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3.
Chin Med J (Engl) ; 131(4): 471-476, 2018 Feb 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29451153

RESUMO

Objective:: Dementia is the fourth most common cause of death in developed countries. The relationship between plasma lipids and cognitive function is complex and controversial. Due to the increasing life expectancy of the population, there is an urgent need to control vascular risk factors and to identify therapies to prevent and treat both cognitive impairment and dementia. Here, we reviewed the effects of plasma lipids and statins on cognitive function. Data Sources:: We searched the PubMed database for research articles published through November 2017 with key words including "plasma lipids," "hyperlipidemia," "hypercholesterolemia," "statins," and "cognition function." Study Selection:: Articles were retrieved and reviewed to analyze the effects of plasma lipids and statins on cognitive function and the mechanisms underlying these effects. Results:: Many studies have examined the relationship between plasma lipids and cognitive function, but no definitive conclusions can be drawn. The mechanisms involved may include blood-brain barrier injury, the influence on small blood vessels in the brain, the influence on amyloid deposition, and a neuroprotective effect. To date, most studies of statins and cognition have been observational, with few randomized controlled trials. Therefore, firm conclusions regarding whether mid- or long-term statin use affects cognition function and dementia remain elusive. However, increasing concern exists that statins may be a causative factor for cognitive problems. These adverse effects appear to be rare and likely represent a yet-to-be-defined vulnerability in susceptible individuals. Conclusions:: The association between plasma lipids and cognition, the mechanism of the influence of plasma lipids on cognitive function, and the association between statins and cognitive function are complex issues and currently not fully understood. Future research aimed at identifying the mechanisms that underlie the effects of plasma lipids and statins on cognition will not only provide important insight into the causes and interdependencies of cognitive impairment and dementia, but also inspire novel strategies for treating and preventing these cognitive disorders.


Assuntos
Cognição/efeitos dos fármacos , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/farmacologia , Lipídeos/sangue , Amiloide/metabolismo , Barreira Hematoencefálica , Humanos , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/efeitos adversos , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/farmacologia
4.
Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi ; 19(4): 436-440, 2017 Apr.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28407832

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of air pollution on respiratory health in school-aged children in the main urban area of Chongqing, China. METHODS: The main urban area of Chongqing was divided into polluted area and clean area according to the air pollution data shown on the Environmental Protection Agency Website of Chongqing between 2010 and 2015. A cluster sampling method was used to select 695 third- or fourth-grade children from 2 primary schools in the clean or polluted area as study subjects, with 313 children from the clean area and 382 children from the polluted area. Pulmonary function was examined for all children and a standard American epidemiological questionnaire (ATS-DLD-78-C) was used to investigate the prevalence of respiratory diseases and symptoms. RESULTS: Compared with the clean area, the polluted area had significantly higher concentrations of inhalable particles (PM10), fine particulate matter (PM2.5), and nitric oxide (NOX) (P<0.05). The multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed after adjustment for confounding factors, and the results showed that compared with those in the clean area, the children in the polluted area had significantly higher risks of cough (OR=1.644), cough during cold (OR=1.596), expectoration during cold (OR=2.196), persistent expectoration (OR=1.802), and wheezing (OR=2.415). The boys and girls in the clean area had significantly higher forced vital capacity and forced expiratory volume in one second than those in the polluted area (P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Air pollution in the main urban area of Chongqing is associated with the increased prevalence of respiratory symptoms in school-aged children and has certain effect on children's pulmonary function.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Doenças Respiratórias/etiologia , Criança , Feminino , Volume Expiratório Forçado , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Capacidade Vital
5.
Hua Xi Kou Qiang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 28(6): 675-7, 2010 Dec.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21365852

RESUMO

From March 2009 to October 2009, three pediatric patients with parotid tumor were cured. Preoperative physical examination showed regional swelling in parotid area, the surface skin was in moderate reddish purple, the border was vague, and the swelling was inactive. The patients' IgE were significantly increased. B ultrasound examination demonstrated the focus was an isoecho with ringlike dark band around, which was concluded as bull's-eye sign. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examination indicated a cystic mass between the skin and parotid. Preoperative diagnosis was eosinophilichyperplastic lymphogranuloma (Kimura's disease) and the granuloma was excised by operation. Pathological examination revealed the capillary vessel hyperplasia in local tissue with a plenty of eosinophils and lymphocytes infiltrating. The disease was confirmed. Although the disease is rare, the diagnosis still could be made by preoperative physical examination, laboratory and imaging examinations.


Assuntos
Hiperplasia Angiolinfoide com Eosinofilia , Glândula Parótida , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino
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