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1.
Molecules ; 26(19)2021 Sep 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34641455

RESUMO

Chitin-binding hevein-like peptides (CB-HLPs) belong to a family of cysteine-rich peptides that play important roles in plant stress and defense mechanisms. CB-HLPs are ribosomally synthesized peptides that are known to be bioprocessed from the following two types of three-domain CB-HLP precursor architectures: cargo-carrying and non-cargo-carrying. Here, we report the identification and characterization of chenotides biosynthesized from the third type of precursors, which are cleavable hololectins of the quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa) family. Chenotides are 6-Cys-CB-HLPs of 29-31 amino acids, which have a third type of precursor architecture that encompasses a canonical chitin-binding domain that is involved in chitin binding and anti-fungal activities. Microbroth dilution assays and microscopic analyses showed that chenotides are effective against phyto-pathogenic fungi in the micromolar range. Structure determination revealed that chenotides are cystine knotted and highly compact, which could confer resistance against heat and proteolytic degradation. Importantly, chenotides are connected by a novel 18-residue Gly/Ala-rich linker that is a target for bioprocessing by cathepsin-like endopeptidases. Taken together, our findings reveal that chenotides are a new family of CB-HLPs from quinoa that are synthesized as a single multi-modular unit and bioprocessed to yield individual mature CB-HLPs. Importantly, such precursors constitute a new family of cleavable hololectins. This unusual feature could increase the biosynthetic efficiency of anti-fungal CB-HLPs, to provide an evolutionary advantage for plant survival and reproduction.

2.
Signal Transduct Target Ther ; 6(1): 342, 2021 09 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34531370

RESUMO

While some individuals infected by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) present mild-to-severe disease, many SARS-CoV-2-infected individuals are asymptomatic. We sought to identify the distinction of immune response between asymptomatic and moderate patients. We performed single-cell transcriptome and T-cell/B-cell receptor (TCR/BCR) sequencing in 37 longitudinal collected peripheral blood mononuclear cell samples from asymptomatic, moderate, and severe patients with healthy controls. Asymptomatic patients displayed increased CD56briCD16- natural killer (NK) cells and upregulation of interferon-gamma in effector CD4+ and CD8+ T cells and NK cells. They showed more robust TCR clonal expansion, especially in effector CD4+ T cells, but lack strong BCR clonal expansion compared to moderate patients. Moreover, asymptomatic patients have lower interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs) expression in general but large interpatient variability, whereas moderate patients showed various magnitude and temporal dynamics of the ISGs expression across multiple cell populations but lower than a patient with severe disease. Our data provide evidence of different immune signatures to SARS-CoV-2 in asymptomatic infections.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Portador Sadio/imunologia , Linfócitos/imunologia , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Análise de Célula Única , Transcriptoma/imunologia , Adolescente , Adulto , COVID-19/genética , COVID-19/imunologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos B/genética , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos B/imunologia , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos T/genética , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos T/imunologia , SARS-CoV-2/genética
3.
Nucleic Acids Res ; 49(18): 10630-10643, 2021 Oct 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34530450

RESUMO

Controlling proper RNA pool for nuclear export is important for accurate gene expression. ZFC3H1 is a key controller that not only facilitates nuclear exosomal degradation, but also retains its bound polyadenylated RNAs in the nucleus upon exosome inactivation. However, how ZFC3H1 retains RNAs and how its roles in RNA retention and degradation are related remain largely unclear. Here, we found that upon degradation inhibition, ZFC3H1 forms nuclear condensates to prevent RNA trafficking to nuclear speckles (NSs) where many RNAs gain export competence. Systematic mapping of ZFC3H1 revealed that it utilizes distinct domains for condensation and RNA degradation. Interestingly, ZFC3H1 condensation activity is required for preventing RNA trafficking to NSs, but not for RNA degradation. Considering that no apparent ZFC3H1 condensates are formed in normal cells, our study suggests that nuclear RNA degradation and retention are two independent mechanisms with different preference for controlling proper export RNA pool-degradation is preferred in normal cells, and condensation retention is activated upon degradation inhibition.

