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1.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(1): e18635, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31895824

RESUMO

This cross sectional study examined patients' perceptions of professional support regarding use of psychotropic medication in a specialist mental health care setting. The aims were to evaluate reliability and validity of the MedSupport inventory, and investigate possible associations between MedSupport scores and patient characteristics.A cross-sectional study was performed. The patients completed the MedSupport, a newly developed self-reported 6 item questionnaire on a Likert scale ranged 1 to 5 (1 = strongly disagree to 5 = strongly agree), and the Beliefs about Medicines Questionnaire. Diagnosis and treatment information were obtained at the clinical visits and from patient records.Among the 992 patients recruited, 567 patients (57%) used psychotropic medications, and 514 (91%) of these completed the MedSupport and were included in the study. The MedSupport showed an adequate internal consistency (Cronbach alpha.87; 95% CI.86-89) and a convergent validity toward the available variables. The MedSupport mean score was 3.8 (standard deviation.9, median 3.8). Increasing age and the experience of stronger needs for psychotropic medication were associated with perception of more support to cope with medication, whereas higher concern toward use of psychotropic medication was associated with perception of less support. Patients diagnosed with behavioral and emotional disorders, onset in childhood and adolescence perceived more support than patients with Mood disorders.The MedSupport inventory was suitable for assessing the patients' perceived support from health care service regarding their medication. Awareness of differences in patients' perceptions might enable the service to provide special measures for patients who perceive insufficient medication support.


Assuntos
Transtornos Mentais/tratamento farmacológico , Serviços de Saúde Mental , Psicotrópicos/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
2.
J Med Internet Res ; 22(1): e15445, 2020 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31909717

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Self-care is key to the daily management of chronic heart failure (HF). After discharge from hospital, patients may struggle to recognize and respond to worsening HF symptoms. Failure to monitor and respond to HF symptoms may lead to unnecessary hospitalizations. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to (1) determine the feasibility of lung impedance measurements and a symptom diary to monitor HF symptoms daily at home for 30 days following hospital discharge and (2) determine daily changes in HF symptoms of pulmonary edema, lung impedance measurements, and if self-care behavior improves over time when patients use these self-care monitoring tools. METHODS: This study used a prospective longitudinal design including patients from cardiology wards in 2 university hospitals-one in Norway and one in Lithuania. Data on HF symptoms and pulmonary edema were collected from 10 participants (mean age 64.5 years; 90% (9/10) male) with severe HF (New York Heart Association classes III and IV) who were discharged home after being hospitalized for an HF condition. HF symptoms were self-reported using the Memorial Symptom Assessment Scale for Heart Failure. Pulmonary edema was measured by participants using a noninvasive lung impedance monitor, the CardioSet Edema Guard Monitor. Informal caregivers aided the participants with the noninvasive measurements. RESULTS: The prevalence and burden of shortness of breath varied from participants experiencing them daily to never, whereas lung impedance measurements varied for individual participants and the group participants, as a whole. Self-care behavior score improved significantly (P=.007) from a median of 56 (IQR range 22-75) at discharge to a median of 81 (IQR range 72-98) 30 days later. CONCLUSIONS: Noninvasive measurement of lung impedance daily and the use of a symptom diary were feasible at home for 30 days in HF patients. Self-care behavior significantly improved after 30 days of using a symptom diary and measuring lung impedance at home. Further research is needed to determine if daily self-care monitoring of HF signs and symptoms, combined with daily lung impedance measurements, may reduce hospital readmissions.

3.
Scand J Urol ; 53(6): 385-391, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31797716

RESUMO

Purpose: To explore whether prostatectomized men report improved post-operative erectile function and urinary control dependent on the application of intra-operative frozen section examination (NeuroSAFE) during nerve-sparing radical prostatectomies (NS-RPs).Methods: Pre- and post-RP responses to the sexual domain and the urinary incontinence subscale of EPIC-26 were analyzed in 95 and 312 men from a NeuroSAFEGroup (Martini-Klinik, Hamburg, Germany) and a Non-NeuroSAFE Group (Oslo University Hospital, Norway), respectively, undergoing NS-RPs for ≤ cT2 prostate cancer. All patients had intra-prostatic tumors as evaluated by Digital Rectal Examination. Statistical significance in bivariate and multi-variable analyses: p < 0.05.Results: With similar oncological outcomes and not associated with the performance of bilateral or unilateral NS-RP within each group patients from the NeuroSAFE Group had better sexuality outcomes than those from the NonNeuroSAFE Group (p < 0.01). Age and pre-RP sexual function represented significant co-variables. In pre-RP potent men, erectile function was preserved in 74% of men in the NeuroSAFE Group and in 46% in those from the NonNeuroSAFE Group (p < 0.01). Any superior continence-saving effect of NeuroSAFE was limited. The non-randomized small-sized observational study design represents the observations' main limitation.Conclusions: Our study indicates that NeuroSAFE contributes to preservation of post-RP erectile function. If confirmed in a randomized trial the NeuroSAFE should be applied in patients undergoing NS-RP for maximal preservation of post-RP sexual function.

