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1.
Epidemiology ; 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31592868

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Epidemiologic studies have reported associations between prenatal and early postnatal air pollution exposure and autism spectrum disorder (ASD); however, findings differ by pollutant and developmental window. OBJECTIVES: We examined associations between early life exposure to PM2.5 and ozone in association with ASD across multiple US regions. METHODS: Our study participants included 674 children with confirmed ASD and 855 population controls from the Study to Explore Early Development, a multi-site case-control study of children born from 2003 to 2006 in the United States. We used a satellite-based model to assign air pollutant exposure averages during several critical periods of neurodevelopment: 3 months before pregnancy; each trimester of pregnancy; the entire pregnancy; and the first year of life. Logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs), adjusting for study site, maternal age, maternal education, maternal race/ethnicity, maternal smoking, and month and year of birth. RESULTS: The air pollution-ASD associations appeared to vary by exposure time period. Ozone exposure during the third trimester was associated with ASD, with an OR of 1.2 (95% CI: 1.1, 1.4) per 6.6 ppb increase in ozone. We additionally observed a positive association with PM2.5 exposure during the first year of life [OR = 1.3 (95% CI: 1.0, 1.6) per 1.6 µg/m increase in PM2.5]. CONCLUSIONS: Our study corroborates previous findings of a positive association between early life air pollution exposure and ASD, and identifies a potential critical window of exposure during the late prenatal and early postnatal periods.

2.
Circulation ; 140(8): 645-657, 2019 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31424985

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: DNA methylation is implicated in coronary heart disease (CHD), but current evidence is based on small, cross-sectional studies. We examined blood DNA methylation in relation to incident CHD across multiple prospective cohorts. METHODS: Nine population-based cohorts from the United States and Europe profiled epigenome-wide blood leukocyte DNA methylation using the Illumina Infinium 450k microarray, and prospectively ascertained CHD events including coronary insufficiency/unstable angina, recognized myocardial infarction, coronary revascularization, and coronary death. Cohorts conducted race-specific analyses adjusted for age, sex, smoking, education, body mass index, blood cell type proportions, and technical variables. We conducted fixed-effect meta-analyses across cohorts. RESULTS: Among 11 461 individuals (mean age 64 years, 67% women, 35% African American) free of CHD at baseline, 1895 developed CHD during a mean follow-up of 11.2 years. Methylation levels at 52 CpG (cytosine-phosphate-guanine) sites were associated with incident CHD or myocardial infarction (false discovery rate<0.05). These CpGs map to genes with key roles in calcium regulation (ATP2B2, CASR, GUCA1B, HPCAL1), and genes identified in genome- and epigenome-wide studies of serum calcium (CASR), serum calcium-related risk of CHD (CASR), coronary artery calcified plaque (PTPRN2), and kidney function (CDH23, HPCAL1), among others. Mendelian randomization analyses supported a causal effect of DNA methylation on incident CHD; these CpGs map to active regulatory regions proximal to long non-coding RNA transcripts. CONCLUSION: Methylation of blood-derived DNA is associated with risk of future CHD across diverse populations and may serve as an informative tool for gaining further insight on the development of CHD.