4.
Adv Drug Deliv Rev ; 178: 113964, 2021 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34499982

RESUMO

Traditional herbal medicine (THM), an ancient science, is a gift from nature. For thousands of years, it has helped humans fight diseases and protect life, health, and reproduction. Nanomedicine, a newer discipline has evolved from exploitation of the unique nanoscale morphology and is widely used in diagnosis, imaging, drug delivery, and other biomedical fields. Although THM and nanomedicine differ greatly in time span and discipline dimensions, they are closely related and are even evolving toward integration and convergence. This review begins with the history and latest research progress of THM and nanomedicine, expounding their respective developmental trajectory. It then discusses the overlapping connectivity and relevance of the two fields, including nanoaggregates generated in herbal medicine decoctions, the application of nanotechnology in the delivery and treatment of natural active ingredients, and the influence of physiological regulatory capability of THM on the in vivo fate of nanoparticles. Finally, future development trends, challenges, and research directions are discussed.

5.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(38)2021 Sep 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34531321

RESUMO

Natural spider silk with extraordinary mechanical properties is typically spun from more than one type of spidroin. Although the main components of various spider silks have been widely studied, little is known about the molecular role of the minor silk components in spidroin self-assembly and fiber formation. Here, we show that the minor component of spider eggcase silk, TuSp2, not only accelerates self-assembly but remarkably promotes molecular chain alignment of spidroins upon physical shearing. NMR structure of the repetitive domain of TuSp2 reveals that its dimeric structure with unique charged surface serves as a platform to recruit different domains of the main eggcase component TuSp1. Artificial fiber spun from the complex between TuSp1 and TuSp2 minispidroins exhibits considerably higher strength and Young's modulus than its native counterpart. These results create a framework for rationally designing silk biomaterials based on distinct roles of silk components.

6.
BMC Plant Biol ; 21(1): 384, 2021 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34416854

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: C. sinensis is an important economic crop with fluoride over-accumulation in its leaves, which poses a serious threat to human health due to its leaf consumption as tea. Recently, our study has indicated that cell wall proteins (CWPs) probably play a vital role in fluoride accumulation/detoxification in C. sinensis. However, there has been a lack in CWP identification and characterization up to now. This study is aimed to characterize cell wall proteome of C. sinensis leaves and to develop more CWPs related to stress response. A strategy of combined cell wall proteomics and N-glycoproteomics was employed to investigate CWPs. CWPs were extracted by sequential salt buffers, while N-glycoproteins were enriched by hydrophilic interaction chromatography method using C. sinensis leaves as a material. Afterwards all the proteins were subjected to UPLC-MS/MS analysis. RESULTS: A total of 501 CWPs and 195 CWPs were identified respectively by cell wall proteomics and N-glycoproteomics profiling with 118 CWPs in common. Notably, N-glycoproteomics is a feasible method for CWP identification, and it can enhance CWP coverage. Among identified CWPs, proteins acting on cell wall polysaccharides constitute the largest functional class, most of which might be involved in cell wall structure remodeling. The second largest functional class mainly encompass various proteases related to CWP turnover and maturation. Oxidoreductases represent the third largest functional class, most of which (especially Class III peroxidases) participate in defense response. As expected, identified CWPs are mainly related to plant cell wall formation and defense response. CONCLUSION: This was the first large-scale investigation of CWPs in C. sinensis through cell wall proteomics and N-glycoproteomics. Our results not only provide a database for further research on CWPs, but also an insight into cell wall formation and defense response in C. sinensis.