4.
BMJ Open ; 9(12): e030346, 2019 Dec 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31806607

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To identify predictors of disease among a few factors commonly associated with endometriosis and if successful, to combine these to develop a prediction model to aid primary care physicians in early identification of women at high risk of developing endometriosis. DESIGN: Cross-sectional anonymous postal questionnaire study. SETTING: Women aged 18-45 years recruited from the Norwegian Endometriosis Association and a random sample of women residing in Oslo, Norway. PARTICIPANTS: 157 women with and 156 women without endometriosis. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Logistic and least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) regression analyses were performed with endometriosis as dependent variable. Predictors were identified and combined to develop a prediction model. The predictive ability of the model was evaluated by calculating the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) and positive predictive values (PPVs) and negative predictive values (NPVs). To take into account the likelihood of skewed representativeness of the patient sample towards high symptom burden, we considered the hypothetical prevalences of endometriosis in the general population 0.1%, 0.5%, 1% and 2%. RESULTS: The predictors absenteeism from school due to dysmenorrhea and family history of endometriosis demonstrated the strongest association with disease. The model based on logistic regression (AUC 0.83) included these two predictors only, while the model based on LASSO regression (AUC 0.85) included two more: severe dysmenorrhea in adolescence and use of painkillers due to dysmenorrhea in adolescence. For the prevalences 0.1%, 0.5%, 1% and 2%, both models ascertained endometriosis with PPV equal to 2.0%, 9.4%, 17.2% and 29.6%, respectively. NPV was at least 98% for all values considered. CONCLUSIONS: External validation is needed before model implementation. Meanwhile, endometriosis should be considered a differential diagnosis in women with frequent absenteeism from school or work due to painful menstruations and positive family history of endometriosis.

5.
J Ultrasound ; 2019 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31691921

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To evaluate the ability of a novel ultrasound (US) device, DiaMon, to monitor diaphragm movement via its proxy liver movement, and compare it with the respired flow measured with a flowmeter, in awake and healthy volunteers. We wanted to (1) establish the optimal anatomical position for attaching the DiaMon device to the abdominal wall, and (2) evaluate the accuracy of continuous monitoring of respiratory frequency. METHODS: Thirty healthy subjects were recruited. The DiaMon probe was applied subcostally in four different positions with the subjects in five different postures. The subjects breathed tidal volumes into a spirometer for 30-60 s with the DiaMon recording simultaneously. RESULTS: The device detected a readable signal in 83-100% of the position/posture-combinations. The technical correlation between the two signals was highest in the anterior axillary-supine position (mean ± SD: 0.95 ± 0.03), followed by paramidline-supine (0.90 ± 0.09) and midclavicular-supine (0.89 ± 0.12). The frequency measurements yielded a mean difference of 0.03 (95% limits of agreement - 0.11, 0.16) breaths per minute in the anterior axillary-supine position. CONCLUSION: The DiaMon device is able to detect liver movement in most subjects, and it measures breathing frequency accurately.

6.
Int Urogynecol J ; 30(12): 2101-2108, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31172220

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION AND HYPOTHESIS: St Mark's incontinence score (SMIS) and the Wexner score have been constructed and validated as interview-based scoring systems. We developed a single questionnaire from which a separate SMIS or Wexner score could be derived. This study aimed to demonstrate the level of agreement between self-administered (sSMIS and sWexner) and interview-based (iSMIS and iWexner) scores using this questionnaire. METHODS: One hundred five consecutive patients (30 male) seen in the incontinence outpatient clinics at the Østfold Hospital Trust, Sarpsborg, and University Hospital of North Norway, Tromsø, completed the self-administered incontinence questionnaire prior to the appointment. Following clinical investigation, the patients were interviewed about their symptoms according to the SMIS and Wexner scores, with the interviewers blinded to the results from self-reported questionnaire. Agreement between total scores and between subscores of the various items were determined using interclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and kappa statistics, respectively. RESULTS: The self-administered questionnaire was incomplete in six cases (5.7%) and the interview-based was incomplete in two cases. Agreement was almost perfect between the iSMIS and sSMIS and between the iWexner score and sWexner score (ICC 0.90 and 0.92, respectively). Agreement was substantial to almost perfect for all items in both scoring systems, with kappa values ranging from 0.64-0.94. Mean iSMIS was 9.48 versus 9.53 for sSMIS (p = 0.90) and 8.26 versus 8.44 for the iWexner and sWexner score, respectively (p = 0.42). CONCLUSION: The SMIS and Wexner scores can be completed by the patients using a single questionnaire, and the derived SMIS and Wexner scores are highly consistent with scores obtained by interview.

