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1.
Cardiovasc Res ; 2020 Mar 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32170929

RESUMO

AIM: Cardiac dysfunction is a prevalent comorbidity of disrupted inflammatory homeostasis observed in conditions such as sepsis (acute) or obesity (chronic). Secreted and transmembrane protein 1a (Sectm1a) has previously been implicated to regulate inflammatory responses, yet its role in inflammation-associated cardiac dysfunction is virtually unknown. METHODS AND RESULTS: Using the CRISPR/Cas9 system, we generated a global Sectm1a-knockout (KO) mouse model and observed significantly increased mortality and cardiac injury after LPS injection, when compared to wild-type (WT) control. Further analysis revealed significantly increased accumulation of inflammatory macrophages in hearts of LPS-treated KO mice. Accordingly, ablation of Sectm1a remarkably increased inflammatory cytokines levels both in vitro [from bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs)] and in vivo (in serum and myocardium) after LPS challenge. RNA-sequencing results and bioinformatics analyses showed that the most significantly downregulated genes in KO-BMDMs were modulated by LXRα, a nuclear receptor with robust anti-inflammatory activity in macrophages. Indeed, we identified that the nuclear translocation of LXRα was disrupted in KO-BMDMs when treated with GW3965 (LXR agonist), resulting in higher levels of inflammatory cytokines, compared to GW3965-treated WT-cells. Furthermore, using chronic inflammation model of high-fat diet (HFD) feeding, we observed that infiltration of inflammatory monocytes/macrophages into KO-hearts were greatly increased and accordingly, worsened cardiac function, compared to WT-HFD controls. CONCLUSION: This study defines Sectm1a as a new regulator of inflammatory-induced cardiac dysfunction through modulation of LXRα signaling in macrophages. Our data suggest that augmenting Sectm1a activity may be a potential therapeutic approach to resolve inflammation and associated cardiac dysfunction. TRANSLATIONAL PERSPECTIVE: Better understanding on the interaction between inflammatory responses and cardiac health is prominent for the development of safer and more efficacious therapies for heart failure patients. The present study, using both acute (LPS) and chronic (high-fat diet) inflammation models, reiterated the adverse effects of abnormal macrophages activation on cardiac function. Our Sectm1a knockout mouse model showed exacerbated cardiac and systemic inflammatory responses, resulting in further aggravation of contractile dysfunction on the heart after endotoxin challenge. We also demonstrated Sectm1a as a new regulator of macrophage function through LXRα pathway. These data suggest a novel approach to regulate macrophage-elicited inflammation.

2.
Redox Biol ; : 101453, 2020 Feb 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32057709

RESUMO

Currently, most antioxidants do not show any favorable clinical outcomes in reducing myocardial ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury, suggesting an urgent need for exploring a new regulator of redox homeostasis in I/R hearts. Here, using heart-specific transgenic (TG) and knockdown (KD) mouse models, tumor susceptibility gene 101 (Tsg101) is defined as a novel cardiac-protector against I/R-triggered oxidative stress. RNA sequencing and bioinformatics data surprisingly reveal that most upregulated genes in Tsg101-TG hearts are transcribed by Nrf2. Accordingly, pharmacological inhibition of Nrf2 offsets Tsg101-elicited cardio-protection. Mechanistically, Tsg101 interacts with SQSTM1/p62 through its PRR domain, and promotes p62 aggregation, leading to recruitment of Keap1 for degradation by autophagosomes and release of Nrf2 to the nucleus. Furthermore, knockout of p62 abrogates Tsg101-induced cardio-protective effects during I/R. Hence, our findings uncover a previously unrecognized role of Tsg101 in the regulation of p62/Keap1/Nrf2 signaling cascades and provide a new strategy for the treatment of ischemic heart disease.