Assuntos
Camellia sinensis/química , Parede Celular/química , Fluoretos/análise , Glicoproteínas/análise , Folhas de Planta/química , Proteínas de Plantas/análise , China , Produtos Agrícolas/química , Proteômica
7.
Biomol NMR Assign ; 15(2): 475-477, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34436735

RESUMO

Spider silk is renowned for its excellent mechanical properties. Among six types of silk and one silk glue produced by different abdominal glands for various purposes, tubuliform (eggcase) silk is unique due to its high serine and low glycine content. Eggcase silk is spun from at least two spidroins, tubuliform spidroin 1 (TuSp1) and TuSp2. TuSp1 and TuSp2 were identified as the major and the minor components in tubuliform glands, respectively. TuSp2 consists of multiple repetitive (RP) domains with short terminal tails and shares very limited homology to all known spidroins. Here we report backbone and side chain resonance assignments of TuSp2-RP as a basis for structural and functional studies on eggcase silk formation.

8.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 16: 5317-5331, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34408412

RESUMO

Purpose: Typical hydrophobic amino acids (HAAs) are important motifs for self-assembling peptides (SAPs), but they lead to low water-solubility or compact packing of peptides, limiting their capacity for encapsulating hydrophobic drugs. As an alternative, we designed a peptide GQY based on atypical HAAs, which could encapsulate hydrophobic drugs more efficiently. Although hydrophobic general anesthetics (GAs) have been formulated as lipid emulsions, their lipid-free formulations have been pursued because of some side effects inherent to lipids. Using GAs as targets, potential application of GQY as a carrier for hydrophobic drugs was evaluated. Methods: Thioflavin-T (ThT) binding test, dynamic light scattering (DLS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were used to examine the self-assembling ability of GQY. Pyrene and 8-Anilino-1-naphthalenesulfonic acid (ANS) were used to confirm formation of hydrophobic domain in GQY nanoparticles. Using pyrene as a model, GQY's capacity to encapsulate hydrophobic drugs was evaluated. GAs including propofol, etomidate and ET26 were encapsulated by GQY. Loss of righting reflex (LORR) test was conducted to assess the anesthetic efficacy of these lipid-free formulations. Paw-licking test was used to evaluate pain-on-injection of propofol-GQY (PROP-GQY) formulation. Hemolytic and cytotoxicity assay were used to evaluate biocompatibility of GQY. Results: Stable nanoparticles containing plenty of hydrophobic cavities could be formed by GQY, which could encapsulate hydrophobic drugs at very high concentration and form stable suspensions. Propofol, etomidate and ET26 formulated by GQY showed anesthetic efficacy comparable to their currently available formulations. Unlike clinic lipid emulsion, PROP-GQY formulation did not cause pain-on-injection in rats. Neither obvious cytotoxicity nor hemolytic activity of GQY was observed. Conclusion: GQY could encapsulate GAs to obtain stable and effective formulations. As a lipid-free carrier, GQY exhibited considerable biocompatibility and other side benefits such as reducing pain-on-injection. More SAPs based on atypical HAAs could be designed as promising carriers for hydrophobic drugs.

