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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34465588

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Postmenopausal pregnenolone and/or progesterone levels in relation to endometrial and ovarian cancer risks have been infrequently evaluated. To address this, we utilized a sensitive and reliable assay to quantify prediagnostic levels of seven markers related to endogenous hormone metabolism. METHODS: Hormones were quantified in baseline serum collected from postmenopausal women in a cohort study nested within the Breast and Bone Follow-up to the Fracture Intervention Trial (B∼FIT). Women using exogenous hormones at baseline (1992-1993) were excluded. Incident endometrial (n = 65) and ovarian (n = 67) cancers were diagnosed during 12 follow-up years and compared with a subcohort of 345 women (no hysterectomy) and 413 women (no oophorectomy), respectively. Cox models with robust variance were used to estimate cancer risk. RESULTS: Circulating progesterone levels were not associated with endometrial [tertile (T)3 vs. T1 HR (95% confidence interval): 1.87 (0.85-4.11); P trend = 0.17] or ovarian cancer risk [1.16 (0.58-2.33); 0.73]. Increasing levels of the progesterone-to-estradiol ratio were inversely associated with endometrial cancer risk [T3 vs. T1: 0.29 (0.09-0.95); 0.03]. Increasing levels of 17-hydroxypregnenolone were inversely associated with endometrial cancer risk [0.40 (0.18-0.91); 0.03] and positively associated with ovarian cancer risk [3.11 (1.39-6.93); 0.01]. CONCLUSIONS: Using sensitive and reliable assays, this study provides novel data that endogenous progesterone levels are not strongly associated with incident endometrial or ovarian cancer risks. 17-hydroxypregnenolone was positively associated with ovarian cancer and inversely associated with endometrial cancer. IMPACT: While our results require replication in large studies, they provide further support of the hormonal etiology of endometrial and ovarian cancers.

2.
Thromb Haemost ; 2021 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34507369

RESUMO

Patients with Gaucher disease (GD) are at increased risk of bleeding and have varying degrees of thrombocytopenia, making the analysis of platelet function difficult. This study aimed to provide a clinically relevant quantitative assessment of platelet function and determine its relationship with bleeding and GD-related data. METHODS: Unstimulated and stimulated platelet function was measured by whole blood flow cytometry of platelet surface activated αIIbß3 integrin (detected with monoclonal antibody PAC1), P-selectin (CD62P), and lysosomal-associated membrane protein (LAMP3/CD63) in 149 GD patients. RESULTS: GD patients had a higher level of unstimulated CD63 expression than healthy subjects, which was mildly correlated with glucosylsphingosine (lyso-Gb1) levels (r 0.17, p-value 0.042). Splenectomized GD patients had a higher level of unstimulated αIIbß3 integrin and P-selectin expression. Reduced platelet reactivity (-2 SD of reference range) was found in 79 (53%, 95% CI 44%-61%) patients, of whom 10 (6.7%, 95% CI 3.3%-12%) had more severe platelet dysfunction. In a multivariate model, only lyso-Gb1 levels were associated with the more severe platelet dysfunction. Fifty-four (49%) of 128 adult patients who completed the bleeding tendency questionnaire reported positive bleeding history. In a multivariate logistic model, older age (OR (95% CI), 1.05 (1.01-1.1)) and low P-selectin reactivity (OR (95% CI), 2.03 (1.25-3.35)) were associated with more than one bleeding manifestation. CONCLUSION: Flow cytometry enables the study of platelet function in thrombocytopenic GD patients. A platelet degranulation defect, but not αIIbß3 integrin activation defect, is associated with clinical bleeding. In vivo increased CD63 expression may be related to GD-related inflammation.

3.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 4802, 2021 08 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34376665

RESUMO

During meiosis, gene expression is silenced in aberrantly unsynapsed chromatin and in heterogametic sex chromosomes. Initiation of sex chromosome silencing is disrupted in meiocytes with sex chromosome-autosome translocations. To determine whether this is due to aberrant synapsis or loss of continuity of sex chromosomes, we engineered Caenorhabditis elegans nematodes with non-translocated, bisected X chromosomes. In early meiocytes of mutant males and hermaphrodites, X segments are enriched with euchromatin assembly markers and active RNA polymerase II staining, indicating active transcription. Analysis of RNA-seq data showed that genes from the X chromosome are upregulated in gonads of mutant worms. Contrary to previous models, which predicted that any unsynapsed chromatin is silenced during meiosis, our data indicate that unsynapsed X segments are transcribed. Therefore, our results suggest that sex chromosome chromatin has a unique character that facilitates its meiotic expression when its continuity is lost, regardless of whether or not it is synapsed.