3.
Cells ; 9(1)2020 Jan 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31947892

RESUMO

Macrophages are critical for regulation of inflammatory response during endotoxemia and septic shock. However, the mediators underlying their regulatory function remain obscure. Growth differentiation factor 3 (GDF3), a member of transforming growth factor beta (TGF-ß) superfamily, has been implicated in inflammatory response. Nonetheless, the role of GDF3 in macrophage-regulated endotoxemia/sepsis is unknown. Here, we show that serum GDF3 levels in septic patients are elevated and strongly correlate with severity of sepsis and 28-day mortality. Interestingly, macrophages treated with recombinant GDF3 protein (rGDF3) exhibit greatly reduced production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, comparing to controls upon endotoxin challenge. Moreover, acute administration of rGDF3 to endotoxin-treated mice suppresses macrophage infiltration to the heart, attenuates systemic and cardiac inflammation with less pro-inflammatory macrophages (M1) and more anti-inflammatory macrophages (M2), as well as prolongs mouse survival. Mechanistically, GDF3 is able to activate Smad2/Smad3 phosphorylation, and consequently inhibits the expression of nod-like receptor protein-3 (NLRP3) in macrophages. Accordingly, blockade of Smad2/Smad3 phosphorylation with SB431542 significantly offsets rGDF3-mediated anti-inflammatory effects. Taken together, this study uncovers that GDF3, as a novel sepsis-associated factor, may have a dual role in the pathophysiology of sepsis. Acute administration of rGDF3 into endotoxic shock mice could increase survival outcome and improve cardiac function through anti-inflammatory response by suppression of M1 macrophage phenotype. However, constitutive high levels of GDF3 in human sepsis patients are associated with lethality, suggesting that GDF3 may promote macrophage polarization toward M2 phenotype which could lead to immunosuppression.

4.
J Biol Chem ; 294(48): 18057-18068, 2019 Nov 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31619520

RESUMO

Cardiac mitochondrial damage and subsequent inflammation are hallmarks of endotoxin-induced myocardial depression. Activation of the Parkin/PTEN-induced kinase 1 (PINK1) pathway has been shown to promote autophagy of damaged mitochondria (mitophagy) and to protect from endotoxin-induced cardiac dysfunction. Tumor susceptibility gene 101 (TSG101) is a key member of the endosomal recycling complexes required for transport, which may affect autophagic flux. In this study, we investigated whether TSG101 regulates mitophagy and influences the outcomes of endotoxin-induced myocardial dysfunction. TSG101 transgenic and knockdown mice underwent endotoxin/lipopolysaccharide treatment (10 µg/g) and were assessed for survival, cardiac function, systemic/local inflammation, and activity of mitophagy mediators in the heart. Upon endotoxin challenge and compared with WT mice, TSG101 transgenic mice exhibited increased survival, preserved cardiac contractile function, reduced inflammation, and enhanced mitophagy activation in the heart. By contrast, TSG101 knockdown mice displayed opposite phenotypes during endotoxemia. Mechanistically, both coimmunoprecipitation assays and coimmunofluorescence staining revealed that TSG101 directly binds to Parkin in the cytosol of myocytes and facilitates translocation of Parkin from the cytosol to the mitochondria. Our results indicate that TSG101 elevation could protect against endotoxin-triggered myocardial injury by promoting Parkin-induced mitophagy.

5.
J Transl Med ; 17(1): 279, 2019 08 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31438970

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Spaceflight or microgravity conditions cause myocardial atrophy and dysfunction, contributing to post-flight orthostatic intolerance. However, the underlying mechanisms remain incompletely understood and preventive approaches are limited. This study investigated whether and how losartan, a blocker of angiotensin-II receptor, preserved cardiomyocyte size and prevented myocardial dysfunction during microgravity. METHOD: Adult male mice were suspended with their tails to simulate microgravity. Echocardiography was performed to assess myocardial function. Heart weight and cardiomyocyte size were measured. NADPH oxidase activation was determined by analyzing membrane translocation of its cytosolic subunits including p47phox, p67phox and Rac1. Heart tissues were also assayed for oxidative stress, p47phox phosphorylation (Ser345), MuRF1 protein levels and angiotensin-II production. RESULTS: Tail-suspension for 28 days increased angiotensin-II production in hearts, decreased cardiomyocyte size and heart weight, and induced myocardial dysfunction. Administration of losartan preserved cardiomyocyte size and heart weight, and prevented myocardial dysfunction in tail-suspended mice. These cardioprotective effects of losartan were associated with inhibition of p47phox phosphorylation (Ser345), NADPH oxidase and oxidative stress in tail-suspended mouse hearts. Additionally, the NADPH oxidase inhibitor, apocynin, also reduced oxidative stress, preserved cardiomyocyte size and heart weight, and improved myocardial function in tail-suspended mice. Furthermore, losartan but not apocynin attenuated tail-suspension-induced up-regulation of MuRF1 protein in mouse hearts. CONCLUSIONS: Administration of losartan preserves cardiomyocyte size and prevents myocardial dysfunction under microgravity by blocking p47phox phosphorylation and NADPH oxidase activation, and by inhibiting MuRF1 expression. Thus, losartan may be a useful drug to prevent microgravity-induced myocardial abnormalities.

