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1.
Res Vet Sci ; 86(2): 261-6, 2009 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18752819

RESUMO

Normal C3H/HeN female mice were used to develop an animal model of Taenia saginata asiatica oncosphere infection. The host cellular immune response in this model was analyzed by a cytokine enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (cytokine ELISA) and flow cytometry. Tumor-like cysts containing cysticerci were recovered from the inoculation sites of female mice 7 weeks postinfection with the T. saginata asiatica oncospheres. A sharp increase and sustained elevation in the ability of spleen cells to produce interferon-gamma and interleukin (IL)-2 revealed that cellular immunity played an important role during the infection. An immediate increase in the levels of IL-6 at 1 week postinfection indicated the induction of a local acute inflammatory response. However, no significant change in the levels of IL-10 indicated that Th2 cells were not involved in this immune response. The patterns of cell distribution revealed by flow cytometry also supported the same finding. These results suggested that Th1 cells played a major role in the immune response in C3H/HeN mice during the early stages of the oncosphere infection and that the Th2 response was not induced during the stage of cysticercus formation.


Assuntos
Taenia saginata/imunologia , Teníase/imunologia , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Feminino , Citometria de Fluxo , Humanos , Imunidade Celular/imunologia , Interferon gama/imunologia , Interleucinas/imunologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Endogâmicos C3H , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Projetos Piloto , Baço/imunologia , Baço/parasitologia , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Teníase/parasitologia
2.
Res Vet Sci ; 85(3): 527-33, 2008 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18371996

RESUMO

Fructose-1,6-bisphosphate aldolase (FBPA) is an ubiquitous enzyme essential for glycolysis, gluconeogenesis and the Calvin cycle. It has been demonstrated to induce immune responses and to be useful in the immunodiagnosis of malaria. In this study, FBPA was cloned from the adult worms of Schistosoma japonicum and tested as an antigen for the diagnosis of S. japonicum infection in water buffaloes. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was performed on the sera from 32 infected water buffaloes and 20 negative controls using the recombinant FBPA protein or soluble worm antigen preparation (SWAP) as an antigen. The OD cut-off values were determined to be 0.57 with 100% specificity and 100% sensitivity for the FBPA ELISA and 1.13 with 93.8% specificity and 95.0% sensitivity for the SWAP ELISA. These findings indicate that the recombinant FBPA of S. japonicum should be an useful diagnostic tool for the detection of antibodies against S. japonicum.


Assuntos
Búfalos/parasitologia , Frutose-Bifosfato Aldolase/sangue , Schistosoma japonicum/enzimologia , Esquistossomose Japônica/veterinária , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Anticorpos Anti-Helmínticos/análise , Sequência de Bases , China , Clonagem Molecular , DNA Complementar/genética , DNA Complementar/isolamento & purificação , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/métodos , Frutose-Bifosfato Aldolase/genética , Frutose-Bifosfato Aldolase/isolamento & purificação , Amplificação de Genes , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Proteínas Recombinantes/análise , Schistosoma japonicum/isolamento & purificação , Esquistossomose Japônica/diagnóstico
3.
Int J Parasitol ; 38(2): 239-48, 2008 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17765901

RESUMO

Inflammation and granuloma formation in human neurocysticercosis has been attributed to Th1-type immune responses of the host. In the present murine model, over 94% of Taenia solium metacestodes were viable and elicited no granulomatous inflammation, whereas parasites killed by praziquantel treatment elicited rapid granuloma formation that calcified within 2weeks. Osteopontin (OPN) is a Th1-related cytokine that is up-stream of IL-12 and which may play an essential role in granuloma formation and calcification. OPN mRNA expression was down-regulated in tissues surrounding viable cysticerci, but was up-regulated in inflammatory tissues surrounding degenerating cysticerci. Moreover, co-culture with a viable cysticercus or ES products from these metacestodes led to a decrease in OPN, IFN-gamma and IL-12 expression, whereas co-culture with somatic proteins enhanced OPN expression by leukocytes. Addition of recombinant mouse OPN (rmOPN) counteracted the down-regulation of IL-12 and IFN-gamma mRNA expression, but not OPN mRNA expression, in leukocyte cultures. Furthermore, injection of rmOPN into the tissues surrounding implanted cysticerci enhanced inflammatory responses while a similar injection of an anti-rmOPN antibody reduced inflammation. These findings suggest that the suppression of host Th1-type granulomatous inflammation by ES products from T. solium metacestodes is related to down-regulation of OPN gene expression.


Assuntos
Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Osteopontina/genética , Taenia solium/fisiologia , Teníase/imunologia , Células Th1/imunologia , Animais , Cysticercus/imunologia , Feminino , Expressão Gênica , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita , Humanos , Imunossupressão , Interferon gama/genética , Interleucina-12/genética , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos , Osteopontina/metabolismo
4.
Kaohsiung J Med Sci ; 22(7): 309-20, 2006 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16849099

RESUMO

Studies of schistosomiasis japonica in Taiwan indicate that the Formosan strain of Schistosoma japonicum is zoophilic in nature. After the discovery of the adult worm of S. japonicum in 1914, a considerable number of epidemiologic studies and experimental infection studies were conducted. This paper is a review of the history of schistosomiasis japonica in Taiwan from before World War II to 2003.


