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1.
Front Immunol ; 13: 871769, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35558087

RESUMO

Purpose: To dissect the tumor ecosystem following immune checkpoint blockades (ICBs) in intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC) at a single-cell level. Methods: Single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq) data of 10 ICC patients for the ICB clinical trial were extracted from GSE125449 and systematically reanalyzed. Bulk RNA-seq data of 255 ICC patients were analyzed. Infiltration levels of SPP1+CD68+ tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) were examined by dual immunofluorescence (IF) staining in 264 resected ICC samples. The correlation between SPP1+ TAMs and clinicopathological features as well as their prognostic significance was evaluated. Results: Among the 10 patients, five received biopsy at baseline, and others were biopsied at different timings following ICBs. Single-cell transcriptomes for 5,931 cells were obtained. A tighter cellular communication network was observed in ICB-treated ICC. We found a newly emerging VEGF signaling mediated by PGF-VEGFR1 between cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) and endothelial cells in ICC following ICBs. SPP1 expression was dramatically upregulated, and SPP1+ TAM gene signatures were enriched in TAMs receiving ICB therapy. We also identified SPP1+ TAMs as an independent adverse prognostic indicator for survival in ICC. Conclusion: Our analyses provide an overview of the altered tumor ecosystem in ICC treated with ICBs and highlight the potential role of targeting CAFs and SPP1+TAMs in developing a more rational checkpoint blockade-based therapy for ICC.

2.
Natl Sci Rev ; 9(4): nwab225, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35530436

RESUMO

The microscopic understanding of high-temperature superconductivity in cuprates has been hindered by the apparent complexity of crystal structures in these materials. We used scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy to study the electron-doped copper oxide compound Sr1- x Nd x CuO2, which has only bare cations separating the CuO2 planes and thus the simplest infinite-layer structure of all cuprate superconductors. Tunneling conductance spectra of the major CuO2 planes in the superconducting state revealed direct evidence for a nodeless pairing gap, regardless of variation of its magnitude with the local doping of trivalent neodymium. Furthermore, three distinct bosonic modes are observed as multiple peak-dip-hump features outside the superconducting gaps and their respective energies depend little on the spatially varying gaps. As well as the bosonic modes, with energies identical to those of the external, bending and stretching phonons of copper oxides, our findings reveal the origin of the bosonic modes in lattice vibrations rather than spin excitations.

3.
Ann Transl Med ; 10(7): 394, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35530933

RESUMO

Background: Characterized by spindle cell composition in hepatocellular carcinoma tumor, sarcomatoid hepatocellular carcinoma (SHC) is a rare malignant with poor prognosis. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the clinical and pathological features of SHC and establish a nomogram that can predict long-term outcomes of the disease. Methods: We retrospectively analyzed 63 patients who were diagnosed with SHC between October 2007 and November 2016 and used immunohistochemistry (IHC) to assessed various markers in liver samples. The clinical data and the histological and pathological findings were collected and used to build a nomogram to predict survival. Results: The median overall survival (OS) and the recurrence-free survival (RFS) in SHC were 23.2 and 8.4 months, respectively. High expression levels of tyrosine-protein kinase Met (17/63, 27.0%) were associated with poorer RFS (P=0.040). A panel of markers, consisting heat-shock protein 70 (HSP70), glutamine synthetase (GS), and glypican-3 (GPC3), merged as an independent risk factor for treatment outcomes. The nomogram, which including this panel of markers, predicted OS times with a concordance-index (C-index) score of 0.758 (95% CI: 0.672-0.843) in the training set and 0.832 (95% CI: 0.712-0.952) in the validation set. The use of the nomogram showed marked improvements in the prediction of patient outcomes compared with conventional staging systems (P<0.05). Conclusions: Diagnosis of SHC is rare and has a relatively poor prognosis. A panel of markers HSP70, GS and GPC3 served as an independent prognostic factor for SHC.

