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1.
Int Health ; 2021 Nov 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34849949

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Knowing the spatiotemporal pattern of the early geographic spread of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) would inform the preparedness for a possible recurrence of COVID-19. METHODS: We ascertained the number of confirmed cases during the early spread of COVID-19 during the Wuhan outbreak in 2020 and the Nanjing outbreak in 2021. RESULTS: We observed a speeding-up pattern of geographic spread, in particular to cities of no particular orientation then outflowing to commercial cities during the first month of both the Wuhan and Nanjing outbreaks. CONCLUSION: Re-emergence of COVID-19 indicates it is becoming endemic, with new outbreaks and a risk of increased transmission remaining a challenge to local public health institutions. Social distancing and lockdowns should continue in response to any potential widespread and focal outbreaks.

3.
Br J Nutr ; : 1-22, 2021 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34776040

RESUMO

Excessive iodine can lead to goiters. However, the relationship between the water iodine concentration (WIC) and goiter rate (GR) is unclear. This study aims to explore the factors that influence children's GR in areas with high WIC and analyse the threshold value of the GR increase associated with the WIC. According to the monitoring of the areas with high WIC in China in 2018-2020, a total of 54,050 children in eight high water iodine provinces were chosen. Drinking water, urine and edible salt samples of children were collected. The thyroid volume (Tvol) was measured. A generalized additive model (GAM) was used to analyse the relationship between the WIC and GR in children. Among the 54,050 children in areas with high WIC, the overall GR was 3.34%, the median of water iodine concentration (MWIC) was 127.0 µg/L, the median of urinary iodine concentration (MUIC) was 318 µg/L, and the noniodized salt coverage rate (NISCR) was 63.51%. According to the GAM analysis results, water iodine and urinary iodine are factors that influence the Tvol and GR, while the NISCR affects only the GR. When the WIC was more than 420 µg/L or the urinary iodine concentration (UIC) was more than 800 µg/L, the GR increased rapidly. When the NISCR reached more than 85%, the GR was the lowest. Thus, in areas with high WIC, WIC more than 420µg/L may increase the risk of goiter, and the NISCR should be increased to over 85% to avoid goiters in children.

4.
Orphanet J Rare Dis ; 16(1): 416, 2021 10 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34627348

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: 46, XY disorders of sex development (46, XY DSD) are congenital disorders with 46, XY chromosomal karyotype but inconsistent gonadal/phenotypic sex. One of the biggest concerns for parents and clinicians is the gender assignment. However, there is no standard uniform of care nor consensus at present. We sought to evaluate the current treatment's rationality and provide a reference basis for the gender reassignment in 46, XY DSD patients with a specific diagnosis. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional survey of gender role with the Pre-school Activities Inventory (PSAI), the Children's Sex Role Inventory (CSRI) in 46, XY DSD patients and set up control groups comparison. Psychiatrist assessed gender dysphoria in patients ≥ 8-year-old with the criteria of diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, 5th edition (DSM-5). RESULTS: A total of 112 responders of 136 patients participated in this study (82.4%, aged 2-17.8 years, median age: 4-year-old). The follow-up period was from 6 months to 10 years (median: 2 years). Twenty-five females were reassigned to the male gender after a specific diagnosis (16/25 (64%) in 5 alfa-reductase-2 deficiency (5α-RD2), 5/25 (20%) in partial androgen insensitivity syndrome (PAIS), 4/25 (16%) in NR5A1gene mutation). Male gender assignment increased from 55.3 (n = 62) to 77.7% (n = 87). The median PSAI score was similar to the control males in 5α-RD2, PAIS, and NR5A1 gene mutation groups (p > 0.05); while identical to the control females in complete androgen insensitivity syndrome (CAIS) and CYP17A1 gene mutation groups (p > 0.05). PSAI score of children raised as male was higher than those of CAIS and CYP17A1 groups raised as female (p < 0.05). CSRI scale showed no statistical differences in the consistency of gender roles and reassigned gender between 46, XY DSD patients and control groups (p > 0.05). None of the patients over 8-year-old (n = 44) had gender dysphoria. CONCLUSION: The reassigned gender in 46, XY DSD patients is consistent with their gender role during early childhood. None of them had gender dysphoria. The molecular diagnosis, gonadal function, and the gender reassignment are congruent within our Chinese cohort. Long-term follow-up and more evaluation are still required.