7.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 109(3): 566-575, 2019 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30831600

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Which blood-based indicator best reflects the iron status in pregnant women is unclear. Better assessments of iron status in today's multiethnic populations are needed to optimize treatment and clinical recommendations. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to determine the prevalence of anemia (hemoglobin <11.0 g/dL in first and <10.5 g/dL in second trimester) and iron deficiency (ID) by the iron indicators serum ferritin <15 µg/L, serum soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR) >4.4 mg/L, and calculated total body iron <0 mg/kg, and their associations with ethnicity. METHODS: This was a population-based cross-sectional study from primary antenatal care of 792 healthy women in early pregnancy in Oslo, Norway. We categorized the women into 6 ethnic groups: Western European, South Asian, Middle Eastern, Sub-Saharan African, East Asian, and Eastern European. RESULTS: Anemia was found in 5.9% of women (Western Europeans: 1.8%; non-Western: 0-14%, P < 0.05). ID from ferritin was found in 33% (Western Europeans: 15%; non-Western: 27-55%, P < 0.05). ID from sTfR was found in 6.5% (Western Europeans: 0.3%; non-Western: 0-20%, P < 0.01). Calculated total body iron indicated ID in 11% (Western Europeans: 0.6%, non-Western: 7.0-28%, P < 0.01). The prevalence of ID was significantly higher by all measures in South Asian, Sub-Saharan African, and Middle Eastern than in Western European women, and the ethnic differences persisted after adjusting for confounders. South Asians, Sub-Saharan Africans, and Middle Easterners had lower iron concentrations by all measures for all hemoglobin intervals. Anemia related to ID varied from 35% (sTfR) to 46% (total body iron) and 72% (ferritin) depending on the iron indicator used. CONCLUSIONS: Women at the highest risk of ID and anemia were of South Asian, Middle Eastern, and Sub-Saharan African origin. The prevalence of ID differed considerably depending on the iron indicator used.


Assuntos
Anemia Ferropriva/diagnóstico , Ferritinas/sangue , Ferro/análise , Receptores da Transferrina/sangue , Adulto , Anemia Ferropriva/sangue , Anemia Ferropriva/etnologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Hemoglobinas/metabolismo , Humanos , Ferro/sangue , Noruega/etnologia , Gravidez/sangue , Gravidez/etnologia , Cuidado Pré-Natal , Adulto Jovem
8.
J Med Internet Res ; 21(2): e10362, 2019 02 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30724744

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Noninvasive telemonitoring (TM) can be used in heart failure (HF) patients to perform early detection of decompensation at home, prevent unnecessary health care utilization, and decrease health care costs. However, the evidence is not sufficient to be part of HF guidelines for follow-up care, and we have no knowledge of how TM is used in the Nordic Baltic region. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to describe health care professionals' (HCPs) perception of and presumed experience with noninvasive TM in daily HF patient care, perspectives of the relevance of and reasons for applying noninvasive TM, and barriers to the use of noninvasive TM. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was performed between September and December 2016 in Norway and Lithuania with physicians and nurses treating HF patients at either a hospital ward or an outpatient clinic. A total of 784 questionnaires were sent nationwide by postal mail to 107 hospitals. The questionnaire consisted of 43 items with close- and open-ended questions. In Norway, the response rate was 68.7% (226/329), with 57 of 60 hospitals participating, whereas the response rate was 68.1% (310/455) in Lithuania, with 41 of 47 hospitals participating. Responses to the closed questions were analyzed using descriptive statistics, and the open-ended questions were analyzed using summative content analysis. RESULTS: This study showed that noninvasive TM is not part of the current daily clinical practice in Norway or Lithuania. A minority of HCPs responded to be familiar with noninvasive TM in HF care in Norway (48/226, 21.2%) and Lithuania (64/310, 20.6%). Approximately half of the HCPs in both countries perceived noninvasive TM to be relevant in follow-up of HF patients in Norway (131/226, 58.0%) and Lithuania (172/310, 55.5%). For physicians in both countries and nurses in Norway, the 3 most mentioned reasons for introducing noninvasive TM were to improve self-care, to reduce hospitalizations, and to provide high-quality care, whereas the Lithuanian nurses described ability to treat more patients and to reduce their workload as reasons for introducing noninvasive TM. The main barriers to implement noninvasive TM were lack of funding from health care authorities or the Territorial Patient Fund. Moreover, HCPs perceive that HF patients themselves could represent barriers because of their physical or mental condition in addition to a lack of internet access. CONCLUSIONS: HCPs in Norway and Lithuania are currently nonusers of TM in daily HF care. However, they perceive a future with TM to improve the quality of care for HF patients. Financial barriers and HF patients' condition may have an impact on the use of TM, whereas sufficient funding from health care authorities and improved knowledge may encourage the more widespread use of TM in the Nordic Baltic region and beyond.