Assuntos
Caenorhabditis elegans/genética , Inativação Gênica , Meiose/genética , Cromossomo X/genética , Animais , Proteínas de Caenorhabditis elegans/genética , Proteínas de Caenorhabditis elegans/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/genética , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/metabolismo , Cromatina/genética , Pareamento Cromossômico/genética , Feminino , Células Germinativas/citologia , Células Germinativas/metabolismo , Histonas/metabolismo , Hibridização in Situ Fluorescente , Masculino , Microscopia de Fluorescência , Transcrição Genética
4.
Aging Cell ; 20(6): e13386, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34061407

RESUMO

Oogenesis is one of the first processes to fail during aging. In women, most oocytes cannot successfully complete meiotic divisions already during the fourth decade of life. Studies of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans have uncovered conserved genetic pathways that control lifespan, but our knowledge regarding reproductive aging in worms and humans is limited. Specifically, little is known about germline internal signals that dictate the oogonial biological clock. Here, we report a thorough characterization of the changes in the worm germline during aging. We found that shortly after ovulation halts, germline proliferation declines, while apoptosis continues, leading to a gradual reduction in germ cell numbers. In late aging stages, we observed that meiotic progression is disturbed and crossover designation and DNA double-strand break repair decrease. In addition, we detected a decline in the quality of mature oocytes during aging, as reflected by decreasing size and elongation of interhomolog distance, a phenotype also observed in human oocytes. Many of these altered processes were previously attributed to MAPK signaling variations in young worms. In support of this, we observed changes in activation dynamics of MPK-1 during aging. We therefore tested the hypothesis that MAPK controls oocyte quality in aged worms using both genetic and pharmacological tools. We found that in mutants with high levels of activated MPK-1, oocyte quality deteriorates more rapidly than in wild-type worms, whereas reduction of MPK-1 levels enhances quality. Thus, our data suggest that MAPK signaling controls germline aging and could be used to attenuate the rate of oogenesis quality decline.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34157104

RESUMO

CONTEXT: In a previous study we reported that anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH), a marker of ovarian reserve, is positively associated with breast cancer risk, consistent with other studies. OBJECTIVE: Assess whether risk factors for breast cancer are correlates of AMH concentration. DESIGN: Cross-sectional. PARTICIPANTS: 3831 healthy premenopausal women (aged 21-57, 87% aged 35-49). SETTING: Ten cohort studies, general population. RESULTS: Adjusting for age and cohort, we observed positive associations of AMH with age at menarche (p<0.0001) and parity (p=0.0008), and an inverse association with hysterectomy/partial oophorectomy (p=0.0008). Compared to women of normal weight (BMI 18.5-24.9 kg/m 2, AMH was lower (relative geometric mean difference 27%, p<0.0001) among women who were obese (BMI>30). Current oral contraceptive use and current/former smoking were associated with lower AMH concentration than never use (40% and 12% lower, respectively, p<0.0001). We observed higher AMH concentrations among women who had had a benign breast biopsy (15% higher, p=0.03), a surrogate for benign breast disease, an association that has not been reported. In analyses stratified by age (<40/≥40), associations of AMH with BMI and oral contraceptives were similar in younger and older women, while associations with the other factors (menarche, parity, hysterectomy/partial oophorectomy, smoking, and benign breast biopsy) were limited to women ≥40 (p-interaction<0.05). CONCLUSION: This is the largest study of AMH and breast cancer risk factors among women from the general population (not presenting with infertility), and suggests that most of the associations are limited to women over 40, who are approaching menopause and whose AMH concentration is declining.

6.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 30(6): 1100-1105, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33827983

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The role of progestogens in colorectal cancer development is poorly characterized. To address this, our group developed a highly sensitive assay to measure concentrations of seven markers of endogenous progestogen metabolism among postmenopausal women. METHODS: The markers were measured in baseline serum collected from postmenopausal women in a case-cohort study within the breast and bone follow-up to the fracture intervention trial (B∼FIT). We followed women not using exogenous hormones at baseline (1992-1993) for up to 12 years: 187 women with incident colorectal cancer diagnosed during follow-up and a subcohort of 495 women selected on strata of age and clinical center. We used adjusted Cox regression models with robust variance to estimate risk for colorectal cancer [hazard ratios (HR), 95% confidence intervals (CI)]. RESULTS: High concentrations of pregnenolone and progesterone were not associated with colorectal cancer [quintile(Q)5 versus Q1: pregnenolone HR, 0.71, 95% CI, 0.40-1.25; progesterone HR, 1.25; 95% CI, 0.71-2.22]. A trend of increasing risk was suggested, but statistically imprecise across quintiles of 17-hydroxypregnenolone (Q2 to Q5 HRs, 0.75-1.44; P trend, 0.06). CONCLUSIONS: We used sensitive and reliable assays to measure multiple circulating markers of progestogen metabolism. Progestogens were generally unassociated with colorectal cancer risk in postmenopausal women. IMPACT: Our findings are consistent with most prior research on circulating endogenous sex hormones, which taken together suggest that sex hormones may not be major drivers of colorectal carcinogenesis in postmenopausal women.

