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1.
ACS Nano ; 2020 May 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32374154

RESUMO

In comparison with oil-based cracking technologies, the on-purpose dehydrogenation of propane (PDH) is a more eco-friendly and profitable approach to produce propylene. By means of density functional theory calculations, the present work reveals that the single vanadium (V) atom anchored on graphitic carbon nitride (V1/g-C3N4) may serve as a promising single-atom catalyst for non-oxidative PDH with industrially practical activity, selectivity, and thermal stability. The high activity of V1/g-C3N4 for PDH is attributed to the low-coordinated 3d orbitals of single V atoms, while the propylene selectivity is originated from the inhibition of the di-σ binding mode of propylene on the single V atoms. This work provides a guideline to design and screen out promising single-atom catalysts for selective dehydrogenation of alkanes.

2.
J Am Chem Soc ; 2020 Apr 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32321241

RESUMO

The structural transformation from symmetric cumulene to broken-symmetry polyyne within a one-dimensional (1-D) atomic carbon chain is a signature of Peierls distortion. Direct observation of such a structural transformation with single-bond resolution is, however, still challenging. Herein, we design a molecule with a cumulene moiety (Br2C═C═C═CBr2) and employ STM tip manipulation to achieve the molecular skeleton rearrangement from a cumulene to a diyne moiety (Br-C≡C-C≡C-Br). Furthermore, by an on-surface reaction strategy, thermally induced entire debromination (:C═C═C═C:) leads to the formation of a 1-D organometallic polyyne (-C≡C-C≡C-Au-) with a semiconducting characteristic, which implies that a Peierls-like transition may occur in a rationally designed molecular system with limited length.

3.
J Cancer Res Clin Oncol ; 146(6): 1441-1450, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32248302

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Poliovirus receptor (PVR) is a tumor promoter and a regulatory checkpoint that enhances immunosuppression. We investigated PVR expression by applying immunohistochemistry (IHC) staining. A positive association existed between PVR expression and cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 (CTLA4) expression in patients with surgically resected non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). PVR expression is a prognosis predictor of lung adenocarcinoma. PURPOSE: To investigate the prognostic significance of PVR expression and CTLA4 expression for surgically resected NSCLC. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The medical records of 108 Chinese patients with primary NSCLC who underwent surgery were retrospectively reviewed. The expression of PVR and CTLA4 were measured through IHC. Clinical characteristics, the association between PVR and CTLA4, and the prognostic significance of PVR were analyzed. RESULTS: A significant positive association was observed between PVR and CTLA4 expression in NSCLC (P = 0.016). PVR had a high positive rate among females, nonsmokers, and patients with adenocarcinoma and advanced lung cancer. The overall survival (OS) of patients with negative PVR expression was significantly longer than that of patients with positive PVR expression (P = 0.049), especially among females (P = 0.03) and nonsmokers (P = 0.025). Multivariate analysis results showed that advanced tumor stage and PVR expression were independent prognosis predictors of poor OS. CONCLUSION: PVR can potentially serve as a prognostic predictor and biomarker for NSCLC and cancer anti-CTLA4 immunotherapy response.

4.
Blood Adv ; 4(8): 1700-1710, 2020 Apr 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32330244

RESUMO

There is no standard or widely effective treatment of patients with moderate aplastic anemia (MAA) or hypo-productive uni-lineage cytopenias (UC). Eltrombopag (EPAG), a small molecule thrombopoietin mimetic, has previously been shown to result in durable multi-lineage hematologic responses with low toxicity in patients with refractory severe aplastic anemia (SAA). Its safety and efficacy in MAA are unknown. This prospective phase 2 study enrolled previously untreated and treated MAA and UC patients with clinically relevant cytopenias. EPAG was administered at doses escalating from 50 to 300 mg/d. Hematologic responses were assessed at 16 to 20 weeks. Responding patients were continued on EPAG until reaching defined robust or stable blood counts. EPAG was reinstituted for relapse. Thirty-four patients were enrolled between 2012 and 2017, including 31 with MAA and 3 with UC. Seventeen patients responded in at least 1 eligible lineage by the primary end point. A striking improvement in anemia was observed in a patient with Diamond-Blackfan anemia. EPAG was well tolerated, and it was discontinued for robust or stable blood counts in 12 of 17 patients after a median of 8 months. A majority required re-initiation of EPAG for declining counts, and all regained response. Two of 34 patients developed non-chromosome 7 bone marrow cytogenetic abnormalities while taking EPAG, without dysplasia or increased blasts. Somatic mutation allele frequencies in cancer genes did not increase overall on EPAG. EPAG is a well-tolerated oral treatment of cytopenias in patients with MAA/UC. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT01328587.