Assuntos
Pessoal de Saúde/normas , Insuficiência Cardíaca/terapia , Telemedicina/métodos , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Insuficiência Cardíaca/patologia , Serviços de Assistência Domiciliar , Humanos , Masculino , Autocuidado , Inquéritos e Questionários
9.
J Affect Disord ; 241: 49-58, 2018 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30096592

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Postpartum depression (PPD) may have adverse effects on both mother and child. The aims were to determine the prevalence of postpartum depressive symptoms, PPDS, identify associations with ethnicity and with the level of social integration. METHOD: Population-based, prospective cohort study of 643 pregnant women (58% ethnic minorities) attending primary antenatal care in Oslo. Questionnaires regarding demographics and health issues were collected through interviews. PPDS was defined as a sum score ≥ 10 by the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale, used as the main outcome in logistic regression analyses, first with ethnicity, second with level of integration as main explanatory factors. RESULTS: The prevalence of PPDS was higher in ethnic minorities 12.7% (95% CI: 9.31-16.09) than in Western Europeans 4.8% (2.26-7.34). Adverse life events, lack of social support and depressive symptoms during the index pregnancy were other significant risk factors. Western European with PPDS were more likely to have had depressive symptoms also during pregnancy than women from ethnic minorities (72.2% versus 33.3%, p = 0.041). When replacing ethnicity with integration, a low level of integration was independently associated with PPDS (2.1 (1.11-3.95)). LIMITATIONS: Cases with PPDS were limited. Heterogeneity in the ethnic groups is a concern. CONCLUSION: Both point prevalence and new onset of PPDS was higher among ethnic minorities than among Western Europeans. Low level of integration was associated with PPDS. Our findings suggest that clinicians should be aware of the increased risk of new cases of PPDS among ethnic minorities compared to Western European women and offer evidence-based care accordingly.


Assuntos
Depressão Pós-Parto/epidemiologia , Emigrantes e Imigrantes , Grupos Étnicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Relações Interpessoais , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Grupos Minoritários , Mães , Gravidez , Gestantes , Cuidado Pré-Natal , Prevalência , Estudos Prospectivos , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários
10.
BMC Public Health ; 18(1): 1056, 2018 Aug 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30139343

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Childhood obesity is a worldwide health challenge and risk factor for adult life obesity, which predisposes to development of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. However, also thinness in early life has been related to these diseases, especially if followed by fat gain. In European countries, susceptibility to cardio-metabolic diseases varies considerably between ethnic groups. We investigated ethnic differences in overweight and thinness in a multi-ethnic, population-based cohort of preschool children in Norway, and associations with maternal and early postnatal factors. METHODS: Participants were children aged 4-5 years (n = 570) drawn from the population-based STORK Groruddalen cohort of healthy women and offspring followed from early pregnancy. Ethnic groups were: European (n = 298), South Asian (n = 154), and Middle East/North African (n = 118). Children's growth data were provided from routine visits at local Child Health Clinics. Weight status was defined by the International Obesity Task Force. Using multinomial logistic regression analysis, we explored ethnic differences in overweight and thinness, and associations with maternal-, pre, - and postnatal factors. RESULTS: Children of Middle East/North African origin had higher prevalence of overweight (22.0%) compared to European (12.8%) children, and in adjusted logistic regression analysis almost the double risk (OR 1.98; 95%CI: 1.08-3.63). Prevalence was lower in children of South Asian origin (5.2%). Children with South Asian background had higher prevalence of thinness (26.0%) compared to ethnic Europeans (10.4%), and the double risk (OR 2.20; 95%CI: 1.25-3.87) in adjusted models. Applying newly suggested BMI adjustments in South Asian children, taking into account their relatively increased adiposity, markedly increased the prevalence of overweight, and decreased the prevalence of thinness in this subgroup. Birthweight and maternal prepregnant overweight were strongly, positively associated with overweight, and inversely associated with thinness. Lower maternal age was associated with overweight only. CONCLUSIONS: In a multi-ethnic cohort we found strikingly different patterns of overweight and thinness among children of different ethnic groups at age 4-5 years, and a strong association between maternal BMI and their children's weight status. More knowledge is needed on what characterizes and what promotes healthy growth patterns in multi-ethnic populations.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano/estatística & dados numéricos , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/estatística & dados numéricos , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/estatística & dados numéricos , Obesidade Pediátrica/etnologia , Magreza/etnologia , Adulto , Peso ao Nascer , Índice de Massa Corporal , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Idade Materna , Mães/estatística & dados numéricos , Noruega/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
11.
Seizure ; 61: 63-70, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30099235