4.
Int J Biol Sci ; 18(6): 2249-2260, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35414782

RESUMO

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a major cause of cancer-related death worldwide. Although it has been known that hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) play critical roles in the development and progression of HCC, the molecular mechanism underlying crosstalk between HSCs and cancer cells still remains unclear. Here, we investigated the interactions between HSCs and cancer cells through an indirect co-culture system. The expressions of cellular and exosomal miR-148a-3p were evaluated by quantitative real-time PCR. Cell counting kit-8 was used for evaluating cell growth in vitro. Cell migration and invasion ability were evaluated by wound-healing and Transwell assays. Western blot, quantitative real-time PCR and Luciferase reporter assay were performed to determine the target gene of miR-148a-3p. A xenograft liver cancer model was established to study the function of exosomal miR-148a-3p in vivo. We found that miR-148a-3p was downregulated in co-cultured HSCs and overexpression of miR-148a-3p in HSCs impaired the proliferation and invasiveness of HCC both in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, further study showed that the miR-148a-3p was also downexpressed in HSCs-derived exosomes, and increased HSCs-derived exosomal miR-148a-3p suppressed HCC tumorigenesis through ITGA5/PI3K/Akt pathway. In conclusion, our study demonstrated that exosome-depleted miR-148a-3p derived from activated HSCs accelerates HCC progression through ITGA5/PI3K/Akt axis.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular , Exossomos , Neoplasias Hepáticas , MicroRNAs , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/genética , Exossomos/genética , Exossomos/metabolismo , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Células Estreladas do Fígado/metabolismo , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/metabolismo , MicroRNAs/genética , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/genética , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo
5.
Molecules ; 27(8)2022 Apr 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35458619

RESUMO

Tumor penetration and the accumulation of nanomedicines are crucial challenges in solid tumor therapy. By taking advantage of the MSC tumor-tropic property, we developed a mesenchymal stem cell (MSC)-based drug delivery system in which paclitaxel (PTX)-encapsulating hyaluronic acid-poly (D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) polymeric micelles (PTX/HA-PLGA micelles) were loaded for glioma therapy. The results indicated that CD44 overexpressed on the surface of both MSCs and tumor cells not only improved PTX/HA-PLGA micelle loading in MSCs, but also promoted the drug transfer between MSCs and adjacent cancer cells. It was hypothesized that CD44-mediated transcytosis played a crucial role and allowed deep glioma penetration depending on sequential intra-intercellular delivery via endocytosis-exocytosis. MSC-micelles were able to infiltrate from normal brain parenchyma towards contralateral tumors and led to the eradication of glioma. The survival of orthotopic glioma-bearing rats was significantly extended. In conclusion, the MSC-based delivery of HA-PLGA micelles is a potential strategy for tumor-targeting drug delivery.


Assuntos
Glioma , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Dioxanos , Portadores de Fármacos/uso terapêutico , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos/métodos , Glioma/tratamento farmacológico , Ácido Hialurônico/uso terapêutico , Micelas , Paclitaxel , Polímeros/uso terapêutico , Ratos
6.
Cell Death Dis ; 13(4): 331, 2022 Apr 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35411000

RESUMO

As the first rate-limiting enzyme in fatty acid oxidation (FAO), CPT1 plays a significant role in metabolic adaptation in cancer pathogenesis. FAO provides an alternative energy supply for cancer cells and is required for cancer cell survival. Given the high proliferation rate of cancer cells, nucleotide synthesis gains prominence in rapidly proliferating cells. In the present study, we found that CPT1A is a determining factor for the abnormal activation of FAO in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) cells. CPT1A is highly expressed in NPC cells and biopsies. CPT1A dramatically affects the malignant phenotypes in NPC, including proliferation, anchorage-independent growth, and tumor formation ability in nude mice. Moreover, an increased level of CPT1A promotes core metabolic pathways to generate ATP, inducing equivalents and the main precursors for nucleotide biosynthesis. Knockdown of CPT1A markedly lowers the fraction of 13C-palmitate-derived carbons into pyrimidine. Periodic activation of CPT1A increases the content of nucleoside metabolic intermediates promoting cell cycle progression in NPC cells. Targeting CPT1A-mediated FAO hinders the cell cycle G1/S transition. Our work verified that CPT1A links FAO to cell cycle progression in NPC cellular proliferation, which supplements additional experimental evidence for developing a therapeutic mechanism based on manipulating lipid metabolism.