Assuntos
Esquistossomose Japônica/história , Animais , Feminino , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Masculino , Schistosoma japonicum/anatomia & histologia , Schistosoma japonicum/efeitos dos fármacos , Schistosoma japonicum/patogenicidade , Esquistossomose Japônica/epidemiologia , Esquistossomose Japônica/prevenção & controle , Caramujos/parasitologia , Taiwan
5.
Kaohsiung J Med Sci ; 22(1): 1-13, 2006 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16570562

RESUMO

The epidemiology of Taenia saginata in some parts of Asia is confusing, in that beef does not appear to be the source of infection. In some areas, beef is either not available or not eaten raw, whereas pork at times is eaten uncooked. In light of this situation, we have exposed pigs and other animals to infection with strains of T. saginata to establish their ability to serve as intermediate hosts. Eggs of Taiwan Taenia, Korea Taenia, Indonesia Taenia, Thailand Taenia, Philippines Taenia, Ethiopia Taenia, and Madagascar Taenia were fed to 83 pigs of three strains: 43 Small-Ear Miniature (SEM), 34 Landrace Small-Ear Miniature (L-SEM), and 6 Duroc-Yorkshire-Landrace (DYL). We also fed the eggs to 10 Holstein calves, 17 Sannean goats, and 4 monkeys (Macaca cyclopis). We succeeded in infecting SEM (infection rate 88%, cysticercus recovery rate 19.1%), L-SEM (83%, 1.1%), and DYL (100%, 0.3%) pigs with Taiwan Taenia; SEM (100%, 1.7%), L-SEM (100%, 5.6%), and DYL (100%, 0.06%) pigs with Korea Taenia; SEM (100%, 22%) and L-SEM (100%, 1.6%) pigs with Indonesia Taenia; SEM (75%, 0.06%) pigs with Thailand Taenia SEM (100%, 11%) pigs with Philippines Taenia; SEM (80%, 0.005%) pigs with Ethiopia Taenia; SEM (100%, 0.2%) pigs with Madagascar Taenia. Holstein calves became infected with Taenia from Taiwan (100%, 1.1%), Korea (100%, 0.03%), Thailand (100%, 0.2%), and the Philippines (100%, 6%); however, the cysticerci of Taenia from Korea, Thailand, and the Philippines were degenerated and/or calcified. Sannean goats became infected with Taenia from Taiwan (33%, 0.01%) and Korea (50%, 0.02%), while monkeys became infected with Taenia from Taiwan (50%, 0.01%). However, the cysticerci were degenerated and/ or calcified. Therefore, these strains of pig seem to be favorable animal models for experimental studies of T. saginata-like tapeworms, with the SEM pig the most favorable.


Assuntos
Suínos/parasitologia , Taenia saginata , Teníase/transmissão , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Reservatórios de Doenças , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Humanos , Fígado/parasitologia , Taenia saginata/classificação
6.
Kaohsiung J Med Sci ; 21(10): 448-51, 2005 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16302447

RESUMO

In order to determine the minimum effective dosages of praziquantel, albendazole, and mebendazole against Clonorchis sinensis infection in Sprague-Dawley rats, each rat was infected with 30 metacercariae and treated with one of three drugs. The rats were killed and examined 25 days after praziquantel treatment or 11 days after albendazole or mebendazole treatment. The minimum effective dosages were a single dose of praziquantel 375 mg/kg, albendazole 150 mg/kg, and mebendazole 150 mg/kg. Trials are required to determine whether these dosages are useful in the treatment of human clonorchiasis.


Assuntos
Anti-Helmínticos/administração & dosagem , Clonorquíase/tratamento farmacológico , Clonorchis sinensis/efeitos dos fármacos , Albendazol/administração & dosagem , Albendazol/uso terapêutico , Animais , Anti-Helmínticos/uso terapêutico , Clonorquíase/parasitologia , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Masculino , Mebendazol/administração & dosagem , Mebendazol/uso terapêutico , Praziquantel/administração & dosagem , Praziquantel/uso terapêutico , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Resultado do Tratamento
7.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16042166

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To describe the morphological characteristics of Porocephalus taiwana sp. nov., discuss its pathogenic features and the method of etiological diagnosis of the new disease. METHODS: Fecal sedimentation concentration was used to collect nymphs from the patient's watery stool for species identification. Clinical information was collected for determining the pathogenic features of the new infection. RESULTS: A new pathogenic pentastomid Porocephalus taiwana sp. nov. is discovered and a new disease, porocephaliasis taiwana, is nominated. With the findings from this case it is proposed that the traditional visceral pentastomiasis should be divided into two subtypes, Encystic and Excystic. According to the pathological features, this case belongs to the excystic visceral pentastomiasis. CONCLUSION: Porocephalus taiwana sp. nov. is a new pathogenic pentastomid infecting humans. Porocephaliais taiwana belongs to a novel type (excystic) of visceral pentastomiasis.