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To evaluate risk factors for drug resistance and polypharmacy in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy. METHODS: Patients with temporal lobe epilepsy, treated for more than 5 years, completed questionnaires on antiepileptic drug use and effect. Logistic regression models were used for analysis of risk factors. RESULTS: Of 135 patients included in the study, 65% were classified as drug resistant and 41% identified as using polypharmacy. Poor effects associated with first-choice antiepileptic drug were reported by 59% of the patients, and 70% reported poor effects of second-line treatment. The most frequently used first-generation antiepileptic drugs had a similar mean effect to those of second-generation. Univariate regression analyses showed a significant association between drug resistance and mesial temporal sclerosis, seizure onset below 18 years, and lack of family history of epilepsy. However, multivariate regression analysis showed no association with any demographic or clinical features. Unsuccessful treatment with the first antiepileptic drug increased the risk of drug resistance by 18 times, and the risk of poor effect from the second antiepileptic drug by 9 times. Disease duration was associated with annual risk for drug resistance of 7% and for polypharmacy of 5%. CONCLUSIONS: A poor effect from initial pharmacotherapy is the only early risk factor for drug resistance found in this study. Long disease duration increases the risk of drug resistance and polypharmacy. Second-generation antiepileptic drugs provide no additional effect for poor responders to first-generation drugs.


Assuntos
Anticonvulsivantes/efeitos adversos , Epilepsia Resistente a Medicamentos/tratamento farmacológico , Epilepsia do Lobo Temporal/tratamento farmacológico , Polimedicação , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
12.
Int Urogynecol J ; 29(10): 1529-1535, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29500515

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION AND HYPOTHESIS: Urinary (UI) and anal incontinence (AI) are common pelvic floor disorders (PFD), and postpartum women experiencing double incontinence (DI), the combination of UI and AI, tend to have more severe symptoms and a greater impact on quality of life. Our objective was to investigate the prevalence and predictors of postpartum DI and UI alone 1 year after first delivery. METHODS: In this prospective cohort study, 976 women reported the prevalence of DI and UI alone 1 year after their first delivery in one of two hospitals in Norway using the St Marks score and the ICI-Q UI SF. RESULTS: DI was significantly reduced from 13% in late pregnancy to 8% 1 year later, whereas 30% reported UI at both time points. Incontinence in late pregnancy predicted incontinence 1 year after delivery. Higher age was associated with UI alone. Compared with caesarean delivery, normal vaginal or instrumental delivery increased the risk of UI alone more than three and four times respectively. Obstetric anal sphincter injuries showed a four-fold increase in the risk of DI. CONCLUSIONS: Nearly 50% reported incontinence symptoms 1 year after first delivery. Continence status during pregnancy was one of the main predictors of postpartum continence status. Mode of delivery increased the risk of postpartum UI, whereas obstetric anal sphincter injuries increased the risk of postpartum DI.