Assuntos
Transtorno 46,XY do Desenvolvimento Sexual , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento Sexual , Disforia de Gênero , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Transtorno 46,XY do Desenvolvimento Sexual/diagnóstico , Transtorno 46,XY do Desenvolvimento Sexual/genética , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento Sexual/diagnóstico , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento Sexual/genética , Feminino , Disforia de Gênero/diagnóstico , Disforia de Gênero/genética , Papel de Gênero , Humanos , Masculino
5.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(9): e2125577, 2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34581797

RESUMO

Importance: Functional limitation is increasingly common as people age and is often associated with negative consequences. Evidence of the dynamics of functional limitation within couples in China is still inadequate. Objectives: To examine whether functional limitation was associated within middle-aged and older couples and to explore sex differences in spousal associations. Design, Setting, and Participants: In this nationwide, population-based cohort study performed from January 1, 2011, to December 31, 2018, participants were selected using multistage probability sampling, and 5207 community-dwelling couples (10 414 individuals) 45 years or older were included in the nationally representative China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study. Data analysis was performed from January 1 to February 28, 2021. Exposures: The exposure variable was the presence of functional limitation in spouses. Functional limitation was measured by the activities of daily living (ADLs) and instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs) scales and was defined as having difficulty in independently performing at least 1 ADL or IADL item. Main Outcomes and Measures: The main outcome was functional limitation in index participants. Multivariable logistic regression with generalized estimating equations was used to estimate the reciprocal association of functional limitation within couples over time. Results: A total of 5207 married, different-sex couples (mean [SD] age, 59.1 [8.8] years for husbands and 57.0 [8.2] years for wives) were included in the study. For husbands, the number (percentage) of participants classified with baseline functional limitation was 1140 (21.9%), the number (percentage) with ADL limitation was 684 (13.1%), and the number (percentage) with IADL limitation was 834 (16.0%). For wives, the number (percentage) of participants classified with baseline functional limitation was 1502 (28.8%), the number (percentage) with ADL limitation was 887 (17.0%), and the number (percentage) with IADL limitation was 1183 (22.7%). Longitudinal results demonstrated an association in spouses developing functional limitation (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 2.55; 95% CI, 2.41-2.69; P < .001), ADL limitation (adjusted OR, 2.26; 95% CI, 2.11-2.41; P < .001), and IADL limitation (adjusted OR, 2.58; 95% CI, 2.43-2.73; P < .001). Subgroup analyses by sex revealed similar patterns of spousal health concordance in terms of all studied outcomes, indicating no sex specificity. Conclusions and Relevance: This population-based cohort study suggests that among Chinese middle-aged and older couples there is significant concordance in the development of functional limitation. This study of spousal functional ability from a dyadic perspective may help in the understanding of health risks within a wider familial context and offers novel insights for prioritizing policy focus from individual centered to couple based.

6.
J Food Sci Technol ; 58(11): 4091-4101, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34538893

RESUMO

Sanghuangporus sanghuang (SS) is a rare medicinal polypore fungus that grows solely on Morus trees. In this study, seven grains (oats, barley, millet, rice, buckwheat, corn, and coix seed) were used as solid substrates for SS fermentation and characterized in their nutrition, functional composition, and antioxidant activities. After fermentation, the nutrient compositions of crude protein (F 1,41 = 111.1, P < 0.01), soluble protein (F 1,41 = 595.7, P < 0.01), soluble sugar (F 1,41 = 51.4, P < 0.01) and ash (F 1,41 = 227.3, P < 0.01) increased significantly. Oats were one of the best grains for SS fermentation, SS-Oat produced 6.23 mg QE/g polyphenols, 21.8 mg rutin/g flavonoids, and 2.3% triterpene. In addition, the antioxidant capacities of the seven grains all increased. Principal component analysis analysis shows that the antioxidant properties of the grains were similar after SS fermentation. The changes of antioxidant activity due to SS fermentation were corrected with corresponding grain and remarked as ΔT-AOC/ABTS+/DPPH/DNAp, that was correlated to part of changes in polyphenol, carotenoid, triterpenoids, and flavonoid contents. In summary, oats have the greatest potential for use as a fermentation substrate for health food development.