7.
Breast Cancer Res ; 23(1): 34, 2021 03 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33736682

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Among women diagnosed with invasive breast cancer, 30% have a prior diagnosis of benign breast disease (BBD). Thus, it is important to identify factors among BBD patients that elevate invasive cancer risk. In the general population, risk factors differ in their associations by clinical pathologic features; however, whether women with BBD show etiologic heterogeneity in the types of breast cancers they develop remains unknown. METHODS: Using a nested case-control study of BBD and breast cancer risk conducted in a community healthcare plan (Kaiser Permanente Northwest), we assessed relationships of histologic features in BBD biopsies and patient characteristics with subsequent breast cancer risk and tested for heterogeneity of associations by estrogen receptor (ER) status, tumor grade, and size. The study included 514 invasive breast cancer cases (median follow-up of 9 years post-BBD diagnosis) and 514 matched controls, diagnosed with proliferative or non-proliferative BBD between 1971 and 2006, with follow-up through mid-2015. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were obtained using multivariable polytomous logistic regression models. RESULTS: Breast cancers were predominantly ER-positive (86%), well or moderately differentiated (73%), small (74% < 20 mm), and stage I/II (91%). Compared to patients with non-proliferative BBD, proliferative BBD with atypia conferred increased risk for ER-positive cancer (OR = 5.48, 95% CI = 2.14-14.01) with only one ER-negative case, P-heterogeneity = 0.45. The presence of columnar cell lesions (CCLs) at BBD diagnosis was associated with a 1.5-fold increase in the risk of both ER-positive and ER-negative tumors, with a 2-fold increase (95% CI = 1.21-3.58) observed among postmenopausal women (56%), independent of proliferative BBD status with and without atypia. We did not identify statistically significant differences in risk factor associations by tumor grade or size. CONCLUSION: Most tumors that developed after a BBD diagnosis in this cohort were highly treatable low-stage ER-positive tumors. CCL in BBD biopsies may be associated with moderately increased risk, independent of BBD histology, and irrespective of ER status.

8.
Breast Cancer Res ; 22(1): 129, 2020 11 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33239054

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Menopausal hormone therapy (MHT) increases breast cancer (BC) risk, but cohort studies largely consider use only at enrollment. Evidence is limited on how changes in MHT use alter the magnitude of risk, and whether risk varies between invasive and in situ cancer, by histology or by hormone receptor status. METHODS: We investigated the roles of estrogen-alone therapy (ET) and estrogen plus progestin therapy (EPT) on BC risk overall, by histology and estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) status, and on incidence of in situ disease, in the NIH-AARP cohort. Participants included 118,760 postmenopausal women (50-71 years), of whom 63.5% (n = 75,398) provided MHT use information at baseline in 1996 and in a follow-up survey in 2004, subsequent to the dissemination in 2002 of the Women's Health Initiative trial safety concerns regarding EPT. ET analyses included 50,476 women with hysterectomy (31,439 with follow-up data); EPT analyses included 68,284 women with intact uteri (43,959 with follow-up data). Adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) were estimated using Cox proportional hazards models using age as the time metric with follow-up through 2011. RESULTS: Eight thousand three hundred thirty-three incident BC cases were accrued, 2479 in women with follow-up data. BC risk was not elevated in current ET users at baseline (HR = 1.05, 95% confidence interval [CI] CI = 0.95-1.16) but was higher in women continuing use through 2004 (HR = 1.35, 95% CI = 1.04-1.75). Ever EPT use at baseline was associated with elevated BC risk overall (HR = 1.54 (1.44-1.64), with a doubling in risk for women with 10 or more years of use, for in situ disease, and across subtypes defined by histology and ER/PR status (all p < 0.004). Risk persisted in women who continued EPT through 2004 (HR = 1.80, 95% CI = 1.39-2.32). In contrast, no association was seen in women who discontinued EPT before 2004 (HR = 1.14, 95% CI = 0.99-1.30). CONCLUSIONS: ET use was not associated with BC risk in this cohort, although excess risk was suggested in women who continued use through 2004. EPT use was linked to elevated in situ and invasive BC risk, and elevated risk across invasive BC histologic and hormone receptor-defined subtypes, with the highest risk for women who continued use through the 2004 follow-up survey.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/análise , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Terapia de Reposição Hormonal/efeitos adversos , Pós-Menopausa/efeitos dos fármacos , Idoso , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Mama/patologia , Neoplasias da Mama/induzido quimicamente , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Estrogênios/administração & dosagem , Estrogênios/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Seguimentos , Terapia de Reposição Hormonal/métodos , Humanos , Histerectomia/efeitos adversos , Incidência , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pós-Menopausa/metabolismo , Progestinas/administração & dosagem , Progestinas/efeitos adversos , Estudos Prospectivos , Receptores de Estrogênio/análise , Receptores de Estrogênio/metabolismo , Receptores de Progesterona/análise , Receptores de Progesterona/metabolismo , Medição de Risco/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores de Risco
9.
JAMA Netw Open ; 3(4): e203645, 2020 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32329771

