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1.
Ecol Lett ; 23(1): 172-180, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31724293

RESUMO

Global change influences species' seasonal occurrence, or phenology. In cold-adapted insects, the activity is expected to start earlier with a warming climate, but contradictory evidence exists, and the reactions may be linked to species-specific traits. Using data from the GBIF database, we selected 105 single-brooded Holarctic butterflies inhabiting broad latitudinal ranges. We regressed patterns of an adult flight against latitudes of the records, controlling for altitude and year effects. Species with delayed flight periods towards the high latitudes, or stable flight periods across latitudes, prevailed over those that advanced their flight towards the high latitudes. The responses corresponded with the species' seasonality (flight of early season species was delayed and flight of summer species was advanced at high latitudes) and oceanic vs. continental climatic niches (delays in oceanic, stability in continental species). Future restructuring of butterfly seasonal patterns in high latitudes will reflect climatic niches, and hence the evolutionary history of participating species.


Assuntos
Borboletas , Altitude , Animais , Mudança Climática , Ecologia , Estações do Ano , Temperatura Ambiente
2.
Environ Entomol ; 47(5): 1344-1354, 2018 10 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30085041

RESUMO

Ultraviolet patterns in butterflies have been recognized and studied for many years. They are frequently involved in both intraspecific and interspecific interactions. Only a handful of studies, however, have investigated possible links between ultraviolet (UV) reflectance and ecological properties in some genera of the Lepidoptera as a whole. This study examines the impact of habitat and distribution on UV reflectance patterns on the wings of 106 species and subspecies of Colias butterflies. Based on standardized digital photographs, we performed a multivariate analysis of relations between UV reflectance, preferred habitat (alpine, arctic, dry grasslands, humid, forest, and ubiquitous), and distribution area (Afrotropical, Nearctic, Neotropical, European, Caucaso-Anatolian, boreal Eurasian, Central Asian mountains, northern China and Japan, and northern Oriental region). UV patterns occur more frequently in the male (60 taxa) than in female (25 taxa) Coliads. This difference in presence of UV patterns is used for differentiating between the males and females of a given species or subspecies. Further possible explanations of this phenomenon are also discussed. This study also shows that particular configurations of UV patterns are significantly associated with particular distribution areas. This relation is relatively strong but overall trends remain unclear. Based on the results of this study, it can be concluded that there exists a significant difference in the configuration of UV reflectance between the sexes, and that the configuration of UV reflectance significantly interacts with the geographical distribution of Colias species and subspecies.


Assuntos
Borboletas , Pigmentação , Raios Ultravioleta , Animais , Feminino , Masculino
3.
Zookeys ; (811): 9-45, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30627036

RESUMO

This paper presents an updated checklist of the butterflies of Europe, together with their original name combinations, and their occurrence status in each European country. According to this checklist, 496 species of the superfamily Papilionoidea occur in Europe. Changes in comparison with the last version (2.6.2) of Fauna Europaea are discussed. Compared to that version, 16 species are new additions, either due to cryptic species most of which have been discovered by molecular methods (13 cases) or due to discoveries of Asian species on the eastern border of the European territory in the Ural mountains (three cases). On the other hand, nine species had to be removed from the list, because they either do not occur in Europe or lost their species status due to new evidence. In addition, three species names had to be changed and 30 species changed their combination due to new evidence on phylogenetic relationships. Furthermore, minor corrections were applied to some authors' names and years of publication. Finally, the name Polyommatusottomanus Lefèbvre, 1831, which is threatened by its senior synonym Lycaenalegeri Freyer, 1830, is declared a nomen protectum, thereby conserving its name in the current combination Lycaenaottomana.

4.
PLoS One ; 11(3): e0152026, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26999008

RESUMO

The biodiversity of the Southern Balkans, part of the Mediterranean global biodiversity hot-spot, is threatened by land use intensification and abandonment, the latter causing forest encroachment of formerly open habitats. We investigated the impact of forest encroachment on butterfly species richness, community species composition and the representation of life history traits by repeated seasonal visits of 150 one-hectare sites in five separate regions in three countries-Greece, Bulgaria, and the Republic of Macedonia (FYROM-the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia)- 10 replicates for each habitat type of grasslands, open formations and scrub forest within each region. Grasslands and open formations sites hosted in average more species and more red-listed species than scrub forest, while no pattern was found for numbers of Mediterranean species. As shown by ordination analyses, each of the three habitat types hosted distinct butterfly communities, with Mediterranean species inclining either towards grasslands or open formations. Analysing the representation of life history traits revealed that successional development from grasslands and open formations towards scrub forest shifts the community composition towards species overwintering in earlier stages, having fewer generations per year, and inhabiting large European or Eurosiberian (e.g. northern) ranges; it decreases the representation of Mediterranean endemics. The loss of grasslands and semi-open formations due to forest encroachment thus threatens exactly the species that should be the focus of conservation attention in the Mediterranean region, and innovative conservation actions to prevent ongoing forest encroachment are badly needed.


Assuntos
Borboletas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Florestas , Estágios do Ciclo de Vida , Características de Residência , Animais , Geografia , Região do Mediterrâneo , Análise de Regressão , Especificidade da Espécie
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