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1.
Can J Cardiol ; 2020 Jun 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32599018

RESUMO

Severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) can complicate novel pandemic coronavirus disease (COVID-19). Extracorporeal life support (ECLS) represents the final possible rescue strategy. Variations in practice, combined with a paucity of rigorous guidelines, may complicate blood product resource availability and allocation during a pandemic. We conducted a literature review around venovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VV-ECMO) transfusion practices for platelets, packed red blood cells, fresh frozen plasma, prothrombin complex concentrate, and antithrombin. Pertinent society guidelines were examined, and the practice of Canadian ECLS experts was sampled through an environmental scan. This paper represents a synthesis of these explorations, combined with input from the Canadian Cardiovascular Critical Care (CANCARE) Society, Canadian Society of Cardiac Surgeons, and the Canadian Critical Care Society. We offer a pragmatic guidance document for restrictive transfusion thresholds in non-bleeding VV-ECMO patients, which may attenuate transfusion-related complications, and simultaneously shield national blood product inventory from strain during pandemic-induced activation of the National Plan for the Management of Shortages of Labile Blood Components.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32516052

RESUMO

Mechanical ventilation can cause acute diaphragm atrophy and injury and this is associated with poor clinical outcomes. While the importance and impact of lung-protective ventilation is widely appreciated and well-established, the concept of diaphragm-protective ventilation has recently emerged as a potential complementary therapeutic strategy. This Perspective, developed from discussions at a meeting of international experts convened by the Pleural Pressure Working Group of the European Society of Intensive Care Medicine, outlines a conceptual framework for an integrated lung and diaphragm-protective approach to mechanical ventilation based on growing evidence about mechanisms of injury. We propose targets for diaphragm protection based on respiratory effort and patient-ventilator synchrony. The potential for conflict between diaphragm protection and lung protection under certain conditions is discussed; we emphasize that where conflicts arise, lung protection must be prioritized over diaphragm protection. Monitoring respiratory effort is essential to concomitantly protect both the diaphragm and the lung during mechanical ventilation. To implement lung and diaphragm-protective ventilation, new approaches to monitoring, to setting the ventilator, and to titrating sedation will be required. Adjunctive interventions including extracorporeal life support techniques, phrenic nerve stimulation, and clinical decision support systems may also play an important role in selected patients in the future. Evaluating the clinical impact of this new paradigm will be challenging owing to the complexity of the intervention. The concept of lung and diaphragm-protective ventilation presents a compelling new opportunity to substantially improve clinical outcomes for critically ill patients.

4.
Perfusion ; : 267659120932705, 2020 Jun 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32579070

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Intracranial hemorrhage is one of the most dreaded complications associated with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. However, robust data to guide clinical practice are lacking. We aimed to describe the current perceptions and practices surrounding the risk, prevention, diagnosis, management, and prognosis of intracranial hemorrhage in patients on extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. METHODS: We conducted an international, cross-sectional survey of adult extracorporeal membrane oxygenation centers using a self-administered electronic questionnaire sent to medical directors and program coordinators of all 290 adult centers member of the Extracorporeal Life Support Organization. RESULTS: There were 143 respondents (49%). The median proportion of patients having neuroimaging performed was only 1-25% in venovenous-extracorporeal membrane oxygenation patients and 26-50% in venoarterial-extracorporeal membrane oxygenation and extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation. The majority of participants (58%) tolerated a PaO2 < 60 mm Hg on venovenous-extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. Lower PaO2 targets were inversely correlated with the reported incidence of intracranial hemorrhage (r =-0.247; p = 0.024). In patients with intracranial hemorrhage, most participants reported stopping anticoagulation, and median targets for blood product administration were 70,000-99,000 platelets/µL, 1.5-1.9 of international normalized ratio, and 1.6-2.0 g/L of fibrinogen. CONCLUSION: We found significant heterogeneity in the perceptions and practices. This underlines the need for more research to appropriately guide patient management. Importantly, neuroimaging was performed only in a minority of patients. Considering the important management implications reported by most centers when intracranial hemorrhage is diagnosed, perhaps clinicians should consider widening their indications for early neuroimaging.