Assuntos
Carnitina O-Palmitoiltransferase , Neoplasias Nasofaríngeas , Animais , Carnitina O-Palmitoiltransferase/genética , Carnitina O-Palmitoiltransferase/metabolismo , Proliferação de Células , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/fisiologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Nus , Carcinoma Nasofaríngeo/genética , Carcinoma Nasofaríngeo/metabolismo , Neoplasias Nasofaríngeas/genética , Neoplasias Nasofaríngeas/metabolismo , Nucleosídeos/metabolismo , Nucleotídeos/metabolismo , Oxirredução
7.
Clin Transl Med ; 12(4): e794, 2022 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35384345

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a prevalent malignancy with poor prognosis. As a cell adhesion molecule, poliovirus receptor (PVR/CD155) is abnormally overexpressed in tumour cells, and related to tumour proliferation and invasion. However, the potential role and mechanism of CD155 have not yet been elucidated in HCC. METHODS: Immunohistochemistry, RT-PCR and Western blot assays were used to determine CD155 expression in HCC cell lines and tissues. Cell Counting Kit-8 and colony formation assays were used to examine cell proliferation. Transwell and wound healing assays were used to evaluate cell migration and invasion. Cell apoptosis and cycle distribution were assessed by flow cytometry. Cox regression and Kaplan-Meier analyses were performed to explore the clinical significance of CD155. The role of CD155 in vivo was evaluated by establishing liver orthotropic xenograft mice model. RNA sequencing, bioinformatics analysis and co-immunoprecipitation assay were used to explore the downstream signalling pathway of CD155. RESULTS: CD155 was upregulated in HCC tissues and represented a promising prognostic indicator for HCC patients (n = 189) undergoing curative resection. High CD155 expression enhanced cell proliferation, migration and invasion, and contributed to cell survival in HCC. CD155 overexpression also induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition in HCC cells. CD155 function in HCC involved SRC/p38 MAPK signalling pathway. CD155 interacted with SRC homology-2 domain of SRC and promoted SRC activation, further inhibiting the downstream p38 MAPK signalling pathway in HCC. CONCLUSIONS: CD155 promotes HCC progression via the SRC/p38 MAPK signalling pathway. CD155 may represent a predictor for poor postsurgery prognosis in HCC patients.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular , Neoplasias Hepáticas , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases , Receptores Virais , Animais , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/genética , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/metabolismo , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/patologia , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/genética , Neoplasias Hepáticas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Hepáticas/patologia , Camundongos , Prognóstico , Proteínas Quinases p38 Ativadas por Mitógeno/genética
8.
Biomark Res ; 10(1): 25, 2022 Apr 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35468812