7.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 12: 711991, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34589056

RESUMO

Purpose: Congenital growth hormone deficiency (GHD) is a rare and etiologically heterogeneous disease. We aim to screen disease-causing mutations of GHD in a relatively sizable cohort and discover underlying mechanisms via a candidate gene-based mutational burden analysis. Methods: We retrospectively analyzed 109 short stature patients associated with hormone deficiency. All patients were classified into two groups: Group I (n=45) with definitive GHD and Group II (n=64) with possible GHD. We analyzed correlation consistency between clinical criteria and molecular findings by whole exome sequencing (WES) in two groups. The patients without a molecular diagnosis (n=90) were compared with 942 in-house controls for the mutational burden of rare mutations in 259 genes biologically related with the GH axis. Results: In 19 patients with molecular diagnosis, we found 5 possible GHD patients received known molecular diagnosis associated with GHD (NF1 [c.2329T>A, c.7131C>G], GHRHR [c.731G>A], STAT5B [c.1102delC], HRAS [c.187_207dup]). By mutational burden analysis of predicted deleterious variants in 90 patients without molecular diagnosis, we found that POLR3A (p = 0.005), SUFU (p = 0.006), LHX3 (p = 0.021) and CREB3L4 (p = 0.040) represented top genes enriched in GHD patients. Conclusion: Our study revealed the discrepancies between the laboratory testing and molecular diagnosis of GHD. These differences should be considered when for an accurate diagnosis of GHD. We also identified four candidate genes that might be associated with GHD.

8.
Front Public Health ; 9: 718910, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34568260

RESUMO

Background: Catastrophic health expenditure (CHE) represents a key indicator for excessive financial burden due to out-of-pocket (OOP) healthcare costs, which could push the household into poverty and is highly pronounced in households with members at an advanced age. Previous studies have been devoted to understanding the determinants for CHE, yet little evidence exists on its association with frailty, an important geriatric syndrome attracting growing recognition. We thus aim to examine the relationship between frailty and CHE and to explore whether this effect is moderated by socioeconomic-related factors. Methods: A total of 3,277 older adults were drawn from two waves (2011 and 2013) of the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study (CHARLS). CHE was defined when OOP healthcare expenditure exceeded a specific proportion of the capacity of the household to pay. Frailty was measured following the Fried Phenotype (FP) scale. Mixed-effects logistic regression models were employed to assess the longitudinal relationship between frailty and CHE, and stratification analyses were conducted to explore the moderation effect. Results: The incidence of CHE among Chinese community-dwelling older adults was 21.76% in 2011 and increased to 26.46% in 2013. Compared with non-frail individuals, prefrail or frail adults were associated with higher odds for CHE after controlling for age, gender, residence, education, marriage, income, health insurance, smoking, drinking, and comorbidity (prefrail: odds ratio (OR) = 1.32, 95%CI = 1.14-1.52; frail: OR = 1.67, 95%CI = 1.13-2.47). Three frailty components including weakness, exhaustion, and shrinking contributed to a significantly increased likelihood of CHE (all p < 0.05), while the other two components including slowness and inactivity showed a non-significant effect (all p > 0.05). Similar effects from frailty on CHE were observed across socioeconomic-related subgroups differentiated by gender, residence, education, household income, and social health insurance. Conclusions: Frailty is a significant predictor for CHE in China. Developing and implementing cost-effective strategies for the prevention and management of frailty is imperative to protect households from financial catastrophe.


Assuntos
Fragilidade , Gastos em Saúde , Idoso , Doença Catastrófica , China/epidemiologia , Fragilidade/diagnóstico , Humanos , Vida Independente , Estudos Longitudinais , Estudos Prospectivos
9.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 1661, 2021 09 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34517854