RESUMO

Importance: The role of endogenous progesterone in the development of breast cancer remains largely unexplored to date, primarily owing to assay sensitivity limitations and low progesterone concentrations in postmenopausal women. Recently identified progesterone metabolites may provide insights as experimental data suggest that 5α-dihydroprogesterone (5αP) concentrations reflect cancer-promoting properties and 3α-dihydroprogesterone (3αHP) concentrations reflect cancer-inhibiting properties. Objective: To evaluate the association between circulating progesterone and progesterone metabolite levels and breast cancer risk. Design, Setting, and Participants: Using a sensitive liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry assay, prediagnostic serum levels of progesterone and progesterone metabolites were quantified in a case-cohort study nested within the Breast and Bone Follow-up to the Fracture Intervention Trial (n = 15 595). Participation was limited to women not receiving exogenous hormone therapy at the time of blood sampling (1992-1993). Incident breast cancer cases (n = 405) were diagnosed during 12 follow-up years and a subcohort of 495 postmenopausal women were randomly selected within 10-year age and clinical center strata. Progesterone assays were completed in July 2017; subsequent data analyses were conducted between July 15, 2017, and December 20, 2018. Exposures: Circulating concentrations of pregnenolone, progesterone, and their major metabolites. Main Outcomes and Measures: Development of breast cancer, with hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CIs was estimated using Cox proportional hazards regression adjusted for key confounders, including estradiol. Evaluation of hormone ratios and effect modification were planned a priori. Results: The present study included 405 incident breast cancer cases and a subcohort of 495 postmenopausal women; the mean (SD) age at the time of the blood draw was 67.2 (6.2) years. Progesterone concentrations were a mean (SD) of 4.6 (1.7) ng/dL. Women with higher circulating progesterone levels were at an increased risk for breast cancer per SD increase in progesterone levels (HR, 1.16; 95% CI, 1.00-1.35; P = .048). The association with progesterone was linear in a 5-knot spline and stronger for invasive breast cancers (n = 267) (HR, 1.24; 95% CI, 1.07-1.43; P = .004). Among women in the lowest quintile (Q1) of circulating estradiol (<6.30 pg/mL) elevated progesterone concentrations were associated with reduced breast cancer risk per SD increase in progesterone levels (HR, 0.38; 95% CI, 0.15-0.95; P = .04) and increased risk among women in higher quintiles of estradiol (Q2-Q5; ≥6.30 pg/mL) (HR, 1.18; 95% CI, 1.04-1.35; P = .01; P = .04 for interaction). Conclusions and Relevance: In this case-cohort study of postmenopausal women, elevated circulating progesterone levels were associated with a 16% increase in the risk of breast cancer. Additional research should be undertaken to assess how postmenopausal breast cancer risk is associated with both endogenous progesterone and progesterone metabolites and their interactions with estradiol.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/sangue , Progesterona/sangue , Idoso , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Mama/etiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estradiol/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Estudos Longitudinais , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pós-Menopausa , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários
10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32012981

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Breast cancer rates in Asia are much lower than in Europe and North America. Within Asia, rates are lower in Mongolia than in neighboring countries. Variation in pregnancy exposure to endogenous hormone concentrations may explain the differences, but data are lacking. METHODS: We measured maternal serum progesterone, prolactin, estradiol and estrone concentrations in the second half of pregnancy in a cross-sectional study of urban (n = 143-194 depending on the analyte) and rural (n = 150-193) Mongolian women, and U.S. women from Boston (n = 66-204). Medical records provided information on maternal and perinatal factors. Geometric mean hormones were estimated from standard linear models with the log-hormone as the dependent variable and country as the independent variable adjusted for maternal and gestational age at blood draw. RESULTS: Mean concentrations of prolactin (5722 vs. 4648 uIU/mL; p < 0.0001) and estradiol (17.7 vs. 13.6 ng/mL; p < 0.0001) were greater in Mongolian than U.S. women, while progesterone (147 vs. 201 ng/mL; p < 0.0001) was lower. Mean hormone concentrations were similar in rural and urban Mongolian women. Results were generally similar, with additional adjustment for gravidity, parity, height, body mass index at blood draw, education and alcohol use during pregnancy, and when stratified by offspring sex or parity. CONCLUSIONS: Mongolian women had greater concentrations of prolactin and estrogen and lower concentrations of progesterone than U.S. women, while hormone concentrations were similar in rural and urban Mongolian pregnancies. IMPACT: These data do not support the hypothesis that estrogen concentrations in pregnant women are lower in Mongolian compared with Caucasian women.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Estradiol/sangue , Estrona/sangue , Gravidez/sangue , Progesterona/sangue , Prolactina/sangue , Adulto , Boston/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Mongólia/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
11.
J Clin Med ; 9(1)2020 Jan 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31963437