Assuntos
Parto Obstétrico/efeitos adversos , Incontinência Fecal/epidemiologia , Incontinência Urinária/epidemiologia , Adulto , Parto Obstétrico/métodos , Incontinência Fecal/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Noruega/epidemiologia , Período Pós-Parto , Gravidez , Prevalência , Estudos Prospectivos , Qualidade de Vida , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários , Fatores de Tempo , Incontinência Urinária/etiologia , Adulto Jovem
13.
Int Urogynecol J ; 29(5): 667-671, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28547271

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION AND HYPOTHESIS: St Mark's incontinence score (SMIS) was originally designed and validated for use in an interview setting (iSMIS), and there is conflicting evidence for the validity of the self-administered SMIS (sSMIS). Our objective was to compare self-administered and interview-based reports of anal incontinence (AI) symptoms. METHODS: A total of 147 women reported symptoms of AI on a sSMIS before inclusion in a clinical study investigating the effect of conservative treatment for AI 1 year after delivery. After clinical investigations, an iSMIS was completed by one of two consultant surgeons blinded to the sSMIS results. The correlation and agreement among the individual items of the iSMIS and the sSMIS were assessed using Spearman's rho and weighted kappa statistics, respectively. RESULTS: The mean iSMIS and sSMIS reported was 4.0 (SD: 3.6) and 4.3 (SD: 4.0), respectively. Spearman's rho showed a strong relationship between the two total SMIS scores (r = 0.769, n = 147, p < 0.001), and explained variance was 59% (r2=0.591). Except for the individual item about gas incontinence, women reported more frequent AI symptoms on the sSMIS than on the iSMIS. The assessment of consistency among the individual items of the iSMIS and sSMIS showed substantial agreement (κ ≥ 0.60) for all items except for fair agreement for the item about formed stool incontinence (κ = 0.22), and moderate for the item about any change in lifestyle (κ = 0.5). CONCLUSIONS: The level of consistency between the two methods of reporting anal incontinence symptoms suggests that the St Mark's score may be used as both an interview-based and a self-administered incontinence score.


Assuntos
Canal Anal/fisiopatologia , Incontinência Fecal/fisiopatologia , Entrevistas como Assunto , Autorrelato , Adulto , Cesárea , Feminino , Humanos , Noruega , Gravidez , Inquéritos e Questionários
14.
Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol ; 274(12): 4203-4209, 2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29019001

RESUMO

Anaplastic carcinoma of the thyroid gland (ATC) is one of the most aggressive cancers in humans. With insufficient treatment, the disease most often leads to death in suffocation. From 2002, our treatment strategy has been hyperfractionated accelerated radiotherapy (HART) with high doses (64 Gy) to the neck, followed by surgery 4-8 weeks later if feasible, with the aim to gain control in the neck. After a pathology review, 51 patients were diagnosed with ATC in the period 2002-2014 in the south-east of Norway. Thirty-one received HART, and we present a study of these patients, with death in suffocation as the primary endpoint and survival as the second. No patients treated with HART died in suffocation. Six had a tracheostomy during their course of disease, of whom four were dependent on a tracheal cannula when they died. The best median survival, 19 months, was obtained in the 13 patients where both radiotherapy and surgery were possible as primary treatments. Only surgery came out as a prognostic factor for survival in multivariate analysis. Patients surviving more than 2 years were characterised by having surgery with R0 resection and no or small residual foci of ATC in the specimens. Stage 4C patients survived 3 months only.


Assuntos
Fracionamento da Dose de Radiação , Carcinoma Anaplásico da Tireoide/mortalidade , Carcinoma Anaplásico da Tireoide/terapia , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/mortalidade , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/terapia , Tireoidectomia , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Terapia Combinada , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Noruega , Taxa de Sobrevida , Carcinoma Anaplásico da Tireoide/patologia , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/patologia
15.
Open Heart ; 4(1): e000588, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28674629

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: In patients with mild to moderate operative risk, surgical aortic valve replacement (SAVR) is still the preferred treatment for patients with severe symptomatic aortic stenosis (AS). Aiming to broaden the knowledge of postsurgical outcomes, this study reports a broad set of morbidity outcomes following surgical intervention. METHODS: Our cohort comprised 442 patients referred for severe AS; 351 had undergone SAVR, with the remainder (91) not operated on. All patients were evaluated using the 6-minute walk test (6MWT), were assigned a New York Heart Association class (NYHA) and Canadian Cardiovascular Society class (CCS), with additional scores for health-related quality of life (HRQoL), cognitive function (Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE)) and myocardial remodelling (at inclusion and at 1-year follow-up). Adverse events and mortality were recorded. RESULTS: Three-year survival after SAVR was 90.0%. SAVR was associated with an improved NYHA class, CCS score and HRQoL, and provoked reverse ventricular remodelling. The 6MWT decreased, while the risks of major adverse cardiovascular events (death, non-fatal stroke/transient ischaemic attack or myocardial infarction) and all-cause hospitalisation (incidence rate per 100 patient-years) were 13.5 and 62.4, respectively. The proportion of cognitive disability measured by MMSE increased after SAVR from 3.2% to 8.8% (p=0.005). Proportion of patients living independently at home, having attained NYHA class I, was met by 49.1% at 1 year. Unoperated individuals had a poor prognosis in terms of any outcome. CONCLUSION: This study provides knowledge of outcomes beyond what is known about the mortality benefit after SAVR to provide insight into the morbidity burden of modern-day SAVR.