9.
Drug Dev Res ; 2021 Jul 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34227151

RESUMO

Accumulating evidence suggests that developmental chemoresistance in cancers is closely associated with the dysregulation of circular RNA transcriptions. The objective of this study is to disclose the role of circ_0001667 and provide a potential functional mechanism in breast cancer. Quantitative real-time PCR was applied for the analysis of circ_0001667, microRNA-4458 (miR-4458) and nuclear receptor coactivator 3 (NCOA3) expression. In adriamycin (ADM)-resistant cell lines, we investigated cell proliferation using 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5 diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay and colony formation assay. Cell migration and cell invasion were determined by transwell assay. The protein levels of multi-drug resistance-1, matrix metalloproteinases-9, cleaved-caspase3, cleaved-caspase9 and NCOA3 were detected by western blot. ADM resistance was ascertained by IC50 value using MTT assay. Cell apoptosis was checked by flow cytometry assay. The putative relationship between miR-4458 and circ_0001667 and NCOA3 was validated by pull-down assay, dual-luciferase reporter assay or RNA Immunoprecipitation assay. Circ_0001667 knockdown inhibited MCF-7/ADM and MDA-MB-231/ADM cell proliferation, migration, invasion and ADM resistance. MiR-4458 was a target of circ_0001667, and its expression was decreased in ADM-resistant tumor tissues and cells. MiR-4458 inhibition reversed the effects of circ_0001667 knockdown. In depth, NCOA3 was a target of circ_0001667, and circ_0001667 knockdown weakened NCOA3 expression by releasing miR-4458. MCF-7/ADM and MDA-MB-231/ADM cell proliferation, migration, invasion, and ADM resistance inhibited by miR-4458 restoration were recovered by NCOA3 overexpression. Circ_0001667 knockdown also repressed tumor growth and ADM resistance in vivo. Circ_0001667 knockdown blocks cancer progression and attenuates ADM resistance by depleting NCOA3 via releasing miR-4458 in breast cancer.

10.
Int J Hyperthermia ; 38(1): 1069-1076, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34278927

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To retrospectively evaluate the efficacy and safety of computed tomography (CT)-guided microwave ablation (MWA) combined with percutaneous vertebroplasty (PVP) as a treatment for painful high thoracic vertebral metastases (T1-T4). MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this retrospective study, 23 adult patients (33 high thoracic vertebral metastases) with moderate to severe pain were treated with CT-guided MWA and PVP. The procedural effectiveness was evaluated using a Visual Analog Scale (VAS), daily morphine consumption, and the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) before and immediately after the procedure and during follow-up. RESULTS: Technical success was achieved in all patients. The mean pre-procedure VAS score and morphine doses were 6.7 ± 1.7 (5-10) and 105.2 ± 32.7 (30-150) mg, respectively. The mean VAS scores and daily morphine doses at 24 h and 1, 4, 12, and 24 weeks post-operatively were 3.2 ± 1.4 and 41.3 ± 9.6 mg; 1.8 ± 1.0 and 31.5 ± 12.2 mg; 1.4 ± 1.3 and 19.6 ± 12.4 mg; 1.1 ± 0.8 and 14.5 ± 9.6 mg; and 1.0 ± 0.7 and 13.9 ± 9.3 mg, respectively (all p < 0.001). ODI scores significantly decreased (p < 0.05). Minor cement leakage occurred in 10 patients (30.30%) with no symptoms. Follow-up imaging showed no local tumor progression. CONCLUSIONS: Preliminary results suggest MWA combined with PVP is an effective and safe treatment for painful high thoracic vertebral metastases (T1-T4) and can significantly relieve pain and improve the quality of life of patients. However, its efficacy should be confirmed by mid- and long-term studies.


Assuntos
Fraturas da Coluna Vertebral , Vertebroplastia , Adulto , Cimentos Ósseos , Humanos , Micro-Ondas/uso terapêutico , Dor/etiologia , Qualidade de Vida , Estudos Retrospectivos , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Resultado do Tratamento
11.
JAMA Ophthalmol ; 139(9): 975-982, 2021 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34236391