RESUMO

The association of progesterone/progesterone metabolites with elevated mammographic breast density (MBD) and delayed age-related terminal duct lobular unit (TDLU) involution, strong breast cancer risk factors, has received limited attention. Using a reliable liquid chromatography-tandem mass-spectrometry assay, we quantified serum progesterone/progesterone metabolites and explored cross-sectional relationships with MBD and TDLU involution among women, ages 40-65, undergoing diagnostic breast biopsy. Quantitative MBD measures were estimated in pre-biopsy digital mammograms. TDLU involution was quantified in diagnostic biopsies. Adjusted partial correlations and trends across MBD/TDLU categories were calculated. Pregnenolone was positively associated with percent MBD-area (MBD-A, rho: 0.30; p-trend = 0.01) among premenopausal luteal phase women. Progesterone tended to be positively associated with percent MBD-A among luteal phase (rho: 0.26; p-trend = 0.07) and postmenopausal (rho: 0.17; p-trend = 0.04) women. Consistent with experimental data, implicating an elevated 5α-pregnanes/3α-dihydroprogesterone (5αP/3αHP) metabolite ratio in breast cancer, higher 5αP/3αHP was associated with elevated percent MBD-A among luteal phase (rho: 0.29; p-trend = 0.08), but not postmenopausal women. This exploratory analysis provided some evidence that endogenous progesterone and progesterone metabolites might be correlated with MBD, a strong breast cancer risk factor, in both pre- and postmenopausal women undergoing breast biopsy. Additional studies are needed to understand the role of progesterone/progesterone metabolites in breast tissue composition and breast cancer risk.

12.
Cancer Causes Control ; 30(11): 1201-1211, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31542834

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Menopausal hormone therapy (MHT) use induces alterations in circulating estrogens/estrogen metabolites, which may contribute to the altered risk of reproductive tract cancers among current users. Thus, the current study assessed associations between circulating estrogens/estrogen metabolites and ovarian and endometrial cancer risk among MHT users. METHODS: We conducted a nested case-control study among postmenopausal women using MHT at baseline in the Women's Health Initiative Observational Study (179 ovarian cancers, 396 controls; 230 endometrial cancers, 253 controls). Multivariable logistic regression was utilized to estimate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals overall and by subtype. RESULTS: Estrogen/estrogen metabolite levels were not associated with overall or serous ovarian cancer risk, examined separately. However, unconjugated estradiol was positively associated with non-serous ovarian cancer risk [quintile 5 vs. quintile 1: 3.01 (1.17-7.73); p-trend = 0.03; p-het < 0.01]. Endometrial cancer risk was unrelated to estrogen/estrogen metabolite levels among women who took combined estrogen/progestin therapy (EPT). CONCLUSIONS: These findings provide novel evidence that may support a heterogeneous hormonal etiology across ovarian cancer subtypes. Circulating estrogens did not influence endometrial cancer risk among women with EPT-induced high-estrogen levels. Larger studies are needed to delineate the relationship between ovarian/endometrial cancer subtypes and estrogen levels in the context of MHT use.


Assuntos
Neoplasias do Endométrio/sangue , Estradiol/sangue , Estrogênios/sangue , Terapia de Reposição Hormonal , Neoplasias Ovarianas/sangue , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pós-Menopausa , Risco
13.
Breast Cancer Res ; 21(1): 81, 2019 07 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31337427

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mammographic density (MD) is a strong breast cancer risk factor that reflects fibroglandular and adipose tissue composition, but its biologic underpinnings are poorly understood. Insulin-like growth factor binding proteins (IGFBPs) are markers that may be associated with MD given their hypothesized role in breast carcinogenesis. IGFBPs sequester IGF-I, limiting its bioavailability. Prior studies have found positive associations between circulating IGF-I and the IGF-I:IGFBP-3 ratio and breast cancer risk. We evaluated the associations of IGF-I, IGFBP-3, and six other IGFBPs with MD. METHODS: Serum IGF measures were quantified in 296 women, ages 40-65, undergoing diagnostic image-guided breast biopsy. Volumetric density measures (MD-V) were assessed in pre-biopsy digital mammograms using single X-ray absorptiometry. Area density measures (MD-A) were estimated by computer-assisted thresholding software. Age, body mass index (BMI), and BMI2-adjusted linear regression models were used to examine associations of serum IGF measures with MD. Effect modification by BMI was also assessed. RESULTS: IGF-I and IGFBP-3 were not strongly associated with MD after BMI adjustment. In multivariable analyses among premenopausal women, IGFBP-2 was positively associated with both percent MD-V (ß = 1.49, p value = 0.02) and MD-A (ß = 1.55, p value = 0.05). Among postmenopausal women, positive relationships between IGFBP-2 and percent MD-V (ß = 2.04, p = 0.003) were observed; the positive associations between IGFBP-2 and percent MD-V were stronger among lean women (BMI < 25 kg/m2) (ß = 5.32, p = 0.0002; p interaction = 0.0003). CONCLUSIONS: In this comprehensive study of IGFBPs and MD, we observed a novel positive association between IGFBP-2 and MD, particularly among women with lower BMI. In concert with in vitro studies suggesting a dual role of IGFBP-2 on breast tissue, promoting cell proliferation as well as inhibiting tumorigenesis, our findings suggest that further studies assessing the role of IGFBP-2 in breast tissue composition, in addition to IGF-1 and IGFBP-3, are warranted.