5.
Can J Anaesth ; 2020 May 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32440908

RESUMO

The use of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is increasing globally, although mortality in this setting remains high. Patients on ECMO may be potential organ donors in the context of withdrawal of life-sustaining measures (WLSM) or neurologic determination of death (NDD). Nevertheless, there are currently no Canadian standards to guide clinicians on NDD or WLSM for the purposes of organ donation in this patient population. Apnea testing remains fundamental to determining NDD and is an area where ECMO may alter routine procedures. In this review, we outline protocols for the performance of apnea testing and WLSM for patients supported with ECMO, highlighting important technical and physiologic considerations that may affect the determination of death. In addition, we review important considerations for NDD in ECMO, including management of potential confounders, strategies for controlling oxygen and carbon dioxide levels during apnea testing, and the appropriate use of ancillary tests to support NDD. In the context of ECMO support, there is limited evidence to guide NDD and WLSM for the purposes of organ donation. Drawing upon extensive clinical experience, we provide protocols for these processes and review other important considerations in an effort to maximize donor potential in this growing patient population.

6.
Ann Intern Med ; 2020 May 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32442035

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mechanical ventilation is used to treat respiratory failure in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). PURPOSE: To review multiple streams of evidence regarding the benefits and harms of ventilation techniques for coronavirus infections, including that causing COVID-19. (PROSPERO registration: CRD42020178187). DATA SOURCES: 21 standard, World Health Organization-specific and COVID-19-specific databases, without language restrictions, until 1 May 2020. STUDY SELECTION: Studies of any design and language comparing different oxygenation approaches in patients with coronavirus infections, including severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) or Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS), or with hypoxemic respiratory failure. Animal, mechanistic, laboratory, and preclinical evidence was gathered regarding aerosol dispersion of coronavirus. Studies evaluating risk for virus transmission to health care workers from aerosol-generating procedures (AGPs) were included. DATA EXTRACTION: Independent and duplicate screening, data abstraction, and risk of bias assessment (GRADE for certainty of evidence and AMSTAR 2 for included systematic reviews). DATA SYNTHESIS: 123 studies were eligible (45 on COVID-19, 70 on SARS, 8 on MERS), but only 5 studies (1 on COVID-19, 3 on SARS, 1 on MERS) adjusted for important confounders. A study in hospitalized patients with COVID-19 reported slightly higher mortality with noninvasive ventilation (NIV) than with invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV), but 2 opposing studies, 1 in patients with MERS and 1 in patients with SARS, suggest a reduction in mortality with NIV (very low-certainty evidence). Two studies in patients with SARS report a reduction in mortality with NIV compared with no mechanical ventilation (low-certainty evidence). Two systematic reviews suggest a large reduction in mortality with NIV compared with conventional oxygen therapy. Other included studies suggest increased odds of transmission from AGPs. LIMITATION: Direct studies in COVID-19 are limited and poorly reported. CONCLUSION: Indirect and low-certainty evidence suggests that use of NIV, similar to IMV, probably reduces mortality but may increase the risk for transmission of COVID-19 to health care workers. PRIMARY FUNDING SOURCE: World Health Organization.

9.
Crit Care Med ; 48(6): 838-846, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32282350

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To define the role of the intensivist in the initiation and management of patients on extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. DESIGN: Retrospective review of the literature and expert consensus. SETTING: Series of in-person meetings, conference calls, and emails from January 2018 to March 2019. SUBJECTS: A multidisciplinary, expert Task Force was appointed and assembled by the Society of Critical Care Medicine and the Extracorporeal Life Support Organization. Experts were identified by their respective societies based on reputation, experience, and contribution to the field. INTERVENTIONS: A MEDLINE search was performed and all members of the Task Force reviewed relevant references, summarizing high-quality evidence when available. Consensus was obtained using a modified Delphi process, with agreement determined by voting using the RAND/UCLA scale, with score ranging from 1 to 9. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: The Task Force developed 18 strong and five weak recommendations in five topic areas of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation initiation and management. These recommendations were organized into five areas related to the care of patients on extracorporeal membrane oxygenation: patient selection, management, mitigation of complications, coordination of multidisciplinary care, and communication with surrogate decision-makers. A common theme of the recommendations is extracorporeal membrane oxygenation is best performed by a multidisciplinary team, which intensivists are positioned to engage and lead. CONCLUSIONS: The role of the intensivist in the care of patients on extracorporeal membrane oxygenation continues to evolve and grow, especially when knowledge and familiarity of the issues surrounding extracorporeal membrane oxygenation selection, cannulation, and management are applied.