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Kinase suppressor of Ras 2 (KSR2) is a regulator of MAPK signaling that is overactivated in most hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). We sought to determine the role of KSR2 in HCC pathogenesis. METHODS: We tested the level of KSR2 in HCC tissues and cell lines by tissue microarray, qPCR, and western blotting. Functionally, we determined the effects of KSR2 on the proliferation, migration, and invasion of HCC cells through colony formation assays, scratch assays, transwell migration assays, and xenograft tumor models. Co-immunoprecipitation (co-IP) experiments were used to assess the interaction of phospho-serine binding protein 14-3-3ζ and KSR2, and the effects of this interaction on growth and proliferation of human HCC cells were tested by co-overexpression and knockdown experiments. Additionally, we used flow cytometry to examine whether the KSR2 and 14-3-3ζ interaction conveys HCC resistance to sorafenib. RESULTS: KSR2 was significantly upregulated in HCC tissues and cell lines, and high KSR2 expression associated with poor prognosis in HCC patients. KSR2 knockdown significantly suppressed HCC cell proliferation, migration, and invasion in vitro and in vivo. Mechanistically, co-IP experiments identified that 14-3-3ζ complexed with KSR2, and elevated 14-3-3ζ increased KSR2 protein levels in HCC cells. Importantly, Kaplan-Meier survival analysis showed that patients with both high KSR2 and high 14-3-3ζ expression levels had the shortest survival times and poorest prognoses. Interestingly, HCC cells overexpressing both KSR2 and 14-3-3ζ, rather than either protein alone, showed hyperactivated MAPK signaling and resistance to sorafenib. CONCLUSIONS: Our results provide new insights into the pro-tumorigenic role of KSR2 and its regulation of the MAPK pathway in HCC. The KSR2-14-3-3ζ interaction may be a therapeutic target to enhance the sorafenib sensitivity of HCC.

10.
Cancer Discov ; 2022 Apr 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35412588

RESUMO

The overall response rate for anti-PD-1 therapy remains modest in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). We found that a combination of interferon alpha (IFN-a) and anti-PD-1-based immunotherapy resulted in enhanced antitumor activity in unresectable HCC patients. In both immunocompetent orthotopic and spontaneous HCC models, IFN-a therapy synergized with anti-PD-1 and the combination treatment led to significant enrichment of cytotoxic CD27+ CD8+ T cells. Mechanistically, IFN-a suppressed HIF1a signaling by inhibiting FosB transcription in HCC cells, resulting in reduced glucose consumption capacity and consequentially establishing the high-glucose microenvironment that fostered transcription of the T cell costimulatory molecule Cd27 via mTOR-FOXM1 signaling in infiltrating CD8+ T cells. Together, these data reveal that IFN-a reprograms glucose metabolism within HCC tumor microenvironment, thereby liberating T cell cytotoxic capacities and potentiating the PD-1 blockade-induced immune response. Our findings suggest that IFN-a and anti-PD-1 cotreatment is an effective novel combination strategy for HCC patients.

11.
Front Immunol ; 13: 847263, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35371059

RESUMO

Several studies have demonstrated that the T-cell receptor (TCR) repertoire is associated with prognosis and immune therapy response in several types of cancer. However, the comprehensive features of TCR repertoire in tumor-infiltrating and circulating T cells, as well as its clinical significance of diagnosis in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients, are still unknown. In this study, we perform paired tumor/peritumoral tissues and peripheral blood samples from 58 patients with HCC and sequenced them with high-throughput TCR to comprehensively analyze the characteristics of TCR and the clinical significance of peripheral TCR sequence. By exploring the abundance and diversity of TCR repertoires, we observe that there was a significantly higher TCR diversity in peripheral blood than in tumoral and peritumoral tissues, while tumoral and peritumoral tissues showed similar TCR diversity. A substantial difference in the usage frequencies of several Vß, Jß genes, and TCRß VJ pairings was found among three types of tissues. Moreover, we reveal that HCC patients have a unique profile of TCR repertoire in peripheral blood in contrast to healthy individuals. We further establish an HCC diagnostic model based on TCRß VJ pairing usage in peripheral blood, which yields a best-fit area under the curve (AUC) of 0.9746 ± 0.0481 (sensitivity = 0.9675 ± 0.0603, specificity = 0.9998 ± 0.0007, average of 100 repeats) in the test set. Our study describes the characteristics of tissue infiltration and circulating T-cell bank in patients with HCC and shows the potential of using circulating TCR sequence as a biomarker for the non-invasive diagnosis of patients with HCC.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular , Neoplasias Hepáticas , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/genética , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/genética , Prognóstico , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos T , Linfócitos T
12.
Front Immunol ; 13: 831101, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35371079