Assuntos
Densidade da Mama , Neoplasias da Mama/sangue , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Biópsia Guiada por Imagem , Proteínas de Ligação a Fator de Crescimento Semelhante a Insulina/sangue , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like I/metabolismo , Adulto , Biomarcadores , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Mamografia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco
14.
PLoS One ; 14(5): e0216114, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31067262

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Breast density, as estimated by mammography, is a strong risk factor for breast cancer in pre- and postmenopausal women, but the determinants of breast density have not yet been established. The aim of this study was to assess if urinary estrogens or gut microbiota alterations are associated with mammographic density in postmenopausal women. METHODS: Among 54 cancer-free, postmenopausal controls in the Breast and Colon Health study, we classified low- versus high-density women with Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS, 5th edition) mammographic screening data, then assessed associations with urinary estrogens and estrogen metabolites (determined by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry), and fecal microbiota alpha and beta diversity (using Illumina sequencing of 16S rRNA amplicons). RESULTS: Multiple logistic regression revealed no significant association between breast density and fecal microbiota metrics (PD_tree P-value = 0.82; un-weighted and weighted UniFrac P = 0.92 and 0.83, respectively, both by MiRKAT). In contrast, total urinary estrogens (and all 15 estrogens/estrogen metabolites) were strongly and inversely associated with breast density (P = 0.01) after adjustment for age and body mass index. CONCLUSION: Mammographic density was not associated with the gut microbiota, but it was inversely associated with urinary estrogen levels. IMPACT: The finding of an inverse association between urinary estrogens and breast density in cancer-free women adds to the growing breast cancer literature on understanding the relationship between endogenous estrogens and mammographic density.


Assuntos
Densidade da Mama , Estrogênios/urina , Fezes/microbiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Pós-Menopausa/fisiologia , Feminino , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/genética , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pós-Menopausa/urina , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética
15.
Breast Cancer Res ; 21(1): 42, 2019 03 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30890167

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Models that accurately predict risk of breast cancer are needed to help younger women make decisions about when to begin screening. Premenopausal concentrations of circulating anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH), a biomarker of ovarian reserve, and testosterone have been positively associated with breast cancer risk in prospective studies. We assessed whether adding AMH and/or testosterone to the Gail model improves its prediction performance for women aged 35-50. METHODS: In a nested case-control study including ten prospective cohorts (1762 invasive cases/1890 matched controls) with pre-diagnostic serum/plasma samples, we estimated relative risks (RR) for the biomarkers and Gail risk factors using conditional logistic regression and random-effects meta-analysis. Absolute risk models were developed using these RR estimates, attributable risk fractions calculated using the distributions of the risk factors in the cases from the consortium, and population-based incidence and mortality rates. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) was used to compare the discriminatory accuracy of the models with and without biomarkers. RESULTS: The AUC for invasive breast cancer including only the Gail risk factor variables was 55.3 (95% CI 53.4, 57.1). The AUC increased moderately with the addition of AMH (AUC 57.6, 95% CI 55.7, 59.5), testosterone (AUC 56.2, 95% CI 54.4, 58.1), or both (AUC 58.1, 95% CI 56.2, 59.9). The largest AUC improvement (4.0) was among women without a family history of breast cancer. CONCLUSIONS: AMH and testosterone moderately increase the discriminatory accuracy of the Gail model among women aged 35-50. We observed the largest AUC increase for women without a family history of breast cancer, the group that would benefit most from improved risk prediction because early screening is already recommended for women with a family history.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Animais , Área Sob a Curva , Neoplasias da Mama/etiologia , Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Análise Discriminante , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Feminino , Hormônios Esteroides Gonadais/sangue , Hormônios Esteroides Gonadais/metabolismo , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Teóricos , Curva ROC , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Testosterona/sangue , Testosterona/metabolismo
16.
Int J Cancer ; 145(8): 2051-2060, 2019 10 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30684389