10.
Crit Care ; 24(1): 131, 2020 04 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32252807

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is used to provide temporary cardiorespiratory support to critically ill children. While short-term outcomes and costs have been evaluated in this population, less is known regarding long-term survival and costs. METHODS: Population-based cohort study from Ontario, Canada (October 1, 2009 to March 31, 2017), of pediatric patients (< 18 years of age) receiving ECMO, identified through the use of an ECMO procedural code. Outcomes were identified through linkage to provincial health databases. Primary outcome was survival, measured to hospital discharge, as well as at 1 year, 2 years, and 5 years following ECMO initiation. We evaluated total patient costs in the first year following ECMO. RESULTS: We analyzed 342 pediatric patients. Mean age at ECMO initiation was 2.9 years (standard deviation [SD] = 5.0). Median time from hospital admission to ECMO initiation was 5 days (interquartile range [IQR] = 1-13 days). Overall survival to hospital discharge was 56.4%. Survival at 1 year, 2 years, and 5 years was 51.5%, 50.0%, and 42.1%, respectively. Among survivors, 99.5% were discharged home. Median total costs among all patients in the year following hospital admission were $147,957 (IQR $70,571-$300,295). Of these costs, the large proportion were attributable to the inpatient cost from the index admission (median $119,197, IQR $57,839-$250,675). CONCLUSIONS: Children requiring ECMO continue to have a significant in-hospital mortality, but reassuringly, there is little decrease in long-term survival at 1 year. Median costs among all patients were substantial, but largely reflect inpatient hospital costs, rather than post-discharge outpatient costs. This information provides value to providers and health systems, allowing for prognostication of short- and long-term outcomes, as well as long-term healthcare-related expenses for pediatric ECMO survivors.


Assuntos
Estado Terminal/mortalidade , Oxigenação por Membrana Extracorpórea/economia , Oxigenação por Membrana Extracorpórea/mortalidade , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Ontário , Alta do Paciente
11.
Crit Care Med ; 48(6): e440-e469, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32224769

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the cause of a rapidly spreading illness, Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19), affecting thousands of people around the world. Urgent guidance for clinicians caring for the sickest of these patients is needed. METHODS: We formed a panel of 36 experts from 12 countries. All panel members completed the World Health Organization conflict of interest disclosure form. The panel proposed 53 questions that are relevant to the management of COVID-19 in the ICU. We searched the literature for direct and indirect evidence on the management of COVID-19 in critically ill patients in the ICU. We identified relevant and recent systematic reviews on most questions relating to supportive care. We assessed the certainty in the evidence using the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) approach, then generated recommendations based on the balance between benefit and harm, resource and cost implications, equity, and feasibility. Recommendations were either strong or weak, or in the form of best practice recommendations. RESULTS: The Surviving Sepsis Campaign COVID-19 panel issued 54 statements, of which four are best practice statements, nine are strong recommendations, and 35 are weak recommendations. No recommendation was provided for six questions. The topics were: 1) infection control, 2) laboratory diagnosis and specimens, 3) hemodynamic support, 4) ventilatory support, and 5) COVID-19 therapy. CONCLUSION: The Surviving Sepsis Campaign COVID-19 panel issued several recommendations to help support healthcare workers caring for critically ill ICU patients with COVID-19. When available, we will provide new evidence in further releases of these guidelines.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/organização & administração , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto/normas , Betacoronavirus , Estado Terminal , Técnicas e Procedimentos Diagnósticos/normas , Humanos , Controle de Infecções/métodos , Controle de Infecções/normas , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/normas , Pandemias , Respiração Artificial/métodos , Respiração Artificial/normas , Choque/terapia
12.
Am J Respir Crit Care Med ; 201(12): 1525-1535, 2020 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32251606

RESUMO

Rationale: Large decreases in PaCO2 that occur when initiating extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) in patients with respiratory failure may cause cerebral vasoconstriction and compromise brain tissue perfusion.Objectives: To determine if the magnitude of PaCO2 correction upon ECMO initiation is associated with an increased incidence of neurological complications in patients with respiratory failure.Methods: We conducted a multicenter, international, retrospective cohort study using the Extracorporeal Life Support Organization Registry, including adults with respiratory failure receiving ECMO via any mode between 2012 and 2017. The relative change in PaCO2 in the first 24 hours was calculated as (24-h post-ECMO PaCO2 - pre-ECMO PaCO2)/pre-ECMO PaCO2. The primary outcome was the occurrence of neurological complications, defined as seizures, ischemic stroke, intracranial hemorrhage, or brain death.Measurements and Main Results: We included 11,972 patients, 88% of whom were supported with venovenous ECMO. The median relative change in PaCO2 was -31% (interquartile range, -46% to -12%). Neurological complications were uncommon overall (6.9%), with a low incidence of seizures (1.1%), ischemic stroke (1.9%), intracranial hemorrhage (3.5%), and brain death (1.6%). Patients with a large relative decrease in PaCO2 (>50%) had an increased incidence of neurological complications compared with those with a smaller decrease (9.8% vs. 6.4%; P < 0.001). A large relative decrease in PaCO2 was independently associated with neurological complications after controlling for previously described risk factors (odds ratio, 1.7; 95% confidence interval, 1.3 to 2.3; P < 0.001).Conclusions: In patients receiving ECMO for respiratory failure, a large relative decrease in PaCO2 in the first 24 hours after ECMO initiation is independently associated with an increased incidence of neurological complications.