Assuntos
Artrópodes/classificação , Artrópodes/patogenicidade , Doenças Parasitárias/parasitologia , Animais , Fezes/parasitologia , Humanos , Doenças Parasitárias/diagnóstico , Taiwan
8.
Kaohsiung J Med Sci ; 20(12): 575-9, 2004 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15696786

RESUMO

Immunity to Taiwan Taenia infection in pigs can be stimulated using homologous or heterologous non-viable Taenia oncospheres. This study was designed to determine whether homologous non-viable oncospheres could stimulate immunity to Hymenolepis infection in rodents. Hatched oncospheres were prepared from eggs of Hymenolepis diminuta, Hymenolepis nana, and Hymenolepis microstoma and kept at -70 degrees C for more than 1 month. A mixture of 500 non-viable oncospheres of each tapeworm and complete Freund's adjuvant was injected subcutaneously in four groups of Sprague-Dawley rats or ICR mice one to four times at an interval of 1 week; controls were not immunized. After immunization, each rodent was orally inoculated with three fresh active cysticercoids of H. diminuta or H. microstoma or 500 fresh eggs of H. nana. The animals were then necropsied for adult tapeworms. No rats or mice immunized with non-viable oncospheres of H. diminuta or H. nana were infected by the challenge inoculation. However, 28 of 34 mice immunized with non-viable H. microstoma oncospheres were infected after inoculation with cysticercoids. This study demonstrated complete protection against infection by homologous parasites in rats or mice immunized with non-viable oncospheres of H. diminuta and H. nana, respectively. Repeated immunization may not be required if resistance is stimulated in rodent hosts.


Assuntos
Himenolepíase/prevenção & controle , Hymenolepis/imunologia , Animais , Hymenolepis diminuta/imunologia , Hymenolepis nana/imunologia , Imunização , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
9.
J Microbiol Immunol Infect ; 36(2): 96-100, 2003 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-12886959

RESUMO

In this study, 12 Small-Ear-Miniature pigs aged 142 to 185 days were used to determine whether pigs injected with nonviable oncospheres of Taenia solium or Taenia saginata asiatica can become resistant to the challenge of viable eggs of T. solium. The 12 pigs were equally divided into 4 groups: 3 experimental groups in which each pig was injected subcutaneously with a mixture of 0.2 mL complete Freund's adjuvant and 10(4)/0.2 mL nonviable Taiwan/Asian Taenia, Indonesia Taenia, or T. solium oncospheres, and 1 control group in which each pig was injected subcutaneously with 0.2 mL phosphate buffer solution and 0.2 mL complete Freund's adjuvant. Each pig was orally inoculated with 10000 viable T. solium eggs 1 month later. The infection rates were 100% (2/2), 100% (3/3), 33% (1/3), and 100% (3/3) and cysticerci recovery rates were 1.3% (254/20000), 1.2% (371/30000), 0.01% (4/30000), and 8.6% (2,577/30000), respectively. Except for the location of 72 cysticerci located in the viscera, 3134 cysticerci were recovered from the muscles. In the experimental groups, 4 cysticerci recovered were viable and the remaining 625 were either calcified or degenerated. However, 2567 cysticerci recovered from the control group remained viable and only 10 were calcified or degenerated. The results indicate that in addition to the vaccine of T. solium, those of Taiwan Taenia and Indonesia Taenia can also induce high-crossing immunologic reactions against T. solium infection.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Suínos/prevenção & controle , Taenia solium/imunologia , Teníase/veterinária , Vacinação/veterinária , Animais , Congelamento , Humanos , Óvulo/imunologia , Suínos , Taenia saginata , Teníase/prevenção & controle
10.
J Helminthol ; 77(1): 83-8, 2003 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-12590670

RESUMO

Between 1993 and 1997, 837 stray dogs from North Taiwan were necropsied and examined for dog heartworm infections. A thick smear from 20 ml of peripheral blood from each dog was also prepared and examined for microfilariae (mf). The overall prevalence of adult worms in the dog population was 57%. The prevalence of mf in 1228 house dogs from different parts of Taiwan was also determined from 20 ml of peripheral blood in the same way. The overall prevalence of mf was 25%, with a value of 30% in the main island of Taiwan, this being 15 times higher than that in the offshore islands (2%). In Taiwan, the prevalence ranged from 4% in Hualien County, East Taiwan, to 41% in Nantou County, Central Taiwan. The mf prevalences on offshore islands were 1% on Liuchiu and 2% on Lanyu. The mf density per 20 ml blood in 82 house dogs was found to be 23 mf per dog, with a range of 3-97 mf per dog. A total of 477 stray dogs were found to be infected with adult worms of Dirofilaria immitis. The mean number of 7 worms per dog was obtained, with a range of 1-55 worms per dog. These results indicate that the prevalence of canine dirofilariasis has increased in Taiwan over the past 10 years. Moreover, the prevalence may be related to the wind speed, temperature, relative humidity, and altitude in the different areas surveyed.


Assuntos
Dirofilariose/epidemiologia , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Altitude , Animais , Cães , Prevalência , Taiwan/epidemiologia , Tempo (Meteorologia)
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