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BMC Complement Altern Med ; 19(1): 141, 2019 Jun 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31221162


BACKGROUND: Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) remains an important global health issue but the gap between AMR and development of new antimicrobials is increasing. Plant extracts may have good activity per se or may be sources of effective antimicrobial compounds which can act against planktonic and/or biofilms of pathogens. We determined the antimicrobial efficacy and cytotoxicity of some under-investigated plants from the Myrtaceae family endemic to South Africa. The ability of the plant extracts to inhibit or destroy pre-formed bacterial biofilms was also determined. METHODS: Based on previous preliminary in vitro screening and on chemotaxonomy, nine species from the Myrtaceae family were selected. The antimicrobial activity of the crude acetone leaf extracts was determined against six common nosocomial pathogens, namely: Gram-positive bacteria (Bacillus cereus, Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus), Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella Typhimurium) using a two-fold serial microdilution assay with p-iodonitrotetrazolium violet as growth indicator. The number of antimicrobial compounds present in extracts was determined by bioautography. Cytotoxicity of extracts was determined against Vero kidney cells using a colorimetric tetrazolium-based assay. The total antibacterial activity (TAA) in ml/g and selectivity index (LC50/MIC) of the plant extracts were calculated. A modified crystal violet assay was used to determine the antibiofilm activity of the extracts. RESULTS: Syzygium legatii, Syzygium masukuense, and Syzygium species A had the best activities against Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria (MIC) values ranging from 0.04-0.08 mg/ml. Eugenia erythrophylla had the best MIC (0.02 mg/ml) against Bacillus cereus. Many extracts had relatively low cytotoxicity (LC50 > 20 µg/ml) leading to reasonable selectivity indices. Three leaf extracts (Syzygium masukuense, Syzygium species A, and Eugenia natalitia) were moderately cytotoxic (20 µg/ml < LC50 < 100 µg/ml). The plant extracts had a good capacity to reduce biofilm formation and good to poor potential to destroy pre-formed biofilms. CONCLUSIONS: The plant species examined in this study had varying degrees of antibacterial activity against bacterial planktonic and biofilm forms with some having good activity against both forms. Several of these selected species may be potential candidates for further investigation to isolate antimicrobial compounds and to determine the mechanism of activity.

Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Biofilmes/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Syzygium/química , Antibacterianos/química , Antibacterianos/isolamento & purificação , Bactérias Gram-Negativas/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias Gram-Negativas/fisiologia , Dose Letal Mediana , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Folhas de Planta/química , África do Sul
BMC Vet Res ; 15(1): 162, 2019 May 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31118023


BACKGROUND: Diarrhoea, a global economically important disease burden affecting swine and, especially piglets, is commonly caused by infection with entero-toxigenic E. coli (ETEC). Adherence of ETEC to porcine intestinal epithelial cells following infection, is necessary for its pathogenesis. While antimicrobials are commonly given as therapy or as feed additives for prophylaxis against microbial infections, the concern over increased levels of antimicrobial resistance necessitate the search for safe and effective alternatives in livestock feed. Attention is shifting to natural products including plants as suitable alternatives to antimicrobials. The activity of acetone crude leaf extracts of nine under-explored South African endemic plants from the Myrtaceae family with good antimicrobial activity were tested against pathogenic E. coli of porcine origin using a microplate serial dilution method. Bioautography, also with p-iodonitrotetrazolium violet as growth indicator was used to view the number of bioactive compounds in each extract. In vitro toxicity of extracts was determined against Caco-2 cells using the 3-(4,5-dimethythiazolyl-2)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide reduction assay. The antimicrobial susceptibility of E. coli isolates was tested on a panel of antimicrobials using the Kirby-Bauer agar diffusion method while the anti-adherence mechanism was evaluated using a Caco-2 cell enterocyte anti-adhesion model. RESULTS: The MIC of the extracts ranged from 0.07-0.14 mg/mL with S. legatii having the best mean MIC (0.05 mg/mL). Bioautography revealed at least two active bands in each plant extract. The 50% lethal concentration (LC50) values ranged between 0.03-0.66 mg/mL. Eugenia zeyheri least cytotoxic (LC50 = 0.66 mg/ml) while E. natalitia had the highest cytotoxicity (LC50 = 0.03 mg/mL). All the bacteria were completely resistant to doxycycline and colistin sulphate and many of the plant extracts significantly reduced adhesion of E. coli to Caco-2 cells. CONCLUSIONS: The extracts of the plants had good antibacterial activity as well as a protective role on intestinal epithelial cells against enterotoxigenic E. coli bacterial adhesion. This supports the potential use of these species in limiting infection causes by E. coli. Some of these plants or extracts may be useful as phytogenic feed additives but it has to be investigated by animal feed trials.

Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Resistência a Múltiplos Medicamentos/efeitos dos fármacos , Escherichia coli Enterotoxigênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Eugenia/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Syzygium/química , Acetona/química , Células CACO-2 , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Dose Letal Mediana , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Extratos Vegetais/toxicidade , Folhas de Planta/química