6.
Clin Sci (Lond) ; 133(13): 1505-1521, 2019 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31266854

RESUMO

Doxorubicin (DOX) is widely used as a first-line chemotherapeutic drug for various malignancies. However, DOX causes severe cardiotoxicity, which limits its clinical uses. Oxidative stress is one of major contributors to DOX-induced cardiotoxicity. While autophagic flux serves as an important defense mechanism against oxidative stress in cardiomyocytes, recent studies have demonstrated that DOX induces the blockage of autophagic flux, which contributes to DOX cardiotoxicity. The present study investigated whether nicotinamide riboside (NR), a precursor of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD)+, prevents DOX cardiotoxicity by improving autophagic flux. We report that administration of NR elevated NAD+ levels, and reduced cardiac injury and myocardial dysfunction in DOX-injected mice. These protective effects of NR were recapitulated in cultured cardiomyocytes upon DOX treatment. Mechanistically, NR prevented the blockage of autophagic flux, accumulation of autolysosomes, and oxidative stress in DOX-treated cardiomyocytes, the effects of which were associated with restoration of lysosomal acidification. Furthermore, inhibition of lysosomal acidification or SIRT1 abrogated these protective effects of NR during DOX-induced cardiotoxicity. Collectively, our study shows that NR enhances autolysosome clearance via the NAD+/SIRT1 signaling, thereby preventing DOX-triggered cardiotoxicity.

7.
J Biol Chem ; 294(27): 10438-10448, 2019 07 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31118273

RESUMO

The initiation and development of diabetes are mainly ascribed to the loss of functional ß-cells. Therapies designed to regenerate ß-cells provide great potential for controlling glucose levels and thereby preventing the devastating complications associated with diabetes. This requires detailed knowledge of the molecular events and underlying mechanisms in this disorder. Here, we report that expression of microRNA-223 (miR-223) is up-regulated in islets from diabetic mice and humans, as well as in murine Min6 ß-cells exposed to tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) or high glucose. Interestingly, miR-223 knockout (KO) mice exhibit impaired glucose tolerance and insulin resistance. Further analysis reveals that miR-223 deficiency dramatically suppresses ß-cell proliferation and insulin secretion. Mechanistically, using luciferase reporter gene assays, histological analysis, and immunoblotting, we demonstrate that miR-223 inhibits both forkhead box O1 (FOXO1) and SRY-box 6 (SOX6) signaling, a unique bipartite mechanism that modulates expression of several ß-cell markers (pancreatic and duodenal homeobox 1 (PDX1), NK6 homeobox 1 (NKX6.1), and urocortin 3 (UCN3)) and cell cycle-related genes (cyclin D1, cyclin E1, and cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor P27 (P27)). Importantly, miR-223 overexpression in ß-cells could promote ß-cell proliferation and improve ß-cell function. Taken together, our results suggest that miR-223 is a critical factor for maintaining functional ß-cell mass and adaptation during metabolic stress.

8.
JACC Basic Transl Sci ; 4(2): 188-199, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31061921

RESUMO

Cardiomyocyte-specific increases in phosphorylated Hsp20 (S16D-Hsp20) to levels similar to those observed in human failing hearts are associated with early fibrotic remodeling and depressed left ventricular function, symptoms which progress to heart failure and early death. The underlying mechanisms appear to involve translocation of phosphorylated Hsp20 to the nucleus and upregulation of interleukin (IL)-6, which subsequently activates cardiac fibroblasts in a paracrine fashion through transcription factor STAT3 signaling. Accordingly, treatment of S16D-Hsp20 mice with a rat anti-mouse IL-6 receptor monoclonal antibody (MR16-1) attenuated interstitial fibrosis and preserved cardiac function. These findings suggest that phosphorylated Hsp20 may be a potential therapeutic target in heart failure.