5.
Pharmacol Res ; 157: 104800, 2020 Apr 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32278046

RESUMO

The HBV-initiated hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) frequently develops from or accompanies long-term chronic hepatitis, inflammation, and cirrhosis, and has a poor prognosis. Sorafenib, an orally active multi-kinase inhibitor, currently the most common approved drug for first-line systemic treatment of advanced HCC, only improves overall survival of three months, suggesting the need for new therapeutic strategies. In this study, we identified that sorafenib selectively resisted in immune competent C57BL/6 mice but not nude mice. The chemokines CCL22 and CCL17 were upregulated by sorafenib, which elevated dramatically higher in HBV-associated HCC. Mechanically, sorafenib accelerates CCL22 expression via TNF-α-RIP1-NF-κB signaling pathway. Blocking CCL22 signaling with antagonist C-021 and sorafenib treated in combination can inhibit tumor growth and enhance the antitumor response, whereas no significant differences in tumor burden were observed in nude mice upon addition of C-021. These findings strongly suggest that CCL22 signaling pathway strongly contributes to sorafenib resistance in HBV-associated HCC, indicating a potential therapeutic strategy for immunological chemotherapy complementing first-line agents against HBV-associated HCC.

6.
Mol Phylogenet Evol ; 149: 106838, 2020 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32304825

RESUMO

To investigate the diploid-polyploid relationships and the role of maternal progenitors in establishment of polyploid richness in Triticeae, 35 polyploids representing almost all genomic constitutions together with 48 diploid taxa representing 20 basic genomes in the tribe were analyzed. Phylogenomic reconstruction, genetic distance matrix, and nucleotide diversity patterns of plastome sequences indicated that (1) The maternal donor of the annual polyploid species with the U- and D-genome are related to extant Ae. umbellulata and Ae. tauschii, respectively. The maternal donor to the annual polyploid species with the S-, G-, and B-genome originated from the species of Sitopsis section of the genus Aegilops. The annual species with the Xe-containing polyploids were donated by Eremopyrum as the female parent; (2) Pseudoroegneria and Psathyrostachys were the maternal donor of perennial species with the St- and Ns-containing polyploids, respectively; (3) The Lophopyrum, Thinopyrum and Dasypyrum genomes contributed cytoplasm genome to Pseudoroegneria species as a result of incomplete lineage sorting and/or chloroplast captures, and these lineages were genetically transmitted to the St-containing polyploid species via polyploidization; (4) There is a reticulate relationship among the St-containing polyploid species. It can be suggested that genetic heterogeneity might associate with the richness of the polyploids in Triticeae.

7.
Microbiol Immunol ; 2020 Mar 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32221997

RESUMO

HIV replication can be inhibited by CXCR5+ CD8 T cells (follicular cytotoxic T cell [TFC]) which transfer into B-cell follicles where latent HIV infection persists. However, how cytokines affect TFC remain unclear. Understanding which cytokines show the ability to affect TFC could be a key strategy toward curing HIV. Similar mechanisms could be used for the growth and transfer of TFCs and follicular helper T (TFH) cells; as a result, we hypothesized that cytokines IL-6, IL-21, and transforming growth factor-ß (TGF-ß), which are necessary for the differentiation of TFH cells, could also dictate the development of TFCs. In this work, lymph node mononuclear cells and peripheral blood mononuclear cells from HIV-infected individuals were cocultured with IL-6, IL-21, and TGF-ß. We then carried out T-cell receptor (TCR) repertoire analysis to compare the differences between CXCR5- and CXCR5+ CD8 T cells. Our results showed that the percentage and function of TFC can be enhanced by stimulation with TGF-ß. Besides, TGF-ß stimulation enhanced the diversity of TCR and complementarity-determining region 3 sequences. HIV DNA showed a negative correlation with TFC. The use of TGF-ß to promote the expression of CXCR5+ CD8 T cells could become a new treatment approach for curing HIV.