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In recent years, air pollution has become an imminent problem in China. Few studies have investigated the impact of air pollution on the mortality of the middle-aged and elderly people. Therefore, this study aims to evaluate the impact of PM2.5 (fine particulate matter) and O3 (ozone) on non-accidental mortality and respiratory mortality of the middle-aged and elderly people in Lishui District of Nanjing and provide the evidence for potential prevention and control measures of air pollution. METHOD: Using daily mortality and atmospheric monitoring data from 2015 to 2019, we applied a generalized additive model with time-series analysis to evaluate the association of PM2.5 and O3 exposure with daily non-accidental mortality and respiratory mortality in Lishui District. Using the population attributable fractions to estimate the death burden caused by short-term exposure to O3 and PM2.5。. RESULT: For every 10 µg/m3 increase in PM2.5, non-accidental mortality increased 0.94% with 95% confidence interval (CI) between 0.05 and 1.83%, and PM2.5 had a more profound impact on females than males. For every 10 µg/m3 increase in O3, respiratory mortality increased 1.35% (95% CI: 0.05, 2.66%) and O3 had a more profound impact on males than females. Compared with the single pollutant model, impact of the two-pollutant model on non-accidental mortality and respiratory mortality slightly decreased. In summer and winter as opposed to the other seasons, O3 had a more obvious impact on non-accidental mortality. The population attributable fractions of non-accidental mortality were 0.84% (95% CI:0.00, 1.63%) for PM2.5 and respiratory mortality were 0.14% (95% CI:0.01, 0.26%) for O3. For every 10 µg/m3 decrease in PM2.5, 122 (95% CI: 6, 237) non-accidental deaths could be avoided. For every 10 µg/m3 decrease in O3, 10 (95% CI: 1, 38) respiratory deaths could be avoided. CONCLUSION: PM2.5 and O3 could significantly increase the risk of non-accidental and respiratory mortality in the middle-aged and elderly people in Lishui District of Nanjing. Exposed to air pollutants, men were more susceptible to O3 damage, and women were more susceptible to PM2.5 damage. Reduction of PM2.5 and O3 concentration in the air may have the potential to avoid considerable loss of lives.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Ozônio , Doenças Respiratórias , Idoso , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/análise , China/epidemiologia , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ozônio/análise , Ozônio/toxicidade , Material Particulado/análise , Material Particulado/toxicidade
10.
Br J Nutr ; : 1-9, 2021 Jul 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34256883

RESUMO

The policy of Universal Salt Iodisation (USI) could reduce population's thyroid volume (TVOL) in iodine deficiency areas. Conversely, the improved growth and developmental status of children might increase the TVOL accordingly. Whether the decreased TVOL by USI conceals the increase effect of height and weight on TVOL is unclear. The aim of this study was to analyse the association between height, weight, iodine supplementation and TVOL. Five national Iodine Deficiency Disorder surveys were matched into four pairs according to the purpose of analysis. County-level data of both detected by paired surveys were incorporated; 1:1 random pairing method was used to match counties or individuals. The difference of TVOL between different height, weight, different iodine supplementation measures groups and the association between TVOL and them were studied. The mean height and weight of children aged 8-10 years increased from 129·9 cm and 26·9 kg in 2002 to 136·2 cm and 32·1 kg in 2019, while the median TVOL decreased from 3·10 ml to 2·61 ml. Iodine supplementation measures can affect TVOL; after excluding iodine effects, the median TVOL was increased with the height and weight. On the other side, after excluding the influence of height and weight, the median TVOL remained decreased. Only age, weight and salt iodine were significantly associated with TVOL in multiple linear models. Development of height and weight in children is the evidence of improved nutrition. The decreased TVOL caused by iodised salt measures conceals the increase effect of height and weight on TVOL. Age, weight and salt iodine affect TVOL significantly.

11.
Ann Nutr Metab ; 77(2): 90-99, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34289482

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to retrospectively identify the effect of iodine on the papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) process and investigate the risk clinicopathologic characteristics of cervical lymph node metastasis (CLNM) for achieving a better preventive strategy of PTC. METHODS: Totally 187 patients with CLNM and 279 without CLNM (NCLNM) were enrolled, and their urinary iodine concentration (UIC) and serum iodine concentration (SIC) were measured. Logistic regressions were used to reveal the effects of iodine nutrition on the CLNM status of PTC. RESULTS: The levels of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and thyroglobulin (TG) were higher in the CLNM group than in the NCLNM group. UIC and SIC were positively correlated, and both of them were correlated with TSH, free thyroxine, and TG. The proportions of UIC >300 µg/L and of SIC >90 µg/L were higher in the CLNM than in the NCLNM. Logistic analysis showed that SIC >90 µg/L was an independent predictor for CLNM in PTC. Additionally, age ≥45, female, TG, multifocality, and diameter of cancer invasion >1 cm also affected CLNM status in PTC, and their logistic regression model showed a certain diagnostic accuracy (area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve = 0.72). CONCLUSIONS: Relatively high iodine nutrition seemed to be a significant risk factor for the occurrence of CLNM in PTC and may promote lymphatic metastasis in PTC.