9.
Basic Res Cardiol ; 114(3): 17, 2019 03 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30874894

RESUMO

We and others have reported that calpain-1 was increased in myocardial mitochondria from various animal models of heart disease. This study investigated whether constitutive up-regulation of calpain-1 restricted to mitochondria induced myocardial injury and heart failure and, if so, whether these phenotypes could be rescued by selective inhibition of mitochondrial superoxide production. Transgenic mice with human CAPN1 up-regulation restricted to mitochondria in cardiomyocytes (Tg-mtCapn1/tTA) were generated and characterized with low and high over-expression of transgenic human CAPN1 restricted to mitochondria, respectively. Transgenic up-regulation of mitochondria-targeted CAPN1 dose-dependently induced cardiac cell death, adverse myocardial remodeling, heart failure, and early death in mice, the changes of which were associated with mitochondrial dysfunction and mitochondrial superoxide generation. Importantly, a daily injection of mitochondria-targeted superoxide dismutase mimetics mito-TEMPO for 1 month starting from age 2 months attenuated cardiac cell death, adverse myocardial remodeling and heart failure, and reduced mortality in Tg-mtCapn1/tTA mice. In contrast, administration of TEMPO did not achieve similar cardiac protection in transgenic mice. Furthermore, transgenic up-regulation of mitochondria-targeted CAPN1 induced a reduction of ATP5A1 protein and ATP synthase activity in hearts. In cultured cardiomyocytes, increased calpain-1 in mitochondria promoted mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP) opening and induced cell death, which were prevented by over-expression of ATP5A1, mito-TEMPO or cyclosporin A, an inhibitor of mPTP opening. In conclusion, this study has provided direct evidence demonstrating that increased mitochondrial calpain-1 is an important mechanism contributing to myocardial injury and heart failure by disrupting ATP synthase, and promoting mitochondrial superoxide generation and mPTP opening.


Assuntos
Calpaína/metabolismo , Cardiomiopatia Dilatada/etiologia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/etiologia , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Animais , Cardiomiopatia Dilatada/metabolismo , Morte Celular , Óxidos N-Cíclicos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Insuficiência Cardíaca/metabolismo , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Transgênicos , Proteínas de Transporte da Membrana Mitocondrial/metabolismo , ATPases Mitocondriais Próton-Translocadoras/metabolismo , Miócitos Cardíacos/metabolismo , Superóxidos/metabolismo
10.
FASEB J ; 33(6): 7451-7466, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30884248

RESUMO

Development of physiologic cardiac hypertrophy has primarily been ascribed to the IGF-1 and its receptor, IGF-1 receptor (IGF-1R), and subsequent activation of the protein kinase B (Akt) pathway. However, regulation of endosome-mediated recycling and degradation of IGF-1R during physiologic hypertrophy has not been investigated. In a physiologic hypertrophy model of treadmill-exercised mice, we observed that levels of tumor susceptibility gene 101 (Tsg101), a key member of the endosomal sorting complex required for transport, were dramatically elevated in the heart compared with sedentary controls. To determine the role of Tsg101 on physiologic hypertrophy, we generated a transgenic (TG) mouse model with cardiac-specific overexpression of Tsg101. These TG mice exhibited a physiologic-like cardiac hypertrophy phenotype at 8 wk evidenced by: 1) the absence of cardiac fibrosis, 2) significant improvement of cardiac function, and 3) increased total and plasma membrane levels of IGF-1R and increased phosphorylation of Akt. Mechanistically, we identified that Tsg101 interacted with family-interacting protein 3 (FIP3) and IGF-1R, thereby stabilizing FIP3 and enhancing recycling of IGF-1R. In vitro, adenovirus-mediated overexpression of Tsg101 in neonatal rat cardiomyocytes resulted in cell hypertrophy, which was blocked by addition of monensin, an inhibitor of endosome-mediated recycling, and by small interfering RNA-mediated knockdown (KD) of FIP3. Furthermore, cardiac-specific KD of Tsg101 showed a significant reduction in levels of endosomal recycling compartment members (Rab11a and FIP3), IGF-1R, and Akt phosphorylation. Most interestingly, Tsg101-KD mice failed to develop cardiac hypertrophy after intense treadmill training. Taken together, our data identify Tsg101 as a novel positive regulator of physiologic cardiac hypertrophy through facilitating the FIP3-mediated endosomal recycling of IGF-1R.-Essandoh, K., Deng, S., Wang, X., Jiang, M., Mu, X., Peng, J., Li, Y., Peng, T., Wagner, K.-U., Rubinstein, J., Fan, G.-C. Tsg101 positively regulates physiologic-like cardiac hypertrophy through FIP3-mediated endosomal recycling of IGF-1R.