RESUMO

Importance: Interest in teleophthalmology has been growing, especially during the COVID-19 pandemic. The advent of fifth-generation (5G) wireless systems has the potential to revolutionize teleophthalmology, but these systems have not previously been leveraged to conduct therapeutic telemedicine in the ophthalmology field. Objective: To assess the feasibility of 5G real-time laser photocoagulation as a telemedicine-based treatment for diabetic retinopathy (DR). Design, Setting, and Participants: This was a prospective study involving a retinal specialist from the Peking Union Medical College Hospital in Beijing, China, who performed online 5G real-time navigated retinal laser photocoagulation to treat participants with proliferative or severe nonproliferative DR who had been recruited in the Huzhou First People's Hospital in Zhejiang Province, China, located 1200 km from Beijing from October 2019 to July 2020. Interventions: These teleretinal DR and laser management procedures were conducted using a teleophthalmology platform that used the videoconference platform for teleconsultation, after which telelaser planning and intervention were conducted with a laser system and a platform for remote computer control, which were connected via 5G networks. Main Outcomes and Measures: Diabetic eye prognosis and the real-time laser therapy transmission speed were evaluated. Results: A total of 6 participants (9 eyes) were included. Six eyes were treated via panretinal photocoagulation alone, while 1 eye underwent focal/grid photocoagulation and 2 eyes underwent both panretinal photocoagulation and focal/grid photocoagulation. The mean (SD) age was 53.7 (13.6) years (range, 32-67 years). The mean (SD) duration of diabetes was 14.3 (6.4) years (range, 3-20 years). The mean (SD) logMAR at baseline was 0.32 (0.20) (20/30 Snellen equivalent). Retinal telephotocoagulation operations were performed on all eyes without any noticeable delay during treatment. The mean (SD) number of panretinal photocoagulation laser spots per eye in 1 session was 913 (243). Conclusions and Relevance: This study introduces a novel teleophthalmology paradigm to treat DR at a distance. Applying novel technologies may continue to ensure that remote patients with DR and other conditions have access to essential health care. Further studies will be needed to compare this approach with the current standard of care to determine whether visual acuity or safety outcomes differ.


Assuntos
Retinopatia Diabética/cirurgia , Fotocoagulação , Telemedicina , Tecnologia sem Fio , Adulto , Idoso , Pequim , Retinopatia Diabética/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Humanos , Fotocoagulação/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
12.
Immunol Invest ; : 1-13, 2021 Jul 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34238104

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To explore the effects of miR-494 inhibition through the NF-κB signaling pathway on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute kidney injury (AKI) mouse model. METHODS: The AKI mice induced by LPS were treated with miR-494 antagomir, and the kidney parameters and indicators of oxidative stress were detected. HE and TUNEL staining were performed to observe the kidney histopathology and the apoptosis in renal tubular epithelial cells (RTECs), respectively. The ROS level was measured using dihydroethidium (DHE) staining. In addition, qRT-PCR, western blotting, immunohistochemistry (IHC), and ELISA were also used to detect gene or protein expression. RESULTS: LPS-induced AKI mice injected with the miR-494 antagomir showed reduced blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and serum creatinine (Cr) with improved kidney histopathology. The expression levels of p-IKKα/ß, p-IκBα and p65 NF-κB in the nucleus were increased in kidney tissues from the LPS-induced AKI mice, and they were decreased by the miR-494 antagomir. Moreover, the results of IHC showed that the miR-494 antagomir downregulated p65 NF-κB in kidney tissues from the LPS-induced AKI mice, accompanied by decreased levels of TNF-α, IL-1ß, IL-6, MDA, NO, and ROS but increased levels of SOD and GSH. In addition, the LPS-induced AKI mice had increased apoptosis in RTECs, as well as increased Caspase-3 and Bax and decreased Bcl-2, which were reversed by the miR-494 antagomir. CONCLUSIONS: The inhibition of miR-494 could reduce inflammatory responses and improve oxidative stress in kidney tissues from LPS-induced AKI mice by blocking the NF-κB pathway accompanying by reduced apoptosis in RTECs.