8.
Cell Mol Immunol ; 2020 Mar 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32210395

RESUMO

The viral reservoir is the major hurdle in developing and establishing an HIV cure. Understanding factors affecting the size and decay of this reservoir is crucial for the development of therapeutic strategies. Recent work highlighted that CD8+ T cells are involved in the control of viral replication in ART-treated HIV-1-infected individuals, but how CD8+ T cells sense and restrict the HIV reservoir are not fully understood. Here, we demonstrate that a population of unconventional CD45RA+, PanKIR+, and/or NKG2A+ virtual memory CD8+ T cells (TVM cells), which confer rapid and robust protective immunity against pathogens, plays an important role in restraining the HIV DNA reservoir in HIV-1-infected patients with effective ART. In patients undergoing ART, TVM cells negatively correlate with HIV DNA and positively correlate with circulating IFN-α2 and IL-15. Moreover, TVM cells constitutively express high levels of cytotoxic granule components, including granzyme B, perforin and granulysin, and demonstrate the capability to control HIV replication through both cytolytic and noncytolytic mechanisms. Furthermore, by using an ex vivo system, we showed that HIV reactivation is effectively suppressed by TVM cells through KIR-mediated recognition. This study suggests that TVM cells are a promising target to predict posttreatment virological control and to design immune-based interventions to reduce the reservoir size in ART-treated HIV-1-infected individuals.

9.
J Tissue Viability ; 29(2): 110-115, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32057586

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the clinical characteristics and treatment outcomes in patients with severe frostbite in a single institution in northeastern China. METHODS: The clinical records of patients with severe frostbite of the extremities who were hospitalized at the authors' institution between January 2009 and April 2019 were retrospectively reviewed. Demographic data, predisposing factors, clinical presentation, duration of signs and symptoms, number of surgical interventions, and length of hospital stay were extracted and analyzed. RESULTS: A total of 156 consecutive inpatients were treated for severe frostbite with the mean age was 43.7 ± 14.15 years. Hands were the most common site involved (38.5%). The most prevalent predisposing factor for frostbite included alcohol abuse (41.67%), smoking habits (37.18%) and psychiatric illness (14.11%). Mean duration of signs and symptoms was 3.6 days. Most of patients (37.8%) sustained frostbite injury in January. All patients survived, and the mean length of hospital stay was 45.6 days (range, 29-62). Amputations of limbs were performed in 40.4% of patients. CONCLUSION: The incidence of deep frostbite in Jilin province correlates with the environmental temperature and is often associated with alcohol abuse, smoking and other psychosocial factors. Delayed presentation would increase the risk of amputation. These findings should guide clinical decisions about the treatment of individual patients with deep frostbite.

10.
Stem Cell Rev Rep ; 16(2): 369-384, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32008159

RESUMO

T-cell malignancies often result in poor prognosis and outcome for patients. Immunotherapy has recently emerged as a revolutionary treatment against cancer, and the success seen in CD19 CAR clinical trials may extend to T cell diseases. However, a shared antigen pool coupled with the impact of T-cell depletion incurred by targeting T cell disease remain concepts to be clinically explored with caution. Here we report on the ability of T cells transduced with a CD5CAR to specifically and potently lyse malignant T-cell lines and primary tumors in vitro in addition to significantly improving in vivo control and survival of xenograft models of T-ALL. To extensively explore and investigate the biological properties of a CD5 CAR, we evaluated multiple CD5 CAR constructs and constructed 3 murine models to characterize the properties of CD5 down-regulation, the efficacy and specificity produced by different CD5 CAR construct designs, and the impact of incorporating a CD52 safety switch using CAMPATH to modulate the persistency and function of CAR cells. These data support the potential use of CD5CAR T cells in the treatment of T cell malignancies or refractory disease in clinical settings.