11.
Diabetologia ; 62(5): 860-872, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30778623

RESUMO

AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: The role of non-cardiomyocytes in diabetic cardiomyopathy has not been fully addressed. This study investigated whether endothelial cell calpain plays a role in myocardial endothelial injury and microvascular rarefaction in diabetes, thereby contributing to diabetic cardiomyopathy. METHODS: Endothelial cell-specific Capns1-knockout (KO) mice were generated. Conditions mimicking prediabetes and type 1 and type 2 diabetes were induced in these KO mice and their wild-type littermates. Myocardial function and coronary flow reserve were assessed by echocardiography. Histological analyses were performed to determine capillary density, cardiomyocyte size and fibrosis in the heart. Isolated aortas were assayed for neovascularisation. Cultured cardiac microvascular endothelial cells were stimulated with high palmitate. Angiogenesis and apoptosis were analysed. RESULTS: Endothelial cell-specific deletion of Capns1 disrupted calpain 1 and calpain 2 in endothelial cells, reduced cardiac fibrosis and hypertrophy, and alleviated myocardial dysfunction in mouse models of diabetes without significantly affecting systemic metabolic variables. These protective effects of calpain disruption in endothelial cells were associated with an increase in myocardial capillary density (wild-type vs Capns1-KO 3646.14 ± 423.51 vs 4708.7 ± 417.93 capillary number/high-power field in prediabetes, 2999.36 ± 854.77 vs 4579.22 ± 672.56 capillary number/high-power field in type 2 diabetes and 2364.87 ± 249.57 vs 3014.63 ± 215.46 capillary number/high-power field in type 1 diabetes) and coronary flow reserve. Ex vivo analysis of neovascularisation revealed more endothelial cell sprouts from aortic rings of prediabetic and diabetic Capns1-KO mice compared with their wild-type littermates. In cultured cardiac microvascular endothelial cells, inhibition of calpain improved angiogenesis and prevented apoptosis under metabolic stress. Mechanistically, deletion of Capns1 elevated the protein levels of ß-catenin in endothelial cells of Capns1-KO mice and constitutive activity of calpain 2 suppressed ß-catenin protein expression in cultured endothelial cells. Upregulation of ß-catenin promoted angiogenesis and inhibited apoptosis whereas knockdown of ß-catenin offset the protective effects of calpain inhibition in endothelial cells under metabolic stress. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: These results delineate a primary role of calpain in inducing cardiac endothelial cell injury and impairing neovascularisation via suppression of ß-catenin, thereby promoting diabetic cardiomyopathy, and indicate that calpain is a promising therapeutic target to prevent diabetic cardiac complications.


Assuntos
Calpaína/genética , Calpaína/fisiologia , Cardiomiopatias Diabéticas/metabolismo , Cardiomiopatias Diabéticas/terapia , Células Endoteliais/enzimologia , Neovascularização Patológica , Neovascularização Fisiológica , Animais , Apoptose , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Deleção de Genes , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Miocárdio/metabolismo , Miócitos Cardíacos/citologia , Miócitos Cardíacos/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , beta Catenina/metabolismo
12.
Arch Toxicol ; 93(4): 1051-1065, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30810770

RESUMO

We recently reported that doxorubicin decreased the expression of calpain-1/2, while inhibition of calpain activity promoted doxorubicin-induced cardiac injury in mice. In this study, we investigated whether and how elevation of calpain-2 could affect doxorubicin-triggered cardiac injury. Transgenic mice with inducible cardiomyocyte-specific expression of calpain-2 were generated. An acute cardiotoxicity was induced in both transgenic mice and their relevant wild-type littermates by injection of a single dose of doxorubicin (20 mg/kg) and cardiac injury was analyzed 5 days after doxorubicin injection. Cardiomyocyte-specific up-regulation of calpain-2 did not induce any adverse cardiac phenotypes under physiological conditions by age 3 months, but significantly reduced myocardial injury and improved myocardial function in doxorubicin-treated mice. Cardiac protection of calpain-2 up-regulation was also observed in a mouse model of chronic doxorubicin cardiotoxicity. Up-regulation of calpain-2 increased the protein levels of mitogen activated protein kinase phosphatase-1 (MKP-1) in cultured mouse cardiomyocytes and heart tissues. Over-expression of MKP-1 prevented, whereas knockdown of MKP-1 augmented doxorubicin-induced apoptosis in cultured cardiomyocytes. Moreover, knockdown of MKP-1 offset calpain-2-elicited protective effects against doxorubicin-induced injury in cultured cardiomyocytes. Mechanistically, up-regulation of calpain-2 reduced the protein levels of phosphatase and tensin homolog and consequently promoted Akt activation, leading to increased MKP-1 protein steady-state levels by inhibiting its degradation. Collectively, this study reveals a new role of calpain-2 in promoting MKP-1 expression via phosphatase and tensin homolog/Akt signaling. This study also suggests that calpain-2/MKP-1 signaling may represent new therapeutic targets for doxorubicin-induced cardiac injury.