RESUMO

Our knowledge of epidemiologic risk factors for ovarian cancer supports a role for androgens in the pathogenesis of this disease; however, few studies have examined associations between circulating androgens and ovarian cancer risk. Using highly sensitive LC-MS/MS assays, we evaluated associations between pre-diagnostic serum levels of 12 androgens, including novel androgen metabolites that reflect androgen activity in tissues, and ovarian cancer risk among postmenopausal women in a nested case-control study in the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) Observational Study (OS). We frequency-matched 169 ovarian cancer cases to 410 controls from women enrolled in WHI-OS who were not using menopausal hormones at enrollment/blood draw. We estimated associations overall and by subtype (n = 102 serous/67 non-serous) using multivariable adjusted logistic regression. Androgen/androgen metabolite levels were not associated with overall ovarian cancer risk. In analyses by subtype, women with increased levels of androsterone-glucuronide (ADT-G) and total 5-α reduced glucuronide metabolites (markers of tissue-level androgenic activity) were at increased risk of developing non-serous ovarian cancer: ADT-G tertile (T)3 versus T1 odds ratio [OR] (95% confidence interval [CI]) 4.36 (1.68-11.32), p-heterogeneity 0.002; total glucuronide metabolites 3.63 (1.47-8.95), 0.002. Risk of developing serous tumors was unrelated to these markers. ADT-G and total glucuronide metabolites, better markers of tissue-level androgenic activity in women than testosterone, were associated with an increased risk of developing non-serous ovarian cancer. Our work demonstrates that sex steroid metabolism is important in the etiology of non-serous ovarian cancers and supports a heterogeneous hormonal etiology across histologic subtypes of ovarian cancer.


Assuntos
Androgênios/sangue , Androsterona/análogos & derivados , Neoplasias Ovarianas/sangue , Pós-Menopausa/sangue , Idoso , Androsterona/sangue , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Cromatografia Líquida , Feminino , Glucuronídeos/sangue , Glucuronídeos/metabolismo , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Ovarianas/diagnóstico , Fatores de Risco , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Saúde da Mulher
17.
Cancer Causes Control ; 30(1): 75-86, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30506492

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The comparability between serum, plasma, and urinary measurements of estrogen metabolites via liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) has not been largely explored, and it is unclear if urinary LC-MS/MS measurements are suitable surrogates of circulating levels. METHODS: Serum, plasma (EDTA and heparin), and urinary estrogen/estrogen metabolite levels were measured via LC-MS/MS in paired samples from 64 healthy volunteers (18 men, 20 premenopausal women, 26 postmenopausal women). Geometric means and Spearman correlation coefficients were used to compare individual and combined pathway levels of estrogens/estrogen metabolites across biologic matrices by sex/menopausal status. RESULTS: Measured concentrations of estrogens/estrogen metabolites across blood matrices were almost identical (percent differences < 4.8%). Parent estrogen concentrations measured in serum and urine were moderately correlated in postmenopausal women (estrone: r = 0.69, estradiol: r = 0.69). Correlations were similar comparing unconjugated serum estradiol to urinary estrone (r = 0.76) and urinary estradiol (r = 0.65) in postmenopausal women but were moderate to low in premenopausal women (r = 0.60, 0.40, respectively)/men (r = 0.33, 0.53, respectively). Comparing metabolite ratios, proportionally higher concentrations of 16-pathway metabolites were measured in urine versus serum across sex/menopausal status groups (e.g., postmenopausal women: 50.3% 16-pathway metabolites/total in urine versus 35.3% in serum). CONCLUSIONS: There is strong agreement between estrogen/estrogen metabolites measurements in serum, heparin plasma, and EDTA plasma. Individual estrogen metabolite concentrations were moderately correlated between urine and serum, but were not well correlated when evaluating pathway- or relative estrogen concentrations. Differences between serum and urine are likely explained by differences in metabolism and/or excretion.


Assuntos
Estrogênios/metabolismo , Pós-Menopausa , Pré-Menopausa , Adulto , Idoso , Cromatografia Líquida , Estradiol/metabolismo , Estrona/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
18.
Int J Cancer ; 144(4): 730-740, 2019 02 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30183089

RESUMO

The WHI found an unexpected reduced breast cancer risk in women using CEE alone. We hypothesized CEE alone induces estrogen hydroxylation along the 2-pathway rather than the competing 16-pathway, a pattern linked to reduced postmenopausal breast cancer risk. One thousand eight hundred and sixty-four women in a WHIOS case-control study of estrogen metabolism and ovarian and endometrial cancer were studied of whom 609 were current E + P users (351 used CEE + MPA), while 272 used E alone (162 used CEE). Fifteen EM were measured, and analyses were conducted for each metabolite, hydroxylation pathway (2-, 4-, or 16-pathway) and ratios of pathway concentrations using inverse probability weighted linear regression. Compared to E + P users, all EM were higher in E alone users (significant for unconjugated estrone, total/conjugated estradiol, total/unconjugated 2-methoxyestrone, 4-methoxyestrone and unconjugated estriol). The relative concentrations of 2- and 4-pathway EM did not differ between the MHT users (2-pathway EM comprised 15% and 4-pathway EM <2% of the total), but 16-pathway EM were lower in E alone users (p = 0.036). Ratios of 2- and 4-pathway EM compared to 16-pathway EM were significantly higher in E alone compared to E + P users. Similar but not significant patterns were observed in CEE-alone and CEE + MPA users. Our data suggest that compared to E + P users, women using E alone have more extensive metabolism via the 2- vs. the competing 16-pathway. This is consistent with epidemiologic evidence of reduced postmenopausal breast cancer risk associated with this metabolic profile and may provide a clue to the breast cancer risk reduction in CEE alone users during the WHI.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Terapia de Reposição de Estrogênios/métodos , Estrogênios/administração & dosagem , Pós-Menopausa , Progestinas/administração & dosagem , Idoso , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Quimioterapia Combinada , Estrogênios/metabolismo , Estrogênios Conjugados (USP)/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Humanos , Acetato de Medroxiprogesterona/administração & dosagem , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Resultado do Tratamento
19.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 111(1): 34-41, 2019 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29788475