3.
Environ Int ; 126: 363-376, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30826615

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prenatal air pollution exposure has been linked to many adverse health conditions in the offspring. However, little is known about the mechanisms underlying these associations. Epigenetics may be one plausible biologic link. Here, we sought to identify site-specific and global DNA methylation (DNAm) changes, in developmentally relevant tissues, associated with prenatal exposure to nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and ozone (O3). Additionally, we assessed whether sex-specific changes in methylation exist and whether DNAm changes are consistently observed across tissues. METHODS: Genome-scale DNAm measurements were obtained using the Infinium HumanMethylation450k platform for 133 placenta and 175 cord blood specimens from Early Autism Risk Longitudinal Investigation (EARLI) neonates. Ambient NO2 and O3 exposure levels were based on prenatal address locations of EARLI mothers and the Environmental Protection Agency's AirNOW monitoring network using inverse distance weighting. We computed sample-level aggregate methylation measures for each of 5 types of genomic regions including genome-wide, open sea, shelf, shore, and island regions. Linear regression was performed for each genomic region; per-sample aggregate methylation measures were modeled as a function of quantitative exposure level with covariate adjustment. In addition, bumphunting was performed to identify differentially methylated regions (DMRs) associated with prenatal O3 and NO2 exposures in each tissue and by sex, with adjustment for technical and biological sources of variation. RESULTS: We identified global and locus-specific changes in DNA methylation related to prenatal exposure to NO2 and O3 in 2 developmentally relevant tissues. Neonates with increased prenatal O3 exposure had lower aggregate levels of DNAm at CpGs located in open sea and shelf regions of the genome. We identified 6 DMRs associated with prenatal NO2 exposure, including 3 sex-specific. An additional 3 sex-specific DMRs were associated with prenatal O3 exposure levels. DMRs initially detected in cord blood samples (n = 4) showed consistent exposure-related changes in DNAm in placenta. However, the DMRs initially detected in placenta (n = 5) did not show DNAm differences in cord blood and, thus, they appear to be tissue-specific. CONCLUSIONS: We observed global, locus, and sex-specific methylation changes associated with prenatal NO2 and O3 exposures. Our findings support DNAm is a biologic target of prenatal air pollutant exposures and highlight epigenetic involvement in sex-specific differential susceptibility to environmental exposure effects in 2 developmentally relevant tissues.

4.
Autism Res ; 11(10): 1416-1431, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30248249

RESUMO

Leptin is a proinflammatory cytokine that plays an important role in energy homeostasis. Emerging evidence suggests that leptin levels are altered in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD); however, this has not been studied prospectively. Rapid growth during infancy and early childhood has been implicated in ASD, but the evidence is inconsistent. As leptin is involved in growth and is a potential risk factor for ASD, we explored the associations between (a) cord, early childhood leptin and ASD; and (b) birth weight for gestational age, early childhood weight gain, and ASD. We also assessed the mediating role of leptin in the relationship between weight gain during infancy and ASD. This study was conducted in a sample of 822 subjects from the Boston Birth Cohort. ASD was defined from diagnostic codes in electronic medical records. Extremely rapid weight gain during infancy was associated with a greater ASD risk and this persisted after adjusting for potential confounders (aOR: 3.11; 95% CI: 1.37, 7.07). Similarly, children that had higher plasma leptin levels, prior to ASD diagnosis, had an increased ASD risk in both unadjusted and adjusted models (aOR: 7.87; 95% CI: 2.06, 30.04). Further, early childhood leptin indirectly mediated the relationship between rapid weight gain and ASD. No associations were found between birth weight for gestational age, cord leptin and risk of ASD. Our findings provide a basis to further explore whether the combination of early life growth pattern and a biomarker such as leptin can predict ASD earlier. Autism Res 2018, 11: 1416-1431. © 2018 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. LAY SUMMARY: Is early life growth and a biomarker leptin related to ASD risk? To answer this question, we followed 822 children from birth and found that those who gained weight very quickly in infancy, had higher leptin levels in early childhood, had a greater chance of later ASD diagnosis. More research is needed to see if infant's weight gain pattern along with a biomarker (such as leptin) can be used to identify children with ASD sooner.

5.
Front Neurosci ; 12: 592, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30210277

RESUMO

The genetic architecture of late-onset Alzheimer disease (AD) in African Americans (AAs) differs from that in persons of European ancestry. In addition to APOE, genome-wide association studies (GWASs) of AD in AA samples have implicated ABCA7, COBL, and SLC10A2 as AA-AD risk genes. Previously, we identified by whole exome sequencing a small number of AA AD cases and subsequent genotyping in a large AA sample of AD cases and controls association of AD risk with a pair of rare missense variants in AKAP9. In this study, we performed targeted deep sequencing (including both introns and exons) of approximately 100 genes previously linked to AD or AD-related traits in an AA cohort of 489 AD cases and 472 controls to find novel AD risk variants. We observed association with an 11 base-pair frame-shift loss-of-function (LOF) variant in ABCA7 (rs567222111) for which the evidence was bolstered when combined with data from a replication AA cohort of 484 cases and 484 controls (OR = 2.42, p = 0.022). We also found association of AD with a rare 9 bp deletion (rs371245265) located very close to the AKAP9 transcription start site (rs371245265, OR = 10.75, p = 0.0053). The most significant findings were obtained with a rare protective variant in F5 (OR = 0.053, p = 6.40 × 10-5), a gene that was previously associated with a brain MRI measure of hippocampal atrophy, and two common variants in KIAA0196 (OR = 1.51, p<8.6 × 10-5). Gene-based tests of aggregated rare variants yielded several nominally significant associations with KANSL1, CNN2, and TRIM35. Although no associations passed multiple test correction, our study adds to a body of literature demonstrating the utility of examining sequence data from multiple ethnic populations for discovery of new and impactful risk variants. Larger sample sizes will be needed to generate well-powered epidemiological investigations of rare variation, and functional studies are essential for establishing the pathogenicity of variants identified by sequencing.