13.
Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol ; 316(3): H543-H553, 2019 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30575436

RESUMO

Timely reperfusion is still the most effective approach to limit infarct size in humans. Yet, despite advances in care and reduction in door-to-balloon times, nearly 25% of patients develop heart failure postmyocardial infarction, with its attendant morbidity and mortality. We previously showed that cardioprotection results from a skin incision through the umbilicus in a murine model of myocardial infarction. In the present study, we show that an electrical stimulus or topical capsaicin applied to the skin in the same region induces significantly reduced infarct size in a murine model. We define this class of phenomena as nociceptor-induced conditioning (NIC) based on the peripheral nerve mechanism of initiation. We show that NIC is effective both as a preconditioning and postconditioning remote stimulus, reducing infarct size by 86% and 80%, respectively. NIC is induced via activation of skin C-fiber nerves. Interestingly, the skin region that activates NIC is limited to the anterior of the T9-T10 vertebral region of the abdomen. Cardioprotection after NIC requires the integrity of the spinal cord from the region of stimulation to the thoracic vertebral region of the origin of the cardiac nerves but does not require that the cord be intact in the cervical region. Thus, we show that NIC is a reflex and not a central nervous system-mediated effect. The mechanism involves bradykinin 2 receptor activity and activation of PKC, specifically, PKC-α. The similarity of the neuroanatomy and conservation of the effectors of cardioprotection supports that NIC may be translatable to humans as a nontraumatic and practical adjunct therapy against ischemic disease. NEW & NOTEWORTHY This study shows that an electrical stimulus to skin sensory nerves elicits a very powerful cardioprotection against myocardial infarction. This stimulus works by a neurogenic mechanism similar to that previously elucidated for remote cardioprotection of trauma. Nociceptor-induced conditioning is equally potent when applied before ischemia or at reperfusion and has great potential clinically.


Assuntos
Capsaicina/uso terapêutico , Cardiotônicos/uso terapêutico , Infarto do Miocárdio/tratamento farmacológico , Nociceptividade , Fármacos do Sistema Sensorial/uso terapêutico , Pele/inervação , Animais , Capsaicina/farmacologia , Cardiotônicos/farmacologia , Feminino , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Nervos Periféricos/efeitos dos fármacos , Nervos Periféricos/fisiologia , Proteína Quinase C/metabolismo , Receptor B2 da Bradicinina/metabolismo , Reflexo , Células Receptoras Sensoriais/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Receptoras Sensoriais/metabolismo , Fármacos do Sistema Sensorial/farmacologia
14.
Cell Rep ; 23(12): 3607-3620, 2018 06 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29925002

RESUMO

Exposure to cold temperature is well known to upregulate heat shock protein (Hsp) expression and recruit and/or activate brown adipose tissue and beige adipocytes in humans and animals. However, whether and how Hsps regulate adipocyte function for energy homeostatic responses is poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate a critical role of Hsp20 as a negative regulator of adipocyte function. Deletion of Hsp20 enhances non-shivering thermogenesis and suppresses inflammatory responses, leading to improvement of glucose and lipid metabolism under both chow diet and high-fat diet conditions. Mechanistically, Hsp20 controls adipocyte function by interacting with the subunit of the ubiquitin ligase complex, F-box only protein 4 (FBXO4), and regulating the ubiquitin-dependent degradation of peroxisome proliferation activated receptor gamma (PPARγ). Indeed, Hsp20 deficiency mimics and enhances the pharmacological effects of the PPARγ agonist rosiglitazone. Together, our findings suggest a role of Hsp20 in mediating adipocyte function by linking ß-adrenergic signaling to PPARγ activity.


Assuntos
Adipócitos/metabolismo , Proteínas F-Box/metabolismo , Proteínas de Choque Térmico HSP20/metabolismo , PPAR gama/metabolismo , Ubiquitinação , Adipócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Tecido Adiposo Branco/metabolismo , Adiposidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Temperatura Baixa , Metabolismo Energético/efeitos dos fármacos , Glucose/metabolismo , Proteínas de Choque Térmico HSP20/deficiência , Proteínas de Choque Térmico HSP20/genética , Inflamação/patologia , Resistência à Insulina , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Obesidade/patologia , Estabilidade Proteica/efeitos dos fármacos , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Rosiglitazona/farmacologia , Ubiquitinação/efeitos dos fármacos
15.
Free Radic Biol Med ; 123: 125-137, 2018 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29803807