RESUMO

Background: Inhibitory immune checkpoint proteins promote tumor immune escape and are associated with inferior patient outcome. However, the biological functions and regulatory roles of one of its members, HHLA2, in the tumor immune microenvironment have not been explored. Methods: RandomForest analyses (371 cases), qRT-PCR (15 cases), and immunohistochemical staining (189 cases) were used to validate the prognostic value of HHLA2 in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients. Bioinformatic analyses were further performed to explore the biological functions and potential signaling pathways affected by HHLA2. Moreover, ESTIMATE, single sample gene set enrichment analysis, CIBERSORT, TIMER, and other deconvolution methods were used to analyze the composition and infiltration level of immune cells. Multiplex immunofluorescence assays were employed to validate the fractions of suppressive immune cells, and HHLA2-related molecular alterations were investigated. Finally, the clinical response to chemotherapy and immune checkpoint blockade was predicted by TIDE, Submap, and several other in silico analyses. Results: RandomForest analysis revealed that HHLA2 was the most important inhibitory immune checkpoint associated with HCC patient prognosis (relative importance = 1). Our HCC cohorts further revealed that high HHLA2 expression was an independent prognostic biomarker of shorter overall survival (P<0.01) and time to recurrence (P<0.001) for HCC patients. Bioinformatics experiments revealed that HHLA2 may accelerate the cell cycle of cancer cells. Additionally, we found that high expression of HHLA2 was associated with immune infiltrates, including some immunosuppressive cells, cytokines, chemokines, and corresponding receptors, resulting in an immunosuppressive environment. Notably, HHLA2 expression was positively correlated with the infiltration of exhausted CD8+ T cells, which was validated by immunofluorescence. Genomic alteration analyses revealed that promoter hypermethylation of HHLA2 may be associated with its low expression. More importantly, patients with high HHLA2 expression may be more sensitive to chemotherapy and have better responses to immunotherapy. Conclusions: High expression of HHLA2 is an independent prognostic biomarker for HCC patients. It can activate the cell cycle and foster an immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment by enriching exhausted CD8+ T cells. Promoter hypermethylation might lead to low expression of HHLA2 in HCC. Thus, targeting HHLA2 may be a practical therapeutic strategy for HCC patients in the future.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular , Neoplasias Hepáticas , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/patologia , Humanos , Imunoglobulinas/genética , Neoplasias Hepáticas/patologia , Prognóstico , Microambiente Tumoral
13.
Hepatology ; 2022 Mar 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35243663

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: IL-10-producing regulatory B cells (IL-10+ B cells), a dominant regulatory B cell (Breg) subset, foster tumor progression. However, the mechanisms underlying their generation in HCC are poorly understood. Ten-eleven translocation-2 (TET2), a predominant epigenetic regulatory enzyme in B cells, regulates gene expression by catalyzing demethylation of 5-methylcytosine into 5-hydroxymethyl cytosine (5hmC). In this study, we investigated the role of TET2 in IL-10+ B cell generation in HCC and its prospects for clinical application. APPROACH AND RESULTS: TET2 activation in B cells triggered by oxidative stress from the HCC microenvironment promoted IL-10 expression, whereas adoptive transfer of Tet2-deficient B cells suppressed HCC progression. The aryl hydrocarbon receptor is required for TET2 to hydroxylate Il10. In addition, high levels of IL-10, TET2, and 5hmc in B cells indicate poor prognosis in patients with HCC. Moreover, we determined TET2 activity using 5hmc in B cells to evaluate the efficacy of anti-programmed death 1 (anti-PD-1) therapy. Notably, TET2 inhibition in B cells facilitates antitumor immunity to improve anti-PD-1 therapy for HCC. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings propose a TET2-dependent epigenetic intervention targeting IL-10+ B cell generation during HCC progression and identify the inhibition of TET2 activity as a promising combination therapy with immune checkpoint inhibitors for HCC.