6.
J Autism Dev Disord ; 2018 Jul 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30043356

RESUMO

Emerging research suggests that adiponectin, a cytokine produced by adipose tissue, may be implicated in ASD. In this prospective birth cohort study (n = 847), we assessed the association between cord, early childhood plasma adiponectin and the risk of developing ASD. ASD was defined based on ICD codes of physician diagnosis. Cord adiponectin levels were inversely associated with ASD risk (aOR 0.50; 95% CI 0.33, 0.77), independent of preterm birth, early childhood adiponectin and other known ASD risk factors. Early childhood adiponectin, assessed prior to ASD diagnosis, was associated with lower risk of ASD, which attenuated after adjusting for cord adiponectin, indicating the relative importance of cord adiponectin in ASD risk. Further research is warranted to confirm our findings and elucidate biological mechanisms.

7.
Mol Autism ; 9: 40, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29988321

RESUMO

Background: Several reports have suggested a role for epigenetic mechanisms in ASD etiology. Epigenome-wide association studies (EWAS) in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) may shed light on particular biological mechanisms. However, studies of ASD cases versus controls have been limited by post-mortem timing and severely small sample sizes. Reports from in-life sampling of blood or saliva have also been very limited in sample size and/or genomic coverage. We present the largest case-control EWAS for ASD to date, combining data from population-based case-control and case-sibling pair studies. Methods: DNA from 968 blood samples from children in the Study to Explore Early Development (SEED 1) was used to generate epigenome-wide array DNA methylation (DNAm) data at 485,512 CpG sites for 453 cases and 515 controls, using the Illumina 450K Beadchip. The Simons Simplex Collection (SSC) provided 450K array DNAm data on an additional 343 cases and their unaffected siblings. We performed EWAS meta-analysis across results from the two data sets, with adjustment for sex and surrogate variables that reflect major sources of biological variation and technical confounding such as cell type, batch, and ancestry. We compared top EWAS results to those from a previous brain-based analysis. We also tested for enrichment of ASD EWAS CpGs for being targets of meQTL associations using available SNP genotype data in the SEED sample. Findings: In this meta-analysis of blood-based DNA from 796 cases and 858 controls, no single CpG met a Bonferroni discovery threshold of p < 1.12 × 10- 7. Seven CpGs showed differences at p < 1 × 10- 5 and 48 at 1 × 10- 4. Of the top 7, 5 showed brain-based ASD associations as well, often with larger effect sizes, and the top 48 overall showed modest concordance (r = 0.31) in direction of effect with cerebellum samples. Finally, we observed suggestive evidence for enrichment of CpG sites controlled by SNPs (meQTL targets) among the EWAS CpG hits, which was consistent across EWAS and meQTL discovery p value thresholds. Conclusions: No single CpG site showed a large enough DNAm difference between cases and controls to achieve epigenome-wide significance in this sample size. However, our results suggest the potential to observe disease associations from blood-based samples. Among the seven sites achieving suggestive statistical significance, we observed consistent, and stronger, effects at the same sites among brain samples. Discovery-oriented EWAS for ASD using blood samples will likely need even larger samples and unified genetic data to further understand DNAm differences in ASD.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista/genética , Metilação de DNA , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/sangue , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Pré-Escolar , Ilhas de CpG , Epigênese Genética , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Masculino
8.
Brain Sci ; 8(7)2018 Jul 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29970852

