and 6.3% (95% CI: 4% to 9.3%) for hypothyroidism. Conclusion: DM and AGSM are highly prevalent in primary mitochondrial disease. Certain clinical mitochondrial syndromes (MELAS and Kearns-Sayre/Pearson syndrome spectrum disorders) demonstrated a higher burden of endocrinopathies. Clinical screening practices should reflect the substantial prevalence of endocrine disorders in mitochondrial disease.

18.
Hum Mutat ; 39(6): 806-810, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29539190

RESUMO

Accurate mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) variant annotation is essential for the clinical diagnosis of diverse human diseases. Substantial challenges to this process include the inconsistency in mtDNA nomenclatures, the existence of multiple reference genomes, and a lack of reference population frequency data. Clinicians need a simple bioinformatics tool that is user-friendly, and bioinformaticians need a powerful informatics resource for programmatic usage. Here, we report the development and functionality of the MSeqDR mtDNA Variant Tool set (mvTool), a one-stop mtDNA variant annotation and analysis Web service. mvTool is built upon the MSeqDR infrastructure (https://mseqdr.org), with contributions of expert curated data from MITOMAP (https://www.mitomap.org) and HmtDB (https://www.hmtdb.uniba.it/hmdb). mvTool supports all mtDNA nomenclatures, converts variants to standard rCRS- and HGVS-based nomenclatures, and annotates novel mtDNA variants. Besides generic annotations from dbNSFP and Variant Effect Predictor (VEP), mvTool provides allele frequencies in more than 47,000 germline mitogenomes, and disease and pathogenicity classifications from MSeqDR, Mitomap, HmtDB and ClinVar (Landrum et al., 2013). mvTools also provides mtDNA somatic variants annotations. "mvTool API" is implemented for programmatic access using inputs in VCF, HGVS, or classical mtDNA variant nomenclatures. The results are reported as hyperlinked html tables, JSON, Excel, and VCF formats. MSeqDR mvTool is freely accessible at https://mseqdr.org/mvtool.php.

19.
Aging Dis ; 9(1): 17-30, 2018 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29392078

RESUMO

TCF7L2 is located at one of the most strongly associated type 2 diabetes loci reported to date. We previously reported that the most abundant member of a specific protein complex to bind across the presumed causal variant at this locus, rs7903146, was poly [ADP-ribose] polymerase type 1 (PARP-1). We analyzed the impact of PARP-1 inhibition on C. elegans health in the setting of hyperglycemia and on glucose-stimulated GLP-1 secretion in human intestinal cells. Given that high glucose concentrations progressively shorten the lifespan of C. elegans, in part by impacting key well-conserved insulin-modulated signaling pathways, we investigated the effect of PARP-1 inhibition with Olaparib on the lifespan of C. elegans nematodes under varying hyperglycemic conditions. Subsequently, we investigated whether Olaparib treatment had any effect on glucose-stimulated GLP-1 secretion in the human NCI-H716 intestinal cell line, a model system for the investigation of enteroendocrine function. Treatment with 100uM Olaparib in nematodes exposed to high concentrations of glucose led to significant lifespan rescue. The beneficial lifespan effect of Olaparib appeared to require both PARP-1 and TCF7L2, since treatment had no effect in hyperglycemic conditions in knock-out worm strains for either of these homologs. Further investigation using the NCI-H716 cells revealed that Olaparib significantly enhanced secretion of the incretin, GLP-1, plus the gene expression of TCF7L2, GCG and PC1. These data from studies in both C. elegans and a human cell line suggest that PARP-1 inhibition offers a novel therapeutic avenue to treat type 2 diabetes.

20.
Mol Genet Metab ; 123(3): 301-308, 2018 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29428506

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Intravenous (IV) arginine has been reported to ameliorate acute metabolic stroke symptoms in adult patients with Mitochondrial Encephalopathy with Lactic Acidosis and Stroke-like Episodes (MELAS) syndrome, where its therapeutic benefit is postulated to result from arginine acting as a nitric oxide donor to reverse vasospasm. Further, reduced plasma arginine may occur in mitochondrial disease since the biosynthesis of arginine's precursor, citrulline, requires ATP. Metabolic strokes occur across a wide array of primary mitochondrial diseases having diverse molecular etiologies that are likely to share similar pathophysiologic mechanisms. Therefore, IV arginine has been increasingly used for the acute clinical treatment of metabolic stroke across a broad mitochondrial disease population. METHODS: We performed retrospective analysis of a large cohort of subjects who were under 18 years of age at IRB #08-6177 study enrollment and had molecularly-confirmed primary mitochondrial disease (n = 71, excluding the common MELAS m.3243A>G mutation). 9 unrelated subjects in this cohort received acute arginine IV treatment for one or more stroke-like episodes (n = 17 total episodes) between 2009 and 2016 at the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia. Retrospectively reviewed data included subject genotype, clinical symptoms, age, arginine dosing, neuroimaging (if performed), prophylactic therapies, and adverse events. RESULTS: Genetic etiologies of subjects who presented with acute metabolic strokes included 4 mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) pathogenic point mutations, 1 mtDNA deletion, and 4 nuclear gene disorders. Subject age ranged from 19 months to 23 years at the time of any metabolic stroke episode (median, 8 years). 3 subjects had recurrent stroke episodes. 70% of subjects were on prophylactic arginine or citrulline therapy at the time of a stroke-like episode. IV arginine was initiated on initial presentation in 65% of cases. IV arginine was given for 1-7 days (median, 1 day). A positive clinical response to IV arginine occurred in 47% of stroke-like episodes; an additional 6% of episodes showed clinical benefit from multiple simultaneous treatments that included arginine, confounding sole interpretation of arginine effect. All IV arginine-responsive stroke-like episodes (n = 8) received treatment immediately on presentation (p = .003). Interestingly, the presence of unilateral symptoms strongly predicted arginine response (p = .02, Chi-Square); however, almost all of these cases immediately received IV arginine, confounding interpretation of causality direction. Suggestive trends toward increased IV arginine response were seen in subjects with mtDNA relative to nDNA mutations and in older pediatric subjects, although statistical significance was not reached possibly due to small sample size. No adverse events, including hypotensive episodes, from IV arginine therapy were reported. CONCLUSIONS: Single-center retrospective analysis suggests that IV arginine therapy yields significant therapeutic benefit with little risk in pediatric mitochondrial disease stroke subjects across a wide range of genetic etiologies beyond classical MELAS. Acute hemiplegic stroke, in particular, was highly responsive to IV arginine treatment. Prospective studies with consistent arginine dosing, and pre- and post-neuroimaging, will further inform the clinical utility of IV arginine therapy for acute metabolic stroke in pediatric mitochondrial disease.

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