13.
Chest ; 2020 Apr 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32330459

RESUMO

ARDS is a lethal form of acute respiratory failure, and because no specific treatments exist, supportive care remains the primary management strategy in these patients. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) has emerged as an intervention in patients with severe ARDS to facilitate gas exchange and the delivery of more lung protective ventilation. Over the past 20 years, improvements in ECMO technology have increased its safety and transportability, making it far more available to this patient population globally. Deciding which patients with ARDS should be initiated on ECMO remains a challenging question. Numerous clinical and laboratory markers have been investigated, and multiple risk scores developed, to aid physicians in this decision-making process. However, they are still imperfect, and the choice is often based on institutional guidelines and the clinical impression of the treating physician. Given the potential risks and resource implications for this intervention, patient selection is critical and it is important to provide ECMO only to patients who have a reasonable chance for recovery or bridge to transplantation. In patients undergoing ECMO where there is no potential for recovery or transplant, the only option may be withdrawal of ECMO and palliation. These patients may be awake and interactive, which is often a very challenging scenario for patients, families, and the clinical team. In this article, we present a more controversial case and a review of the literature regarding the selection of patients with ARDS who should receive ECMO.

14.
J Heart Lung Transplant ; 39(6): 595-603, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32334946

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The use of a novel extracellular oxygen carrier (EOC) preservation additive known as HEMO2Life has recently been shown to lead to a superior preservation of different types of solid organs. Our study aimed to investigate the effect of this EOC on extending lung preservation time and its mechanism of action. METHODS: Donor pigs were randomly allocated to either of the following 2 groups (n = 6 per group): (1) 36 hours cold preservation or (2) 36 hours cold preservation with 1 g/liter of EOC. The lungs were evaluated through 12 hours of normothermic ex vivo lung perfusion (EVLP) followed by a left-single lung transplant into a recipient pig. Grafts were reperfused for 4 hours, followed by right pulmonary artery clamping to assess graft oxygenation function. RESULTS: During EVLP assessment, EOC-treated lungs showed improvements in physiologic parameters, whereas the control lungs deteriorated. After a total of 48 hours of preservation (36 hours cold + 12 hours normothermic EVLP), transplanted grafts in the treatment group displayed significantly better oxygenation than in the controls (PaO2/FiO2: 437 ± 36 mm Hg vs 343 ± 27 mm Hg, p = 0.041). In addition, the use of EOC led to significantly less edema formation (wet-to-dry ratio: 4.95 ± 0.29 vs 6.05 ± 0.33, p = 0.026), less apoptotic cell death (p = 0.041), improved tight junction preservation (p = 0.002), and lower levels of circulating IL-6 within recipient plasma (p = 0.004) compared with non-use of EOC in the control group after transplantation. CONCLUSION: The use of an EOC during an extended pulmonary preservation period led to significantly superior early post-transplant lung function.

15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32348694

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Patients who receive invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV) are usually exposed to opioids as part of their sedation regimen. The rates of post-hospital prescribing of opioids are unknown. OBJECTIVES: Determine the frequency of persistent post-hospital opioid use among patients who received IMV. METHODS: We assessed opioid-naïve adults who were admitted to an intensive care unit (ICU), received IMV and survived at least 7d after hospital discharge in Ontario, Canada over a 26 month period; February, 2013 through March, 2015. The primary outcome was new persistent opioid use during the year following discharge. We assessed factors associated with persistent use using multivariable logistic regression. Patients receiving IMV were also compared with matched hospitalized patients who did not receive intensive care (non-ICU). MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Among 25,085 opioid-naive IMV patients, 5,007 (20.0%,95%CI 19.5-20.5) filled a prescription for opioids in the 7d following hospital discharge. During the year following, 648 (2.6%,95%CI 2.4-2.8) of the IMV cohort met criteria for new persistent opioid use. The patient characteristic most strongly associated with persistent use in the IMV cohort was being a surgical (vs medical) patient: aOR 3.29,95%CI 2.72-3.97. The rate of persistent use was slightly higher than for matched non-ICU patients ((2.6% vs 1.5%) aOR 1.37,95%CI 1.19-1.58). CONCLUSIONS: Twenty percentage of IMV patients received a prescription for opioids after hospital discharge; 2.6% met criteria for persistent use, an average of 300 new persistent users per year in a population of 14 million. Receipt of surgery was the factor most strongly associated with persistent use.