12.
Endocrine ; 74(3): 582-591, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34075541

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To investigate the applicability of metabolomics to select thyroid cancer-associated biomarkers and discover the effects of iodine on metabolic changes in thyroid cancer. METHODS: In this study, a total of 33 papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) patients from areas with iodine excess and 32 PTC patients from areas with adequate iodine were recruited, and their cancerous tissue and paracancerous tissue were collected. These specimens were analyzed by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC/QTOF/MS) in conjunction with multivariate statistical analysis. RESULTS: Good separations were obtained for PTC tissue vs. paracancerous tissue, and 15 metabolites, including L-octanoylcarnitine, N-arachidonoylglycine, and others were found to be disturbed in PTC tissue. Moreover, the metabolic profile presented considerable separation between PTC tissue from different iodine areas, and 15 metabolomic biomarkers were found to be differentially expressed. Among them, 10 metabolites, including arachidonoylcarnitine and LysoPCs, were related to thyroid cancer and excess iodine. These biomarkers play a role in arachidonic acid metabolism pathways and others. In addition, biomarkers such as 3,5-tetradecadiencarnitine and oxidized glutathione were significantly correlated with thyroid function, and biomarkers such as L-octanoylcarnitine and arachidonic acid were significantly correlated with the clinical characteristics of PTC. CONCLUSIONS: Distinct differences in metabolic profiles were found to exist between PTCs from areas with different levels of iodine nutrition. The identified biomarkers have significant potential for diagnosing PTC and investigating its underlying mechanisms.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Papilar , Iodo , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide , Biomarcadores Tumorais , Humanos , Nutrientes , Câncer Papilífero da Tireoide
13.
BMJ Open ; 11(5): e046157, 2021 05 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34031114

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We aim to explore and compare the effect of global travel restrictions and public health countermeasures in response to COVID-19 outbreak. DESIGN: A data-driven spatio-temporal modelling to simulate the spread of COVID-19 worldwide for 150 days since 1 January 2020 under different scenarios. SETTING: Worldwide. INTERVENTIONS: Travel restrictions and public health countermeasures. MAIN OUTCOME: The cumulative number of COVID-19 cases. RESULTS: The cumulative number of COVID-19 cases could reach more than 420 million around the world without any countermeasures taken. Under timely and intensive global interventions, 99.97% of infections could be avoided comparing with non-interventions. The scenario of carrying out domestic travel restriction and public health countermeasures in China only could contribute to a significant decrease of the cumulative number of infected cases worldwide. Without global travel restriction in the study setting, 98.62% of COVID-19 cases could be avoided by public health countermeasures in China only compared with non-interventions at all. CONCLUSIONS: Public health countermeasures were generally more effective than travel restrictions in many countries, suggesting multinational collaborations in the public health communities in response to this novel global health challenge.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pandemias , China/epidemiologia , Humanos , Saúde Pública , SARS-CoV-2 , Viagem
14.
J Genet Genomics ; 48(5): 396-402, 2021 05 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34006472

RESUMO

Short stature is among the most common endocrinological disease phenotypes of childhood and may occur as an isolated finding or in conjunction with other clinical manifestations. Although the diagnostic utility of clinical genetic testing in short stature has been implicated, the genetic architecture and the utility of genomic studies such as exome sequencing (ES) in a sizable cohort of patients with short stature have not been investigated systematically. In this study, we recruited 561 individuals with short stature from two centers in China during a 4-year period. We performed ES for all patients and available parents. All patients were retrospectively divided into two groups: an isolated short stature group (group I, n = 257) and an apparently syndromic short stature group (group II, n = 304). Causal variants were identified in 135 of 561 (24.1%) patients. In group I, 29 of 257 (11.3%) of the patients were solved by variants in 24 genes. In group II, 106 of 304 (34.9%) patients were solved by variants in 57 genes. Genes involved in fundamental cellular process played an important role in the genetic architecture of syndromic short stature. Distinct genetic architectures and pathophysiological processes underlie isolated and syndromic short stature.