14.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 1642, 2022 03 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35347134

RESUMO

Intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (iCCA) is a highly heterogeneous cancer with limited understanding of its classification and tumor microenvironment. Here, by performing single-cell RNA sequencing on 144,878 cells from 14 pairs of iCCA tumors and non-tumor liver tissues, we find that S100P and SPP1 are two markers for iCCA perihilar large duct type (iCCAphl) and peripheral small duct type (iCCApps). S100P + SPP1- iCCAphl has significantly reduced levels of infiltrating CD4+ T cells, CD56+ NK cells, and increased CCL18+ macrophages and PD1+CD8+ T cells compared to S100P-SPP1 + iCCApps. The transcription factor CREB3L1 is identified to regulate the S100P expression and promote tumor cell invasion. S100P-SPP1 + iCCApps has significantly more SPP1+ macrophage infiltration, less aggressiveness and better survival than S100P + SPP1- iCCAphl. Moreover, S100P-SPP1 + iCCApps harbors tumor cells at different status of differentiation, such as ALB + hepatocyte differentiation and ID3+ stemness. Our study extends the understanding of the diversity of tumor cells in iCCA.


Assuntos
Neoplasias dos Ductos Biliares , Colangiocarcinoma , Neoplasias dos Ductos Biliares/genética , Ductos Biliares Intra-Hepáticos , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/metabolismo , Colangiocarcinoma/genética , Colangiocarcinoma/metabolismo , Humanos , Transcriptoma , Microambiente Tumoral/genética
15.
PLoS One ; 17(3): e0265094, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35263387

RESUMO

We have shown that respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) can spread hematogenously from infected airways of a pregnant woman to the developing fetal lungs in utero. This study sought to measure RSV replication, cytopathic effects, and protein expression in human lung organoids (HLOs) reproducing architecture and transcriptional profiles of human fetal lungs during the 1st trimester of gestation. HLOs derived from human pluripotent stem cells were microinjected after 50 or 100 days in culture with medium or recombinant RSV-A2 expressing the red fluorescent protein gene (rrRSV). Infection was monitored by fluorescent microscopy and PCR. Immunohistochemistry and proteomic analysis were performed. RSV infected HLOs in a dose- and time-dependent manner. RSV-infected HLOs increased expression of CC10 (Club cells), but had sparse FOXJ1 (ciliated cells). Disruption of F-actin cytoskeleton was consistent with proteomic data showing a significant increase in Rho GTPases proteins. RSV upregulated the transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) channel and, while ß2 adrenergic receptor (ß2AR) expression was decreased overall, its phosphorylated form increased. Our data suggest that prenatal RSV infection produces profound changes in fetal lungs' architecture and expression profiles and maybe an essential precursor of chronic airway dysfunction. expression profiles, and possibly be an important precursor of chronic airway dysfunction.


Assuntos
Pneumonia Viral , Infecções por Vírus Respiratório Sincicial , Vírus Sincicial Respiratório Humano , Feminino , Humanos , Pulmão/metabolismo , Organoides/metabolismo , Gravidez , Proteômica , Vírus Sincicial Respiratório Humano/fisiologia
16.
Cancer Cell Int ; 22(1): 128, 2022 Mar 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35305624