RESUMO

AIMS: Sepsis-caused multiple organ failure remains the major cause of morbidity and mortality in intensive care units. Nicotinamide riboside (NR) is a precursor of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+), which is important in regulating oxidative stress. This study investigated whether administration of NR prevented oxidative stress and organ injury in sepsis. METHODS: Mouse sepsis models were induced by injection of lipopolysaccharides (LPS) or feces-injection-in-peritoneum. NR was given before sepsis onset. Cultured macrophages and endothelial cells were incubated with various agents. RESULTS: Administration of NR elevated the NAD+ levels, and elicited a reduction of oxidative stress, inflammation and caspase-3 activity in lung and heart tissues, which correlated with attenuation of pulmonary microvascular permeability and myocardial dysfunction, leading to less mortality in sepsis models. These protective effects of NR were associated with decreased levels of plasma high mobility group box-1 (HMGB1) in septic mice. Consistently, pre-treatment of macrophages with NR increased NAD+ content and reduced HMGB1 release upon LPS stimulation. NR also prevented reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and apoptosis in endothelial cells induced by a conditioned-medium collected from LPS-treated macrophages. Furthermore, inhibition of SIRT1 by EX527 offset the negative effects of NR on HMGB1 release in macrophages, and ROS and apoptosis in endothelial cells. CONCLUSIONS: Administration of NR prevents lung and heart injury, and improves the survival in sepsis, likely by inhibiting HMGB1 release and oxidative stress via the NAD+/SIRT1 signaling. Given NR has been used as a health supplement, it may be a useful agent to prevent organ injury in sepsis.


Assuntos
Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Insuficiência de Múltiplos Órgãos/prevenção & controle , Niacinamida/análogos & derivados , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Sepse/complicações , Animais , Proteína HMGB1/metabolismo , Lipopolissacarídeos/toxicidade , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Insuficiência de Múltiplos Órgãos/etiologia , Insuficiência de Múltiplos Órgãos/metabolismo , Niacinamida/administração & dosagem , Niacinamida/farmacologia , Sepse/induzido quimicamente
17.
Shock ; 49(4): 429-441, 2018 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28650928

RESUMO

Septic shock increases vascular permeability, leading to multiple organ failure including cardiac dysfunction, a major contributor to septic death. Podosome, an actin-based dynamic membrane structure, plays critical roles in extracellular matrix degradation and angiogenesis. However, whether podosome contributes to endothelial barrier dysfunction during septic shock remains unknown. In this study, we found that the endothelial hyperpermeability, stimulated by phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate and thrombin, was accompanied by increased formation of podosome clusters at the cell periphery, indicating a positive correlation between podosome clusters and endothelial leakage. Interestingly, we observed that circulating exosomes collected from septic mice were able to stimulate podosome cluster formation in cardiac endothelial cells, together with increased permeability in vitro/in vivo and cardiac dysfunction. Mechanistically, we identified that septic exosomes contained higher levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) than normal ones, which were effectively transported to endothelial cells (ECs). Depletion of ROS in septic exosomes significantly reduced their capacity for promoting podosome cluster formation and thereby dampened vascular leakage. Finally, we elucidated that podosome cluster-induced endothelial hyperpermeability was associated with fragmentation/depletion of zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1) at the cell periphery. Our results demonstrate that septic exosomes were enriched with high amounts of ROS, which can be transported to ECs, leading to the generation of podosome clusters in target ECs and thereby, causing ZO-1 relocation, vascular leakage, and cardiac dysfunction.


Assuntos
Exossomos/metabolismo , Podossomos/metabolismo , Sepse/metabolismo , Animais , Western Blotting , Permeabilidade Capilar/fisiologia , Células Endoteliais/metabolismo , L-Lactato Desidrogenase/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Microscopia de Fluorescência , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Proteína da Zônula de Oclusão-1/metabolismo
18.
Acta Pharmacol Sin ; 39(4): 514-533, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28858295

RESUMO

Gram-negative bacterium-released outer-membrane vesicles (OMVs) and Gram-positive bacterium-released membrane vesicles (MVs) share significant similarities with mammalian cell-derived MVs (eg, microvesicles and exosomes) in terms of structure and their biological activities. Recent studies have revealed that bacterial OMVs/MVs could (1) interact with immune cells to regulate inflammatory responses, (2) transport virulence factors (eg, enzymes, DNA and small RNAs) to host cells and result in cell injury, (3) enhance barrier function by stimulating the expression of tight junction proteins in intestinal epithelial cells, (4) upregulate the expression of endothelial cell adhesion molecules, and (5) serve as natural nanocarriers for immunogenic antigens, enzyme support and drug delivery. In addition, OMVs/MVs can enter the systemic circulation and induce a variety of immunological and metabolic responses. This review highlights the recent advances in the understanding of OMV/MV biogenesis and their compositional remodeling. In addition, interactions between OMVs/MVs and various types of mammalian cells (ie, immune cells, epithelial cells, and endothelial cells) and their pathological/preventive effects on infectious/inflammatory diseases are summarized. Finally, methods for engineering OMVs/MVs and their therapeutic potential are discussed.