15.
Chin Med J (Engl) ; 134(10): 1152-1159, 2021 03 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33813517

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Compared to adult studies, studies which involve the treatment of pediatric congenital hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (CHH) are limited and no universal treatment regimen is available. The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG)/human menopausal gonadotropin (hMG) therapy for treating male adolescents with CHH. METHODS: Male adolescent CHH patients were treated with hCG/hMG (n = 20) or a gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) pump (n = 21). The treatment was divided into a study phase (0-3 months) and a follow-up phase (3-12 months). The testicular volume (TV), penile length (PL), penis diameter (PD), and sex hormone levels were compared between the two groups. The TV and other indicators between the groups were analyzed using a t-test (equal variance) or a rank sum test (unequal variance). RESULTS: Before treatment, there was no statistical difference between the two groups in terms of the biochemistry, hormones, and other demographic indicators. After 3 months of treatment, the TV of the hCG/hMG and GnRH groups increased to 5.1 ±â€Š2.3 mL and 4.1 ±â€Š1.8 mL, respectively; however, the difference was not statistically significant (P > 0.05, t = 1.394). The PL reached 6.9 ±â€Š1.8 cm and 5.1 ±â€Š1.6 cm (P < 0.05, t = 3.083), the PD reached 2.4 ±â€Š0.5 cm and 2.0 ±â€Š0.6 cm (P < 0.05, t = 2.224), respectively, in the two groups. At the end of 6 months of treatment, biomarkers were in normal range in the two groups. Compared with the GnRH group, the testosterone (T) level and growth of PL and PD were significantly greater in the hCG/hMG group (all P < 0.05). While the TV of both groups increased, the difference was not statistically significant (P > 0.05, t = 0.314). After 9 to 12 months of treatment, the T level was higher in the hCG/hMG group. Other parameters did not exhibit a statistical difference. CONCLUSIONS: The hCG/hMG regimen is feasible and effective for treating male adolescents with CHH. The initial 3 months of treatment may be a window to optimally observe the strongest effects of therapy. Furthermore, results from the extended time-period showed positive outcomes at the 1-year mark; however, the long-term effectiveness, strengths, and weaknesses of the hCG/hMG regimen require further research. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02880280; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02880280.


Assuntos
Hipogonadismo , Menotropinas , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Gonadotropina Coriônica/uso terapêutico , Hormônio Liberador de Gonadotropina , Humanos , Hipogonadismo/tratamento farmacológico , Masculino , Menotropinas/uso terapêutico , Espermatogênese , Testosterona
16.
Risk Manag Healthc Policy ; 14: 1583-1593, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33889039

RESUMO

Purpose: Population ageing is posing an unprecedented challenge globally, necessitating a better understanding of modifiable factors and underlying pathways that could contribute to health and longevity in older age. We thus aim to investigate how the modifiable social support (and its various sources) is related to mortality among older adults, as well as whether and to what extent geriatric frailty plays a role in mediating the relationship. Methods: We included 11,934 community-dwelling adults (≥65) from four waves of the Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey (2008-2018). Frailty was constructed by 44 health deficits, following a validated frailty index scale. Social support was measured using a sum score of three dimensions (family support, social service and social security) with 22 items. The outcome was all-cause mortality. Multivariate logistic or linear regression models were employed when appropriate to assess the associations among social support, frailty and mortality. Mediation analysis was applied to examine the role of frailty underlying the pathway between social support and mortality risk. Results: A higher sum score of social support at baseline reduced mortality risk during the 10-year follow-up period (AOR=0.947, 95% CI=0.917~0.977). Amongst three sources of social support, family support and social security availability showed significantly protective effect against mortality, while social service revealed only non-significant effect. A higher level in the overall social support (ß=-0.066, 95% CI=-0.113~-0.020) or family support (ß=-0.121, 95% CI=-0.202~-0.039) was also significantly associated with decreased frailty. Meanwhile, frailty partially mediated the relationship of mortality with the overall social support and family support, where the proportion of mediation equaled to 17.1% and 20.5%, respectively. Conclusion: Social support could be associated with reduced risks for frailty and mortality, and such protective influences are especially manifested in its family support component among Chinese older adults. Frailty functions as potential mediator underlying the association of mortality with social support and family support. Our findings indicate the importance of social support as an integral part of geriatric care and underline the potential benefits of frailty assessment and intervention.

17.
Mitochondrial DNA B Resour ; 6(3): 1096-1097, 2021 Mar 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33796753

RESUMO

In this study, the complete mitochondrial genome of Sanghuangporus vaninii Zhehuang-1 was determined. Genomic DNA samples individually collected from a population in southeastern China (Qiandaohu, Zhejiang Province, N29°44'24'', E118°52'48'') were sequenced with an Illumina NovaSeq 6000. The complete mitochondrial genome was 97,345 bp in length and consisted of 22 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 29 tRNAs, 3 ribosomal RNAs, and a control region. Sanghuangporus vaninii has a mitochondrial gene arrangement that is similar to that of S. sanghuang. Phylogenetic analysis performed using ML methods based on the complete mitogenome sequence showed that S. vaninii is a member of the Polyporaceae. The complete mitogenome sequence provides important data for further study of the Inonotus linteus complex.