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: While the correlation between PD-L1 expression and KRAS mutation has been previously reported in other solid tumors such as non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), whether PD-L1 can be modulated by ERK signaling downstream of KRAS in intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (iCCA) and the underlying molecular regulatory mechanism remain unclear. METHODS: The expression of ERK, p-ERK, PD-L1 and autophagy markers following KRAS knockdown or Ras/Raf/MEK/ERK signaling inhibitors treatment was examined in two human iCCA cell lines (HuCCT1 and RBE) using western blotting and immunofluorescence. Both pharmacological autophagy inhibitors and short-interfering RNA against ATG7 were applied to inhibit autophagy. The apoptosis rates of iCCA cell lines were detected by flow cytometry and CCK-8 after co-culturing with CD3/CD28-activated human CD8+ T lymphocytes. Immunohistochemistry was applied to detect the correlation of ERK, p-ERK and PD-L1 in 92 iCCA tissues. RESULTS: The present study demonstrated that the PD-L1 expression level was distinctly reduced in KRAS-mutated iCCA cell lines when ERK signaling was inhibited and ERK phosphorylation levels were lowered. The positive association between p-ERK and PD-L1 was also verified in 92 iCCA tissue samples. Moreover, ERK inhibition induced autophagy activation. Both inhibiting autophagy via autophagy inhibitors and genetically silencing the ATG7 expression partially reversed the reduced PD-L1 expression caused by ERK inhibition. In addition, ERK-mediated down-regulation of PD-L1 via autophagy pathways induced the apoptosis of iCCA cells when co-cultured with CD3/CD28-activated human CD8+ T lymphocytes in vitro. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that ERK signaling inhibition contributes to the reduction of PD-L1 expression through the autophagy pathway in iCCA. As a supplement to anti-PD-1/PD-L1 immunotherapy, ERK-targeted therapy may serve as a potentially novel treatment strategy for human KRAS-mutated iCCA.

17.
Ann Palliat Med ; 2022 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35272467

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the most frequent cause of death in patients on maintenance peritoneal dialysis (PD). This study aimed to identify the risk factors associated with cardiac complications and establish a multivariate logistic regression model for cardiac complications in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) requiring PD. METHODS: This retrospective study included 232 patients undergoing PD. Data of sociodemographic information, comorbidities, medication history, laboratory examination, and medical history were extracted from the medical records of patients with ESRD who underwent maintenance PD between January 2015 and June 2020. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to determine the independent risk factors. RESULTS: The mean age of the study participants was 51.29±13.17 years, with female: male ratio of 87:145. Multivariate logistic regression analysis indicated that lactate dehydrogenase (odds ratio, 1.002; 95% confidence interval, 1.001-1.004; P=0.004), albumin (odds ratio, 0.947; 95% confidence interval, 0.914-0.982; P=0.003), and left atrial diameter (odds ratio, 1.096; 95% confidence interval, 1.037-1.159; P=0.001) were independent risk factors associated with cardiac complications. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.78. CONCLUSIONS: We identified the risk factors of cardiac complications in patients with ESRD requiring PD, which may be clinically useful to assess patients in PD and start their early treatment, which can help improve their prognosis.

18.
Liver Int ; 2022 Mar 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35319165

RESUMO

Liver cancer is the fifth most common cancer and the second leading cause of malignant death in Asia, and Asia reports 72.5% of the world's cases in 2020. As the most common histological type, hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) accounts for the majority of incidence and mortality of liver cancer cases. This review presents the changing epidemiology of HCC in Asian countries in recent years. Globally, aged, male and Asian populations remain the group with the highest risk of HCC. Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) are still the leading risk factors of HCC with a slight decline in most Asian countries, which is mainly attributed to HBV vaccination of newborns, prevention of HCV horizontal transmission and treatment of chronic hepatitis. However, the prevalence of HCC caused by metabolic factors, including metabolic syndrome, obesity and non-alcoholic fatty liver diseases, is increasing rapidly in Asian countries, which may eventually become the major cause of HCC. Excessive alcohol consumption continues to be an important risk factor as the average consumption of alcohol is still growing. Hopefully, great effort has been made to better prevention and treatment of HCC in most Asian regions, which significantly prolongs the survival of HCC patients. Asian countries tend to use more aggressive intervention than European and American countries, but it remains unclear whether this preference is related to a better prognosis. In conclusion, HCC remains a major disease burden in Asia, and the management of HCC should be adjusted dynamically based on the changing epidemiology.