RESUMO

Previous studies have suggested a positive association between self-reported maternal acetaminophen use during pregnancy and risk of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in offspring. We sought to examine the prospective association between maternal plasma biomarkers of acetaminophen intake and ADHD diagnosis in the offspring. This report analyzed 1180 children enrolled at birth and followed prospectively as part of the Boston Birth Cohort, including 188 with ADHD diagnosis based on electronic medical record review. Maternal biomarkers of acetaminophen intake were measured in plasma samples obtained within 1⁻3 days postpartum. Odds ratios for having ADHD diagnosis or other developmental disorders were estimated using multinomial logistic regression models, adjusting for pertinent covariables. Compared to neurotypical children, we observed significant positive dose-responsive associations with ADHD diagnosis for each maternal acetaminophen biomarker. These dose⁻responsive associations persisted after adjusting for indication of acetaminophen use and other pertinent covariates; and were specific to ADHD, rather than other neurodevelopmental disorders. In the stratified analyses, differential point estimates of the associations were observed across some strata of covariates. However, these differences were not statistically significant. Maternal acetaminophen biomarkers were specifically associated with increased risk of ADHD diagnosis in offspring. Additional clinical and mechanistic investigations are warranted.

9.
J Neuroimmune Pharmacol ; 13(2): 254-264, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29516269

RESUMO

We studied the effect of two rare mutations (rs144662445 and rs149979685) in the A-kinase anchoring protein 9 (AKAP9) gene, previously associated with Alzheimer disease (AD) in African Americans (AA), on post-translational modifications of AD-related pathogenic molecules, amyloid precursor protein (APP) and microtubule-associated protein Tau using lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs) from 11 AA subjects with at least one AKAP9 mutation and 17 AA subjects lacking these mutations. LCLs were transduced by viral vectors expressing causative AD mutations in APP or human full-length wild type Tau. Cell lysates were analyzed for total APP, Aß40, and total and T181 phospho-Tau (pTau). AKAP9 mutations had no effect on Aß40/APP, but significantly increased pTau/Tau ratio in LCLs treated with phosphodiesterase-4 inhibitor rolipram, which activates protein kinase A. Proteomic analysis of Tau interactome revealed enrichment of RNA binding proteins and decrease of proteasomal molecules in rolipram-treated cells with AKAP9 mutations. This study shows the impact of rare functional AKAP9 mutations on Tau, a central mechanism of AD pathogenesis, in LCLs derived from AD and control subjects.

10.
Epigenetics ; 13(1): 108-116, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29451060

RESUMO

Cord blood DNA methylation is associated with numerous health outcomes and environmental exposures. Whole cord blood DNA reflects all nucleated blood cell types, while centrifuging whole blood separates red blood cells, generating a white blood cell buffy coat. Both sample types are used in DNA methylation studies. Cell types have unique methylation patterns and processing can impact cell distributions, which may influence comparability. We evaluated differences in cell composition and DNA methylation between cord blood buffy coat and whole cord blood samples. Cord blood DNA methylation was measured with the Infinium EPIC BeadChip (Illumina) in eight individuals, each contributing buffy coat and whole blood samples. We analyzed principal components (PC) of methylation, performed hierarchical clustering, and computed correlations of mean-centered methylation between pairs. We conducted moderated t-tests on single sites and estimated cell composition. DNA methylation PCs were associated with individual (PPC1 = 1.4 × 10-9; PPC2 = 2.9 × 10-5; PPC3 = 3.8 × 10-5; PPC4 = 4.2 × 10-6; PPC5 = 9.9 × 10-13, PPC6 = 1.3 × 10-11) and not with sample type (PPC1-6>0.7). Samples hierarchically clustered by individual. Pearson correlations of mean-centered methylation between paired samples ranged from r = 0.66 to r = 0.87. No individual site significantly differed between buffy coat and whole cord blood when adjusting for multiple comparisons (five sites had unadjusted P<10-5). Estimated cell type proportions did not differ by sample type (P = 0.46), and estimated proportions were highly correlated between paired samples (r = 0.99). Differences in methylation and cell composition between buffy coat and whole cord blood are much lower than inter-individual variation, demonstrating that both sample preparation types can be analytically combined and compared.