18.
Bioorg Med Chem ; 38: 116118, 2021 05 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33839592

RESUMO

A robust palladium-catalyzed hydroxycarbonylation of aryl halides on DNA has been developed. Instead of Mo(CO)6 as a source of carbon monoxide as previously described in the literature, chloroform was used as a surrogate in this report for the purpose of avoiding to use a large excess of molybdenum reagent which is not totally soluble in aqueous reaction mixtures.


Assuntos
Monóxido de Carbono/química , Clorofórmio/química , DNA/química , Estrutura Molecular
19.
Int J Obes (Lond) ; 45(7): 1457-1463, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33824403

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to examine the temporal relationship between body mass index (BMI) and uric acid (UA), and their joint effect on blood pressure (BP) in children and adults. METHODS: The longitudinal cohorts for temporal relationship analyses consisted of 564 and 911 subjects examined twice 5-14 years apart from childhood to adulthood. The cross-sectional cohorts for mediation analyses consisted of 3102 children and 3402 nondiabetic adults. Cross-lagged panel analysis models were used to examine the temporal relationship between BMI and UA, and mediation analysis models the mediation effect of UA on the BMI-BP association. RESULTS: After adjusting for age, race, sex and follow-up years in children, and additionally smoking and alcohol drinking in adults, the path coefficients (standardized regression coefficients) from baseline BMI to follow-up UA (0.145 in children and 0.068 in adults) were significant, but the path coefficients from baseline UA to follow-up BMI (0.011 in children and 0.016 in adults) were not. In mediation analyses, indirect effects through UA on the BMI-systolic BP association were estimated at 0.028 (mediation effect = 8.8%) in children and 0.033 (mediation effect = 13.5%) in adults (P < 0.001 for both). Direct effects of BMI on systolic BP (0.289 in children and 0.212 in adults) were significant. The mediation effect parameters did not differ significantly between Blacks and Whites. CONCLUSIONS: Changes in BMI precede alterations in UA, and the BMI-BP association is in part mediated through BMI-related increase in UA both in children and in adults. These findings have implications for addressing mechanisms of obesity hypertension beginning in early life.

20.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 11: 595716, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33738264

RESUMO

Long term heat exposure (HE) leads to estrous cycle disorder (ECD) in female rats and damages reproductive function. However, the regulation mechanism of vaginal microorganisms and serum metabolomics remains unclear. This study aimed to explore the effects of microbes on the vaginal secretions of rats with ECD and describe the serum metabolomics characteristics and their relationship with vaginal microorganisms. The alterations in the serum levels of neurotransmitters were used to verify the possible regulatory pathways. The relative abundance, composition, and colony interaction network of microorganisms in the vaginal secretions of rats with ECD changed significantly. The metabolomics analysis identified 22 potential biomarkers in the serum including lipid metabolism, amino acid metabolism, and mammalian target of rapamycin and gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) signaling pathways. Further, 52 pairs of vaginal microbiota-serum metabolites correlations (21 positive and 31 negative) were determined. The abundance of Gardnerella correlated positively with the metabolite L-arginine concentration and negatively with the oleic acid concentration. Further, a negative correlation was found between the abundance of Pseudomonas and the L-arginine concentration and between the metabolite benzoic acid concentration and the abundance of Adlercreutzia. These four bacteria-metabolite pairs had a direct or indirect relationship with the estrous cycle and reproduction. The glutamine, glutamate, and dopamine levels were significantly uncontrolled. The former two were closely related to GnRH signaling pathways involved in the development and regulation of HE-induced ECD in rats. Serum neurotransmitters partly reflected the regulatory effect of vaginal microorganisms on the host of HE-induced ECD, and glutamatergic neurotransmitters might be closely related to the alteration in vaginal microorganisms. These findings might help comprehend the mechanism of HE-induced ECD and propose a new intervention based on vaginal microorganisms.


Assuntos
Temperatura Alta , Metabolômica , Animais , DNA Ribossômico , Ciclo Estral , Feminino , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
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