13.
Talanta ; 233: 122523, 2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34215026

RESUMO

Deep eutectic solvents (DESs) have been considered to be one of the most promising green alternatives of conventional volatile solvents for liquid-liquid separation. However, acidic hydrophobic DESs have been less studied although they are of great importance for the extraction of compounds which are unstable in alkaline conditions. In this study, a novel family of acidic hydrophobic deep eutectic solvents was designed and prepared from methyl trioctyl ammonium chloride and a series of haloacetic acids. For the first time, the obtained DESs were used for extraction and determination of calcium dobesilate, which is an extensively used medicine for treating vascular diseases, but it can be easily oxidized under alkaline and neutral conditions. The factors influencing extraction process including pH, temperature, extract time, inorganic salts and organic coexistence were systematically investigated. It is found that these DESs exhibited outstanding extraction performance towards calcium dobesilate. The extraction equilibrium time was only 3 min in a wide range of pH (1.2-9.2) at room temperature and the extraction capacity was up to 504 mg/g. The detection limit of calcium dobesilate extracting from water samples was 0.05 µg/L and the limit of quantification was 0.5 µg/L. A variety of inorganic salts with the concentration up to 1.0 mol/L and common coexisting organic compounds, such as glucose and starch, with the concentration more than 1000 times higher than the target analyte had no obvious impact on the extraction efficiency. The relative recovery for real samples ranged from 93.2% to 108.6%. Furthermore, the DESs could be recycled and regenerated through back extraction. After fifteen cycles, the extraction efficiency was still up to 99%. Finally, the extraction and back extraction mechanism was discussed in detail.


Assuntos
Dobesilato de Cálcio , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Solventes , Água , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
14.
Mol Immunol ; 136: 82-97, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34098344

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Leukocyte immunoglobulin-like receptor subfamily B (LILRB) is a group of inhibitory receptors involved in innate immune mainly expressed on lymphoid and myelomonocytic cells. LILRB is proposed to serve as immune checkpoint like PD-1 and CTLA-4 for tumor treatment. We recently reported that the expression of LILRB2 in CD1c+ mDC from tumor tissue might suppress immune for HCC patients. However, the expression of all the LILRB family on other immune cells in peripheral blood and tumor microenvironment of HCC patients has not been systematically studied. METHODS: The expression of LILRB family (LILRB1, LILRB2, LILRB3, LILRB4 and LILRB5) on immune cells, including granulocytes, NK cells, NKT cells, monocyte subsets, TAMs, B cells, γδ T cells, CD4+ T cells, CD8+ T cells and MDSC subsets, was analyzed by flow cytometry in the peripheral blood of 20 HCC patients and 20 healthy donors as well as in the tumor and tumor free tissues of 10 HCC patients. RESULTS: LILRB1, LILRB2 and LILRB3 in granulocytes from peripheral blood were expressed increased in HCC patients compared with healthy donors. The expression of LILRB5 in NK cells and NKT cells from HCC blood were higher compared with healthy donors` blood. CD14+CD16+ monocyte subsets in blood of HCC patients expressed increased LILRB1 and LILRB4 than that in healthy donors. CD14+CD16- monocyte subsets in blood of HCC patients expressed increased LILRB3 than that in healthy donors. Compared to corresponding TFL, LILRB3, LILRB4 and LILRB5 were expressed enhanced in TAMs from HCC tumors. LILRB1 expressed on the B cells both in the blood and tumor had significantly increased compared with healthy donors or corresponding TFL. Different from peripheral blood, in the HCC microenvironment, CD4+ T cells expressed lower LILRB2, LILRB3 and LILRB4 than that from TFL and CD8+ T cells expressed decreased LILRB2. And γδ T cells expressed LILRB1 in HCC blood and microenvironment. Surprisingly, the percentage of LILRB1 expressed on MDSC from HCC peripheral blood and tumors was lower than that from healthy donors and corresponding TFL. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first systemically examination of the LILRB family expression on a variety of immune cells from both peripheral blood and microenvironment in HCC patients. The specific increasing expression of LILRB on immune cells may regulate innate and adaptive immune and impact on HCC progression. Our findings justify further investigation of LILRB function in HCC.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular/metabolismo , Granulócitos/metabolismo , Neoplasias Hepáticas/metabolismo , Linfócitos/metabolismo , Receptores Imunológicos/metabolismo , Idoso , Antígenos CD/metabolismo , Feminino , Citometria de Fluxo , Humanos , Receptor B1 de Leucócitos Semelhante a Imunoglobulina/metabolismo , Masculino , Glicoproteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
15.
NPJ Prim Care Respir Med ; 31(1): 32, 2021 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34075048