11.
Autism Res ; 11(5): 695-706, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29424959

RESUMO

This study examined the effect of demographic factors on Social Communication Questionnaire (SCQ) scores in children aged 30-68 months. Diagnoses of ASD were made after a gold standard evaluation that included the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS), and the Autism Diagnostic Interview Revised (ADI-R). The relationship of demographic variables to SCQ scores was compared in two source populations: (a) children recruited from clinical and educational sources serving children who have ASD or other developmental disorders (CE) and (b) children recruited from birth certificates to represent the general population (BC). The impact of the demographic variables-child sex, child age, maternal language, maternal ethnicity, maternal education, maternal race, and household income-on total SCQ score were studied to examine their impact on the SCQ's performance. Demographic factors predicting the SCQ total score were used to generate ROCs. Factors that had a significant influence on SCQ performance were identified by examining the area under the ROCs. Optimal SCQ cut-points were generated for significant factors using the Youden's Index. Overall male sex, lower household income, lower maternal education and Black race predicted higher SCQ scores. In this sample, the most common optimum value for the SCQ cut-point across the different sociodemographic groups was 11. Autism Res 2018, 11: 695-706. © 2018 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. LAY SUMMARY: Screeners are used to help identify children who are more likely to have ASD than their peers. Ideally screeners should be accurate for different groups of children and families. This study examined how well the Social Communication Questionnaire (SCQ) predicts ASD. We found that male sex, lower household income, lower maternal education and Black race were associated with higher SCQ scores. In this study an SCQ cut-point of 11 worked best across the different sociodemographic groups in our sample.

12.
J Occup Environ Med ; 60(4): 322-330, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29280775

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to declare a call to action to improve mental health in the workplace. METHODS: We convened a public health summit and assembled an Advisory Council consisting of experts in the field of occupational health and safety, workplace wellness, and public policy to offer recommendations for action steps to improve health and well-being of workers. RESULTS: The Advisory Council narrowed the list of ideas to four priority projects. CONCLUSIONS: The recommendations for action include developing a mental health in the workplace (1) "how to" guide, (2) scorecard, (3) recognition program, and (4) executive training.

13.
Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol ; 32(1): 100-111, 2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28984369

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To examine the prospective association between multivitamin supplementation during pregnancy and biomarker measures of maternal plasma folate and vitamin B12 levels at birth and child's Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) risk. METHODS: This report included 1257 mother-child pairs, who were recruited at birth and prospectively followed through childhood at the Boston Medical Center. ASD was defined from diagnostic codes in electronic medical records. Maternal multivitamin supplementation was assessed via questionnaire interview; maternal plasma folate and B12 were measured from samples taken 2-3 days after birth. RESULTS: Moderate (3-5 times/week) self-reported supplementation during pregnancy was associated with decreased risk of ASD, consistent with previous findings. Using this as the reference group, low (≤2 times/week) and high (>5 times/week) supplementation was associated with increased risk of ASD. Very high levels of maternal plasma folate at birth (≥60.3 nmol/L) had 2.5 times increased risk of ASD [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.3, 4.6] compared to folate levels in the middle 80th percentile, after adjusting for covariates including MTHFR genotype. Similarly, very high B12 (≥536.8 pmol/L) showed 2.5 times increased risk (95% CI 1.4, 4.5). CONCLUSION: There was a 'U shaped' relationship between maternal multivitamin supplementation frequency and ASD risk. Extremely high maternal plasma folate and B12 levels at birth were associated with ASD risk. This hypothesis-generating study does not question the importance of consuming adequate folic acid and vitamin B12 during pregnancy; rather, raises new questions about the impact of extremely elevated levels of plasma folate and B12 exposure in-utero on early brain development.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista/epidemiologia , Ácido Fólico/sangue , Vitamina B 12/sangue , Vitaminas/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Biomarcadores/sangue , Criança , Suplementos Nutricionais , Feminino , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Masculino , Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco
15.
Nat Commun ; 8(1): 1011, 2017 10 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29066808