16.
Crit Care ; 24(1): 125, 2020 03 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32234077

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Concerns exist regarding the prevalence and impact of unnecessary oxygen use in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). We examined this issue in patients with ARDS enrolled in the Large observational study to UNderstand the Global impact of Severe Acute respiratory FailurE (LUNG SAFE) study. METHODS: In this secondary analysis of the LUNG SAFE study, we wished to determine the prevalence and the outcomes associated with hyperoxemia on day 1, sustained hyperoxemia, and excessive oxygen use in patients with early ARDS. Patients who fulfilled criteria of ARDS on day 1 and day 2 of acute hypoxemic respiratory failure were categorized based on the presence of hyperoxemia (PaO2 > 100 mmHg) on day 1, sustained (i.e., present on day 1 and day 2) hyperoxemia, or excessive oxygen use (FIO2 ≥ 0.60 during hyperoxemia). RESULTS: Of 2005 patients that met the inclusion criteria, 131 (6.5%) were hypoxemic (PaO2 < 55 mmHg), 607 (30%) had hyperoxemia on day 1, and 250 (12%) had sustained hyperoxemia. Excess FIO2 use occurred in 400 (66%) out of 607 patients with hyperoxemia. Excess FIO2 use decreased from day 1 to day 2 of ARDS, with most hyperoxemic patients on day 2 receiving relatively low FIO2. Multivariate analyses found no independent relationship between day 1 hyperoxemia, sustained hyperoxemia, or excess FIO2 use and adverse clinical outcomes. Mortality was 42% in patients with excess FIO2 use, compared to 39% in a propensity-matched sample of normoxemic (PaO2 55-100 mmHg) patients (P = 0.47). CONCLUSIONS: Hyperoxemia and excess oxygen use are both prevalent in early ARDS but are most often non-sustained. No relationship was found between hyperoxemia or excessive oxygen use and patient outcome in this cohort. TRIAL REGISTRATION: LUNG-SAFE is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02010073.


Assuntos
Oxigenação Hiperbárica , Oxigênio/uso terapêutico , Respiração Artificial , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Adulto/terapia , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Prevalência , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Adulto/mortalidade
17.
Intensive Care Med ; 46(5): 854-887, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32222812

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the cause of a rapidly spreading illness, Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19), affecting thousands of people around the world. Urgent guidance for clinicians caring for the sickest of these patients is needed. METHODS: We formed a panel of 36 experts from 12 countries. All panel members completed the World Health Organization conflict of interest disclosure form. The panel proposed 53 questions that are relevant to the management of COVID-19 in the ICU. We searched the literature for direct and indirect evidence on the management of COVID-19 in critically ill patients in the ICU. We identified relevant and recent systematic reviews on most questions relating to supportive care. We assessed the certainty in the evidence using the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) approach, then generated recommendations based on the balance between benefit and harm, resource and cost implications, equity, and feasibility. Recommendations were either strong or weak, or in the form of best practice recommendations. RESULTS: The Surviving Sepsis Campaign COVID-19 panel issued 54 statements, of which 4 are best practice statements, 9 are strong recommendations, and 35 are weak recommendations. No recommendation was provided for 6 questions. The topics were: (1) infection control, (2) laboratory diagnosis and specimens, (3) hemodynamic support, (4) ventilatory support, and (5) COVID-19 therapy. CONCLUSION: The Surviving Sepsis Campaign COVID-19 panel issued several recommendations to help support healthcare workers caring for critically ill ICU patients with COVID-19. When available, we will provide new recommendations in further releases of these guidelines.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Cuidados Críticos/normas , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/normas , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Sepse/terapia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Sepse/diagnóstico , Sepse/etiologia , Sobreviventes
19.
Chest ; 157(6): 1497-1505, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32088180