RESUMO

This study aims to investigate the characteristics of the phenotype and management of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients in the general population in China. We analyzed spirometry-confirmed COPD patients who were identified from a population-based, nationally representative sample in China. All participants were measured with airflow limitation severity based on post-bronchodilator FEV1 percent predicted, bronchodilator responsiveness, exacerbation history, and respiratory symptoms. Among a total of 9134 COPD patients, 90.3% were non-exacerbators, 2.9% were frequent exacerbators without chronic bronchitis, 2.0% were frequent exacerbators with chronic bronchitis, and 4.8% were asthma-COPD overlap. Less than 5% of non-exacerbators ever had pulmonary function testing performed. The utilization rate of inhaled medication in non-exacerbators, exacerbators without chronic bronchitis, exacerbators with chronic bronchitis, and asthma-COPD overlap was 1.4, 23.5, 29.5, and 19.4%, respectively. A comprehensive strategy for the management of COPD patients based on phenotype in primary care is urgently needed.

16.
Arch Virol ; 166(8): 2159-2171, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34031716

RESUMO

Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) is the primary causative agent of porcine circovirus-associated diseases in swine, the most common of which are postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS) and porcine dermatitis and nephropathy syndrome (PDNS). To investigate the prevalence and genetic diversity of PCV2 in Hebei Province, Northern China, from 2016 to 2019, a total of 448 suspected cases of PCV2 infection were studied, and 179 samples were positive for PCV2. A pathological and histopathological examination suggested PCV2 to be cause of the observed lesions. Phylogenetic analysis showed that four genotypes were prevalent in Hebei Province: PCV2a, 2b, 2d, and 2e. Analysis of PCV2 strains using RDP4 and SimPlot showed that there were genetic recombination events among PCV2 strains in Hebei Province. A total of 3284 serum samples were screened by ELISA, and the positive rate of PCV2 antibodies was 73.9% (2428/3284). This study provides a scientific reference for the prevention and treatment of PCV2 in Hebei Province.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Infecções por Circoviridae/veterinária , Circovirus/classificação , Síndrome Definhante Multissistêmico de Suínos Desmamados/epidemiologia , Animais , China/epidemiologia , Infecções por Circoviridae/sangue , Circovirus/genética , Circovirus/isolamento & purificação , Variação Genética , Filogenia , Síndrome Definhante Multissistêmico de Suínos Desmamados/virologia , Prevalência , Estudos Retrospectivos , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Suínos
17.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 46(8): 2051-2060, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33982519

RESUMO

Nanocrystals self-stabilized Pickering emulsion(NSSPE) is a new kind of emulsion where only nanocrystals of poorly soluble drugs are used as stabilizers. Our previous study showed that NSSPE with Ligusticum chuanxiong oil as the main oil phase can significantly promote oral absorption of puerarin. The present study aimed to explore its absorption mechanism in oral administration. The in vitro dissolution test was carried out to study the effect of NSSPE on release of puerarin. The effects and mechanism of NSSPE on uptake and transport of puerarin across Caco-2 cell were investigated. The results showed that the drug release rate of NSSPE was similar to that of nanocrystals, with their cumulative dissolution of puerarin not affected by pH of releasing mediums, both significantly higher than that of crude material. The uptake of puerarin in NSSPE was concentration-dependent and significantly higher than that of solution or surfactant stabilized emulsion. Genistein and indomethacin, inhibitors of lipid rafts/caveolin, could significantly reduce the uptake of puerarin in NSSPE. Compared with solution, NSSPE and surfactants stabilized emulsion obviously increased transport rate K_a and apparent permeability coefficient P_(app) of puerarin in AP → BL direction, but there was no significant difference in BL → AP direction. It could be inferred that there were both passive and active transport mechanisms, as well as lipid raft/caveolin mediated endocytosis for absorption of NSSPE. The promoted oral absorption of puerarin in NSSPE was mainly related to the existing nanocrystal form which could promote dissolution, puerarin as well as Ligusticum chuanxiong oil which could promote drug transmembrane transport and inhibit drug efflux. It is the unique structure and composition of the compound NSSPE that promoted the oral absorption of puerarin.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Nanopartículas , Células CACO-2 , Emulsões , Humanos , Isoflavonas
18.
J Environ Manage ; 292: 112717, 2021 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34015611