RESUMO

Integration of emerging epigenetic information with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) genetic results may elucidate functional insights not possible via either type of information in isolation. Here we use the genotype and DNA methylation (DNAm) data from cord blood and peripheral blood to identify SNPs associated with DNA methylation (meQTL lists). Additionally, we use publicly available fetal brain and lung meQTL lists to assess enrichment of ASD GWAS results for tissue-specific meQTLs. ASD-associated SNPs are enriched for fetal brain (OR = 3.55; P < 0.001) and peripheral blood meQTLs (OR = 1.58; P < 0.001). The CpG targets of ASD meQTLs across cord, blood, and brain tissues are enriched for immune-related pathways, consistent with other expression and DNAm results in ASD, and reveal pathways not implicated by genetic findings. This joint analysis of genotype and DNAm demonstrates the potential of both brain and blood-based DNAm for insights into ASD and psychiatric phenotypes more broadly.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista/genética , Ilhas de CpG/genética , Metilação de DNA/genética , Epigênese Genética , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/sangue , Encéfalo/embriologia , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Pré-Escolar , Epigenômica/métodos , Sangue Fetal/metabolismo , Seguimentos , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Genótipo , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Pulmão/embriologia , Pulmão/metabolismo , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Cordão Umbilical/metabolismo
16.
Am J Epidemiol ; 186(7): 771-777, 2017 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28978191

RESUMO

A growing knowledge base of genetic and environmental information has greatly enabled the study of disease risk factors. However, the computational complexity and statistical burden of testing all variants by all environments has required novel study designs and hypothesis-driven approaches. We discuss how incorporating biological knowledge from model organisms, functional genomics, and integrative approaches can empower the discovery of novel gene-environment interactions and discuss specific methodological considerations with each approach. We consider specific examples where the application of these approaches has uncovered effects of gene-environment interactions relevant to drug response and immunity, and we highlight how such improvements enable a greater understanding of the pathogenesis of disease and the realization of precision medicine.


Assuntos
Doença/etiologia , Interação Gene-Ambiente , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Animais , Doença/genética , Genômica , Humanos , Modelos Animais , Análise de Sequência de RNA
17.
Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol ; 31(6): 573-582, 2017 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28881390

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prenatal alcohol exposure can affect neurodevelopment, but few studies have examined associations with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). METHODS: We assessed the association between maternal alcohol use and ASD in the Study to Explore Early Development, a multi-site case-control study of children born between September 2003 and August 2006 in the US Regression analyses included 684 children with research clinician-confirmed ASD, 869 children with non-ASD developmental delays or disorders (DDs), and 962 controls ascertained from the general population (POP). Maternal alcohol exposure during each month from 3 months prior to conception until delivery was assessed by self-report. RESULTS: Mothers of POP children were more likely to report any prenatal alcohol use than mothers of children with ASD or DD. In trimester one, 21.2% of mothers of POP children reported alcohol use compared with 18.1% and 18.2% of mothers of children with ASD or DD, respectively (adjusted OR for ASD vs. POP 0.8, 95% confidence interval 0.6, 1.1). During preconception and the first month of pregnancy, one to two drinks on average per week was inversely associated with ASD risk. CONCLUSIONS: These results do not support an adverse association between low-level alcohol exposure and ASD, although these findings were based on retrospective self-reported alcohol use. Unmeasured confounding or exposure misclassification may explain inverse associations with one to two drinks per week. Pregnant or potentially pregnant women should continue to follow recommendations to avoid alcohol use because of other known effects on infant health and neurodevelopment.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas , Transtorno do Espectro Autista , Etanol/efeitos adversos , Gestantes/psicologia , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal , Adulto , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/efeitos adversos , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/diagnóstico , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/epidemiologia , Depressores do Sistema Nervoso Central/efeitos adversos , Criança , Desenvolvimento Infantil/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/diagnóstico , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/epidemiologia , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
18.
Autism Res ; 10(11): 1878-1890, 2017 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28799289