19.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 47(5): 1409-1414, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35343170

RESUMO

Baimai is a complex of structure and function with the characteristics of wide distribution, complex structure, and multi-dimensional functions. Baimai, consisting of the channels in brain, the internal hidden channels connecting the viscera, and the external channels linking the limbs, governs the sensory, motor, and information transmission functions of human. According to Tibetan medicine, Baimai functions via "Long"(Qi) which moves in Baimai. "Long" is rough, light, cold, tiny, hard, and dynamic. The dysfunction of Baimai is manifested as numbness, swelling and pain, stiffness, atrophy, contracture, disability, hyperactivity, etc. The clinical manifestations of Baimai disease are facial paralysis, limb numbness, hemiplegia, contracture and rigidity, pain, opistho-tonos, paralysis, unconsciousness, head tremor, aphasia and tongue stiffness, and other abnormalities in facial consciousness, limb movement, and tactile sensation. Baimai Ointment for external use is used for the treatment of Baimai disease. It is mainly composed of medicinals which are spicy and bitter, warm, soft, mild, heavy, moist, and stable, and thus it is effective for the rough, light, cold, tiny, hard, and dynamic "Long" of Baimai disease. In clinical practice, it is mainly used for musculoskeletal diseases, such as osteoarthritis, scapulohumeral periarthritis, cervical spondylosis, low back pain, myofascitis, and tenosynovitis, nervous system diseases, such as paralysis and shoulder-hand syndrome, and limb stiffness caused by stroke, spastic cerebral palsy, trigeminal neuralgia, and facial neuritis, and limb motor and sensory dysfunction caused by trauma. According to the main symptoms of Baimai disease such as stiffness, rigidity, contraction, numbness, sensory disturbance and pain, clinicians should apply the Baimai Ointment via the inunction treatment of Tibetan medicine and in combination with Huo'ermai therapy and physiotherapy.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Medicina Tradicional Tibetana , Edema , Humanos , Dor
20.
Hepatology ; 2022 Feb 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35106794

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Macrophages are prominent components of solid tumors and exhibit distinct functions in different tumor microenvironments. Exosomes are emerging as necessary mediators of the cross-talk between tumor cells and the microenvironment. However, the underlying mechanisms of exosomes involving into crosstalk between tumor cells and macrophages during disease progression of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC) have not been yet fully realized. APPROACH AND RESULTS: We found that the macrophages of ICC tumor tissues up-regulated the expression levels of immunosuppressive molecule programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1). Increased PD-L1+ macrophages in tumor tissues effectively suppressed T-cell immunity and correlated with poor survival rates in patients with ICC. High-throughput RNA-sequencing analysis that was performed to identify differential levels of microRNAs (miRNAs) between exosomes derived from ICC cells and primary human intrahepatic biliary epithelial cells revealed that miR-183-5p was increased in ICC cell-derived exosomes. Exosomal miR-183-5p inhibited phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) expression, to subsequently affect the elevations on both phosphorylated AKT and PD-L1 expression in macrophages. Furthermore, macrophages that treated with ICC cell-derived exosomes significantly suppressed T-cell immunity in vitro and contributed to the growth and progression of ICC in vivo, which were reversible through blockages on PD-L1 of these macrophages. Finally, clinical data showed that up-regulated levels of plasma exosomal miR-183-5p correlated with poor prognosis of patients with ICC after curative resection. CONCLUSIONS: Tumor-derived exosomal miR-183-5p up-regulates PD-L1-expressing macrophages to foster immune suppression and disease progression in ICC through the miR-183-5p/PTEN/AKT/PD-L1 pathway. Exosomal miR-183-5p is a potential predictive biomarker for ICC progression and a potential target for development of therapeutic strategies against immune tolerance feature of ICC.

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