16.
Acta Oncol ; 56(10): 1286-1294, 2017 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28686501

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with esophageal cancer seldom achieve long-term survival. This prospective cohort study investigated the selection of patients likely to benefit from curative treatment and whether information on patients' health-related quality of life (HRQL) would assist treatment decisions in the multidisciplinary team. METHODS: Consecutive patients completed HRQL assessments and clinical data were collected before start of treatment. Logistic regression analyses identified clinical factors associated with treatment intent in patients with stage-III disease. Kaplan-Meier method was used for survival analyses and Cox proportional hazards models were used to assess the impact of clinical factors and HRQL on survival in patients planned for curative treatment. RESULTS: Patients with curative treatment intent (n = 90) were younger, had better WHO performance status and less fatigue than patients with palliative treatment intent (n = 89). Median survival for the total cohort (n = 179) and patients with palliative or curative treatment intent was nine, five and 19 months, respectively. In multivariate Cox regression analyses, performance status (0-1 favorable) and comorbidity (ASA I favorable) were factors of importance for survival, whereas measures of HRQL were not. CONCLUSIONS: Patients performance status and comorbidity must be considered in addition to stage of disease to avoid extensive curative treatment in patients with short life expectancy. This study did not provide evidence to support that information on patients HRQL adds value to the multidisciplinary team's treatment decision process.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Esofágicas/terapia , Estudos de Coortes , Neoplasias Esofágicas/mortalidade , Humanos , Estudos Prospectivos , Qualidade de Vida
17.
PLoS One ; 12(6): e0179304, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28604834

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Among patients with severe aortic stenosis (AS), we investigated the associations of N-terminal pro-natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), high-sensitive troponin T (hsTnT), and high-sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) with 3-year mortality and major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) during 1 year. METHODS: This observational cohort study prospectively enrolled 442 patients with severe AS who were referred for evaluation of possible valve replacement. Clinical data was recorded before the decision of whether to operate was made. We studied the prognostic value of assessing biomarkers by serum levels, and tested associations of NT-proBNP, hsTnT, and hs-CRP with clinical outcomes (3-year all-cause mortality and risk of MACE in the year following study inclusion) using adjusted multivariable analysis. RESULTS: Elevated serum levels of these biomarkers at baseline evaluation were associated with increased all-cause 3-year mortality regardless of treatment assignment. Adjusted analysis showed that none of the studied biomarkers (NT-proBNP, hsTnT or hs-CRP) or any other covariates were associated with 3-year all-cause mortality following surgical aortic valve replacement (SAVR). However, adjusted analyses showed that hsTnT (HR, 1.51; 95% CI, 1.11-2.05; P = 0.008) and left ventricular ejection fraction (HR 0.97; 95% CI 0.94-0.97, P = 0.043) was associated with MACE for operated patients. CONCLUSIONS: Whereas NT-proBNP, hsTnT and hs-CRP had no independently prognostic value in relation to all-cause mortality following SAVR, hsTnT was independently associated with MACE following operation. The use of these clinically available biomarkers, in particular hsTnT, should be clarified in larger studies.


Assuntos
Estenose da Valva Aórtica/sangue , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/mortalidade , Proteína C-Reativa , Peptídeo Natriurético Encefálico/sangue , Troponina T/sangue , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/complicações , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/diagnóstico , Biomarcadores , Causas de Morte , Comorbidade , Feminino , Hemodinâmica , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Prognóstico , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28096898

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The use of restraints in adolescent psychiatric settings requires particular professional, ethical, and legal considerations. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the number of restraint episodes per patient was related to any of several characteristics of the adolescents. METHODS: In this nationwide study, we included all adolescents restrained during the period 2008-2010 (N = 267) in Norwegian adolescent acute psychiatric inpatient units. They constitute 6.5% of the adolescents hospitalized in these units in the same period of time. We collected data on the number of restraint episodes they experienced during the study period; Poisson regression was then used to analyze the impact of gender, social, mental health, and treatment characteristics on the frequency of restraint. We developed a risk index for the likelihood of experiencing multiple restraint episodes. RESULTS: We found a skewed distribution of restraint episodes in which a small group (18%) of restrained adolescents experienced a majority (77%) of the restraint episodes. A large percentage of the restrained adolescents (36%) experienced only one restraint episode. Risk factors for multiple restraint episodes were female gender, lower psychosocial functioning (Children's Global Assessment Scale below 35), more and longer admissions, and concomitant use of pharmacological restraint. Except for gender, we used these variables to develop a risk index that was moderately associated with multiple restraint episodes. CONCLUSIONS: As a small group of patients accounted for a large percentage of the restraint episodes, future research should further investigate the reasons for and consequences of multiple restraint episodes in patients at acute adolescent psychiatric units, and evaluate preventive approaches targeted to reduce their risk for experiencing restraint.