RESUMO

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is phenotypically and etiologically heterogeneous, with evidence for genetic and environmental contributions to disease risk. Research has focused on the prenatal period as a time where environmental exposures are likely to influence risk for ASD. Epidemiological studies have shown significant associations between prenatal exposure to maternal immune activation (MIA), caused by infections and fever, and ASD. However, due to differences in study design and exposure measurements no consistent patterns have emerged revealing specific times or type of MIA exposure that are most important to ASD risk. No prior studies have examined prenatal MIA exposure and ASD risk in an under-represented minority population of African ancestry. To overcome these limitations, we estimated the association between prenatal exposure to fever and maternal infections and ASD in a prospective birth cohort of an understudied minority population in a city in the United States. No association was found between prenatal exposure to genitourinary infections or flu and the risk of ASD in a nested sample of 116 ASD cases and 988 typically developing controls in crude or adjusted analyses. Prenatal exposure to fever was associated with increased ASD risk (aOR 2.02 [1.04-3.92]) after adjustment for educational attainment, marital status, race, child sex, maternal age, birth year, gestational age, and maternal smoking. This effect may be specific to fever during the third trimester (aOR 2.70 [1.00-7.29]). Our findings provide a focus for future research efforts and ASD prevention strategies across diverse populations. Autism Res 2017, 10: 1878-1890. © 2017 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. LAY SUMMARY: We looked at whether activation of the immune system during pregnancy increases the chance a child will develop ASD. We examined 116 children with ASD and 988 children without ASD that came from a predominantly low income, urban, minority population. We found that having the flu or genitourinary tract infections during pregnancy is not related to the child being diagnosed with ASD. However, we did find children were at increased risk for ASD when their mothers had a fever during pregnancy.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista/epidemiologia , Febre/epidemiologia , Mães , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/epidemiologia , Adulto , Boston/epidemiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Causalidade , Criança , Estudos de Coortes , Comorbidade , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Masculino , Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos , Risco , Fatores de Risco , Estados Unidos
19.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 26(9): 1370-1380, 2017 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28710076

RESUMO

A growing number and increasing diversity of factors are available for epidemiological studies. These measures provide new avenues for discovery and prevention, yet they also raise many challenges for adoption in epidemiological investigations. Here, we evaluate 1) designs to investigate diseases that consider heterogeneous and multidimensional indicators of exposure and behavior, 2) the implementation of numerous methods to capture indicators of exposure, and 3) the analytical methods required for discovery and validation. We find that case-control studies have provided insights into genetic susceptibility but are insufficient for characterizing complex effects of environmental factors on disease development. Prospective and two-phase designs are required but must balance extended data collection with follow-up of study participants. We discuss innovations in assessments including the microbiome; mass spectrometry and metabolomics; behavioral assessment; dietary, physical activity, and occupational exposure assessment; air pollution monitoring; and global positioning and individual sensors. We claim the the availability of extensive correlated data raises new challenges in disentangling specific exposures that influence cancer risk from among extensive and often correlated exposures. In conclusion, new high-dimensional exposure assessments offer many new opportunities for environmental assessment in cancer development. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 26(9); 1370-80. ©2017 AACR.


Assuntos
Exposição Ambiental/análise , Exposição Ocupacional/análise , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Microbiota , Medição de Risco
20.
Nat Commun ; 8: 15608, 2017 06 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28598419

RESUMO

Preterm birth (PTB) contributes significantly to infant mortality and morbidity with lifelong impact. Few robust genetic factors of PTB have been identified. Such 'missing heritability' may be partly due to gene × environment interactions (G × E), which is largely unexplored. Here we conduct genome-wide G × E analyses of PTB in 1,733 African-American women (698 mothers of PTB; 1,035 of term birth) from the Boston Birth Cohort. We show that maternal COL24A1 variants have a significant genome-wide interaction with maternal pre-pregnancy overweight/obesity on PTB risk, with rs11161721 (PG × E=1.8 × 10-8; empirical PG × E=1.2 × 10-8) as the top hit. This interaction is replicated in African-American mothers (PG × E=0.01) from an independent cohort and in meta-analysis (PG × E=3.6 × 10-9), but is not replicated in Caucasians. In adipose tissue, rs11161721 is significantly associated with altered COL24A1 expression. Our findings may provide new insight into the aetiology of PTB and improve our ability to predict and prevent PTB.


Assuntos
Interação Gene-Ambiente , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Colágenos não Fibrilares/genética , Obesidade/genética , Nascimento Prematuro/genética , Adulto , Afro-Americanos/genética , Índice de Massa Corporal , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Colágenos não Fibrilares/biossíntese , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Gravidez , Nascimento Prematuro/prevenção & controle , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
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