Assuntos
Bactérias/metabolismo , Doenças Transmissíveis/fisiopatologia , Células Dendríticas/metabolismo , Vesículas Extracelulares/metabolismo , Inflamação/fisiopatologia , Fagócitos/metabolismo , Animais , Doenças Transmissíveis/terapia , Vesículas Extracelulares/química , Vesículas Extracelulares/imunologia , Vesículas Extracelulares/microbiologia , Humanos , Vacinas Acelulares/uso terapêutico
19.
Autophagy ; 14(1): 80-97, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29157081

RESUMO

HSPB6/Hsp20 (heat shock protein family B [small] member 6) has emerged as a novel cardioprotector against stress-induced injury. We identified a human mutant of HSPB6 (HSPB6S10F) exclusively present in dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) patients. Cardiac expression of this mutant in mouse hearts resulted in remodeling and dysfunction, which progressed to heart failure and early death. These detrimental effects were associated with reduced interaction of mutant HSPB6S10F with BECN1/Beclin 1, leading to BECN1 ubiquitination and its proteosomal degradation. As a result, autophagy flux was substantially inhibited and apoptosis was increased in HSPB6S10F-mutant hearts. In contrast, overexpression of wild-type HSPB6 (HSPB6 WT) not only increased BECN1 levels, but also competitively suppressed binding of BECN1 to BCL2, resulting in stimulated autophagy. Indeed, preinhibition of autophagy attenuated the cardioprotective effects of HSPB6 WT. Taken together, these findings reveal a new regulatory mechanism of HSPB6 in cell survival through its interaction with BECN1. Furthermore, Ser10 appears to be crucial for the protective effects of HSPB6 and transversion of this amino acid to Phe contributes to cardiomyopathy.


Assuntos
Autofagia , Proteína Beclina-1/metabolismo , Cardiomiopatia Dilatada , Proteínas de Choque Térmico HSP20/genética , Proteínas de Choque Térmico HSP20/metabolismo , Miócitos Cardíacos/metabolismo , Animais , Apoptose , Cardiomiopatia Dilatada/genética , Cardiomiopatia Dilatada/patologia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/genética , Insuficiência Cardíaca/patologia , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos Transgênicos , Mutação , Miócitos Cardíacos/patologia , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Ubiquitinação
20.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 998: 113-138, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28936736

RESUMO

Diabetic subjects are at risk of developing cardiovascular disease, which accounts for 60-80% of diabetes-related mortality. Atherosclerosis is still considered as a leading cause of heart failure in diabetic patients, but it could also be an intrinsic and long-term effect of contractile cardiac cells malfunction, known as diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM). Pathologically, this cardiac dysfunction is manifested by inflammation, apoptosis, fibrosis, hypertrophy and altered cardiomyocytes metabolism. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms of DCM pathophysiology are not clearly understood. Recent and several studies have suggested that exosomes are contributed to the regulation of cell-to-cell communication. Therefore, their in-depth investigation can interpret the complex pathophysiology of DCM. Structurally, exosomes are membrane-bounded vesicles (10-200 nm in diameter), which are actively released from all types of cells and detected in all biological fluids. They carry a wide array of bioactive molecules, including mRNAs, none-coding RNAs (e.g., microRNAs, lncRNAs, circRNAs, etc), proteins and lipids. Importantly, the abundance and nature of loaded molecules inside exosomes fluctuate with cell types and pathological conditions. This chapter summarizes currently available studies on the exosomes' role in the regulation of diabetic cardiomyopathy. Specifically, the advances on the pathological effects of exosomes in diabetic cardiomyopathy as well as the therapeutic potentials and perspectives are also discussed.


Assuntos
Cardiomiopatias Diabéticas/metabolismo , Exossomos/metabolismo , Miocárdio/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Animais , Cardiomiopatias Diabéticas/genética , Cardiomiopatias Diabéticas/patologia , Exossomos/genética , Exossomos/patologia , Humanos , Miocárdio/patologia
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