RESUMO

Background: Esophageal adenocarcinoma (EA) and gastric cardia adenocarcinoma (GCA) are characterized by a strong male predominance. Concentrations of sex steroid hormones have been hypothesized to explain this sex disparity. However, no prospective population-based study has examined sex steroid hormones in relation to EA/GCA risk. Thus, we investigated whether prediagnostic circulating sex steroid hormone concentrations were associated with EA/GCA in a nested case-control study drawn from participants in three prospective cohort studies. Methods: Using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and electrochemiluminescence immunoassay, we quantitated sex steroid hormones and sex hormone binding globulin, respectively, in serum from 259 EA/GCA male case participants and 259 matched male control participants from the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial, Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention Study, and Cancer Prevention Study II Nutrition Cohort. Multivariable conditional logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for associations between circulating hormones and EA/GCA risk. All statistical tests were two-sided. Results: Higher concentrations of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) were associated with a 38% decreased risk of EA/GCA (OR per unit increase in log2 DHEA = 0.62, 95% CI = 0.47 to 0.82, Ptrend = .001). Higher estradiol concentrations were associated with a 34% reduced risk of EA/GCA (OR = 0.66, 95% CI = 0.45 to 0.98, Ptrend = .05), and the association with free estradiol was similar. No other associations between baseline hormone concentrations and future EA/GCA risk were observed. Conclusions: This study provides the first evidence that higher concentrations of circulating DHEA, estradiol, and free estradiol may be associated with lower risks of EA/GCA in men.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma/diagnóstico , Cárdia/metabolismo , Neoplasias Esofágicas/diagnóstico , Hormônios Esteroides Gonadais/sangue , Neoplasias Gástricas/diagnóstico , Adenocarcinoma/sangue , Idoso , Cárdia/patologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Neoplasias Esofágicas/sangue , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Neoplasias Gástricas/sangue
20.
Breast Cancer Res Treat ; 172(1): 209-219, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30083950

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Analysis of cytokines and growth factors in human milk offers a noninvasive approach for studying the microenvironment of the postpartum breast, which may better reflect tissue levels than testing blood samples. Given that Black women have a higher incidence of early-onset breast cancers than White women, we hypothesized that milk of the former contains higher levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, adipokines, and growth factors. METHODS: Participants included 130 Black and 162 White women without a history of a breast biopsy who completed a health assessment questionnaire and donated milk for research. Concentrations of 15 analytes in milk were examined using two multiplex and 4 single-analyte electrochemiluminescent sandwich assays to measure pro-inflammatory cytokines, angiogenesis factors, and adipokines. Mixed-effects ordinal logistic regression was used to identify determinants of analyte levels and to compare results by race, with adjustment for confounders. Factor analysis was used to examine covariation among analytes. RESULTS: Thirteen of 15 analytes were detected in ≥ 25% of the human milk specimens. In multivariable models, elevated BMI was significantly associated with increased concentrations of 5 cytokines: IL-1ß, bFGF, FASL, EGF, and leptin (all p-trend < 0.05). Black women had significantly higher levels of leptin and IL-1ß, controlling for BMI. Factor analysis of analyte levels identified two factors related to inflammation and growth factor pathways. CONCLUSION: This exploratory study demonstrated the feasibility of measuring pro-inflammatory cytokines, adipokines, and angiogenesis factors in human milk, and revealed higher levels of some pro-inflammatory factors, as well as increased leptin levels, among Black as compared with White women.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Citocinas/metabolismo , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intercelular/metabolismo , Leite Humano/metabolismo , Adulto , Afro-Americanos/genética , Biópsia , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Citocinas/isolamento & purificação , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Proteína Ligante Fas/isolamento & purificação , Proteína Ligante Fas/metabolismo , Feminino , Fatores de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/isolamento & purificação , Fatores de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Humanos , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intercelular/isolamento & purificação , Interleucina-1beta/isolamento & purificação , Interleucina-1beta/metabolismo , Leptina/isolamento & purificação , Leptina/metabolismo , Período Pós-Parto/metabolismo
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