19.
BMC Cancer ; 16: 643, 2016 08 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27535659

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Few studies have taken risk of competing events into account when examining the relationship between cholesterol and prostate cancer incidence, and few studies have a follow-up over several decades. We aimed to use these approaches to examine the relationship between cholesterol and prostate cancer. METHODS: A cohort of 1997 healthy Norwegian men aged 40-59 years in 1972-75 was followed throughout 2012. Cancer data were extracted from the Cancer Registry of Norway. The association between cholesterol and prostate cancer incidence was assessed using competing risk regression analysis, with adjustment for potential confounders. Date and cause of death was obtained from the Cause of Death Registry of Norway. RESULTS: The study cohort had a cancer risk similar to the general Norwegian population. Prostate cancer was registered in 213 men (11 %), including 62 (3 %) with advanced stage at diagnosis. For overall and advanced stage prostate cancer, the incidence was twice as high in the lowest quartile of cholesterol compared to the highest quartile. These associations remained significant after adjustment for age, smoking, physical fitness, BMI, and systolic blood pressure. Furthermore, high physical fitness and low BMI were associated with increased prostate cancer incidence. Sensitivity analyses excluding events during the first 20 years of observation revealed similar results. CONCLUSION: Low cholesterol, as well as high physical fitness and low BMI, may be associated with increased risk of prostate cancer. These findings conflict with current prostate cancer prevention recommendations.


Assuntos
Colesterol/sangue , Neoplasias da Próstata/epidemiologia , Adulto , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Noruega/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Fatores de Risco
20.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 16(1): 186, 2016 07 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27460363

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A low physical activity (PA) level in pregnancy is associated with several adverse health outcomes. Early identification of pregnant women at risk of physical inactivity could inform strategies to promote PA, but no studies so far have presented attempts to develop prognostic models for low PA in pregnancy. Based on moderate-to-vigorous intensity PA (MVPA) objectively recorded in mid/late pregnancy, our objectives were to describe MVPA levels and compliance with the PA guideline (≥150 MVPA minutes/week), and to develop a prognostic model for non-compliance with the PA guideline. METHODS: From a multi-ethnic population-based cohort, we analysed data from 555 women with MVPA recorded in gestational week (GW) 28 with the monitor SenseWear™ Pro3 Armband. Predictor variables were collected in early pregnancy (GW 15). We organized the predictors within the domains health, culture, socioeconomic position, pregnancy, lifestyle, psychosocial factors, perceived preventive effect of PA and physical neighbourhood. The development of the prognostic model followed several steps, including univariate and multiple logistic regression analyses. RESULTS: Overall, 25 % complied with the PA guideline, but the proportion was lower in South Asians (14 %) and Middle Easterners (16 %) compared with Westerners (35 %). Among South Asians and Middle Easterners, 35 and 28 %, respectively, did not accumulate any MVPA minutes/week compared with 18 % among Westerners. The predictors retained in the prognostic model for PA guideline non-compliance were ethnic minority background, multiparity, high body fat percentage, and perception of few physically active friends. The prognostic model provided fair discrimination between women who did vs. did not comply with the PA guideline. CONCLUSION: Overall, the proportion who complied with the PA guideline in GW 28 was low, and women with ethnic minority background, multiparity, high body fat percentage and few physically active friends had increased probability of non-compliance. The prognostic model showed fair performance in discriminating between women who did comply and those who did not comply with the PA guideline.


Assuntos
Metabolismo Energético , Exercício/fisiologia , Cooperação do Paciente/etnologia , Esforço Físico/fisiologia , Acelerometria , Adiposidade , Adulto , Ásia/etnologia , Europa (Continente)/etnologia , Feminino , Previsões/métodos , Amigos , Resposta Galvânica da Pele , Guias como Assunto , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Oriente Médio/etnologia , América do Norte/etnologia , Ocupações , Paridade , Gravidez , Terceiro Trimestre da Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos , Temperatura Cutânea , Adulto Jovem
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