RESUMO

As an effective emission reduction approach, CO2 capture and storage (CCS) combined with enhanced water recovery (EWR) technology can not only reduce CO2 emissions, but can also recover deep saline water resources to relieve pressure on regional water resources, and can ensure the energy supply and both social and economic development. However, the environmental benefits and application costs of CCS-EWR are uncertain, and are determined by the technology level, geological conditions, and other physical factors. In this study, an optimal source-sink matching model and a techno-economic assessment model were developed to evaluate the contributions of CCS-EWR to carbon emission reduction and the increase of the water supply by considering various uncertain factors, as well as the corresponding costs. In addition, the Yellow River Basin (YRB) in China was selected as the research region because, while there are abundant coal-fired power plants (CFPPs) in the YRB, the water resources are scarce. The results revealed the following. (1) The maximum CO2 capture capacity of the 236 CFPPs in the YRB is about 738.77 Mt/a, and nearly 13.14 Gt of fresh water could be provided until the 236 CFPPs in the YRB retire, which can partially relieve the pressure on the supply of water resources. (2) With the consideration of the CCS-EWR benefits, the average cost of the 236 CFPPs in the YRB in their residual lifetime to reduce their CO2 emissions by 90% will be no more than 180 CNY/t. (3) The incentive effect of the increase of the industrial water price on the profits of CCS-EWR projects is not significant. CCS-EWR technology has better application prospects in China under the dual constraints of carbon-neutral targets and water shortages, and more policy support is required for its deployment.


Assuntos
Carvão Mineral , Água , Dióxido de Carbono/análise , China , Carvão Mineral/análise , Centrais Elétricas , Rios , Tecnologia
20.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 1005, 2021 05 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34049524

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In parallel with the increased prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity, the proportion of eating out in China has increased dramatically in recent years. The purpose of the study was to explore the association between frequency of eating out with overweight and obesity among Chinese children. METHODS: The representative sample was recruited from Chinese National Nutrition and Health Survey (CNNHS) in 2010-2012, which included Chinese children aged 6-17 years (7685 boys and 7576 girls). Frequency of eating out was collected by interview-administered questionnaire and categorized as: 0, 1-2 and ≥ 3 times per week. Height and weight were measured, consequently body mass index was calculated. RESULTS: The prevalence of eating out among Chinese children aged 6-17 years old was 23.2%. Children who ate out 0, 1-2, ≥3 times per week were accounted for 76.8, 10.9 and 12.3% respectively. Findings revealed that eating out three times per week or more was statistically significant associated with higher prevalence of overweight and obesity among boys (OR = 1.20,95CI:1.04-1.38) compared with those ate out less than three times per week. However, no significantly association was observed among girls (OR = 0.91, 95CI:0.78-1.01). In additional, Younger children, rural children, children from low income family, those with leisure exercises (certain physical activities regularly carried out such as swimming, walking, running, equipment fitness), leisure time sedentary behaviors (LTSB)(> 2 h/d) were relatively more likely to eat out. CONCLUSIONS: The results illustrated that eating out three times or more had a significantly positive effect on overweight and obesity among boys in China.


Assuntos
Sobrepeso , Obesidade Pediátrica , Adolescente , Índice de Massa Corporal , Criança , China/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Obesidade Pediátrica/epidemiologia
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