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Adjunctive strategies are an important part of the management of ARDS. However, their application in clinical practice remains inconsistent. RESEARCH QUESTION: We wished to determine the frequency and patterns of use of adjunctive strategies in patients with moderate to severe ARDS (Pao2/Fio2 [P/F ratio] < 150) enrolled into the Large observational study to UNderstand the Global impact of Severe Acute respiratory FailurE (LUNG SAFE) study. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: The LUNG SAFE study was an international, multicenter, prospective cohort study of patients with severe respiratory failure, conducted in 2014 in 459 ICUs from 50 countries. The primary objective of this substudy was to determine the frequency of use of widely available (neuromuscular blockade, prone position) adjuncts vs adjuncts requiring specialized equipment (extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, inhaled vasodilators, high-frequency ventilation) in patients in the first 48 h of moderate to severe ARDS (P/F ratio < 150). RESULTS: Of 1,146 patients on invasive ventilation with moderate to severe ARDS, 811 patients (71%) received no adjunct within 48 h of ARDS onset. Of 335 (29%) that received adjunctive strategies, 252 (75%) received a single strategy, and 83 (25%) receiving more than one adjunct. Of ARDS nonsurvivors, 67% did not receive any adjunctive strategy in the first 48 h. Most patients (67%) receiving specialized adjuncts did not receive prone positioning or neuromuscular blockade. Patients that received adjuncts were more likely to have their ARDS recognized, be younger and sicker, have pneumonia, be more difficult to ventilate, and be in a European high-income country than those that did not receive adjuncts. INTERPRETATION: Three in 10 patients with moderate to severe ARDS, and only one-third of nonsurvivors, received adjunctive strategies over the first 48 h of ARDS. A more consistent and evidence-driven approach to adjunct use may reduce costs and improve outcomes in patients with moderate to severe ARDS. TRIAL REGISTRY: ClinicalTrials.gov; No.: NCT02010073; URL: www.clinicaltrials.gov.

20.
JAMA Netw Open ; 3(2): e1921520, 2020 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32074293

RESUMO

Importance: Low diaphragm muscle mass at the outset of mechanical ventilation may predispose critically ill patients to poor clinical outcomes. Objective: To determine whether lower baseline diaphragm thickness (Tdi) is associated with delayed liberation from mechanical ventilation and complications of acute respiratory failure (reintubation, tracheostomy, prolonged ventilation >14 days, or death in the hospital). Design, Setting, and Participants: Secondary analysis (July 2018 to June 2019) of a prospective cohort study (data collected May 2013 to January 2016). Participants were 193 critically ill adult patients receiving invasive mechanical ventilation at 3 intensive care units in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Exposures: Diaphragm thickness was measured by ultrasonography within 36 hours of intubation and then daily. Patients were classified as having low or high diaphragm muscle mass according to the median baseline Tdi. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was time to liberation from ventilation accounting for the competing risk of death and adjusting for age, body mass index, severity of illness, sepsis, change in Tdi during ventilation, baseline comorbidity, and study center. Secondary outcomes included in-hospital death and complications of acute respiratory failure. Results: A total of 193 patients were available for analysis; the mean (SD) age was 60 (15) years, 73 (38%) were female, and the median (interquartile range) Sequential Organ Failure Assessment score was 10 (8-13). Median (interquartile range) baseline Tdi was 2.3 (2.0-2.7) mm. In the primary prespecified analysis, baseline Tdi of 2.3 mm or less was associated with delayed liberation from mechanical ventilation (adjusted hazard ratio for liberation, 0.51; 95% CI, 0.36-0.74). Lower baseline Tdi was associated a higher risk of complications of acute respiratory failure (adjusted odds ratio, 1.77; 95% CI, 1.20-2.61 per 0.5-mm decrement) and prolonged weaning (adjusted odds ratio, 2.30; 95% CI, 1.42-3.74). Lower baseline Tdi was also associated with a higher risk of in-hospital death (adjusted odds ratio, 1.47; 95% CI, 1.00-2.16 per 0.5-mm decrement), particularly after discharge from the intensive care unit (adjusted odds ratio, 2.68; 95% CI, 1.35-5.32 per 0.5-mm decrement). Conclusions and Relevance: In this study, low baseline diaphragm muscle mass in critically ill patients was associated with prolonged mechanical ventilation, complications of acute respiratory failure, and an increased risk of death in the hospital.

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