11.
Cancer Med ; 9(8): 2812-2819, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32100452

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This prospective phase II study aimed to determine the efficacy and tolerability of sequential boost of intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) with chemotherapy for patients with inoperable esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). METHODS: Patients with histologically or cytologically proven inoperable ESCC were enrolled in this study (ChiCTR-OIC-17010485). A larger target volume for subclinical lesion was irradiated with 50 Gy, and then, a smaller target volume only including gross tumor was boosted to 66 Gy. The fraction dose was 2 Gy, and no elective node was irradiated. Concurrent and consolidation chemotherapy of fluorouracil (600 mg/m2 , days 1-3) plus cisplatin (25 mg/m2 , days 1-3) was administered every 4 weeks, for 4 cycles in total. The primary endpoint was 2-year progression-free survival (PFS). RESULTS: Eighty-eight patients were enrolled in this study. The median age was 65 years (range: 45-75 years), and 69 patients (78.4%) were men. With the median follow-up of 26 (range: 3-95) months, the 2- and 5-year PFS were 39.3% and 36.9%, respectively, and overall survival (OS) were 57.1% and 39.2%, respectively. Tumor stage and concurrent chemotherapy were independent OS predictors. Major acute adverse events were myelosuppression and esophagitis, most of which were grades 1-2. Nine percent and 2.3% of patients had grade 3 acute esophagitis and late esophageal strictures, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Sequential boost to 66 Gy by IMRT with chemotherapy was safe and effective for inoperable ESCC. A randomized phase III study to compare with standard dose of 50 Gy is warranted.

12.
J Mol Cell Cardiol ; 140: 30-41, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32087218

RESUMO

AIMS: Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitors used in drug-eluting stents (DES) to control restenosis have been found to delay endothelialization and increase incidence of late-stent thrombosis through mechanisms not completely understood. We revealed that mTOR inhibition (mTORi) upregulated the expression of cell growth suppressor IRF-1 in primary human arterial endothelial cells (HAEC). This study aimed to examine how mTOR-regulated IRF-1 expression contributes to the suppressive effect of mTORi on arterial endothelial proliferation. METHODS AND RESULTS: Western blotting, quantitative PCR, and a dual-luciferase reporter assay indicated that mTOR inhibitors rapamycin and torin 1 upregulated IRF-1 expression and increased its transcriptional activity. IRF-1 in turn contributed to the suppressive effect of mTORi by mediating HAEC apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in part through upregulation of caspase 1 and downregulation of cyclin D3, as revealed by CCK-8 assay, Annexin V binding assay, measurement of activated caspase 3, BrdU incorporation assay, and matrigel tube formation assay. In a mouse model of femoral artery wire injury, administration of rapamycin inhibited EC recovery, an effect alleviated by EC deficiency of IRF-1. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assay with HAEC and rescue expression of wild type or dominant-negative IRF-1 in EC isolated from Irf1-/- mice confirmed transcriptional regulation of IRF-1 on the expression of CASP1 and CCND3. Furthermore, mTORi activated multiple PKC members, among which PKCζ was responsible for the growth-inhibitory effect on HAEC. Activated PKCζ increased IRF1 transcription through JAK/STAT-1 and NF-κB signaling. Finally, overexpression of wild type or mutant raptor incapable of binding mTOR indicated that mTOR-free raptor contributed to PKCζ activation in mTOR-inhibited HAEC. CONCLUSIONS: The study reveals an IRF-1-mediated mechanism that contributes to the suppressive effects of mTORi on HAEC proliferation. Further study may facilitate the development of effective strategies to reduce the side effects of DES used in coronary interventions.

14.
BMC Neurol ; 20(1): 59, 2020 Feb 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32066399

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Human leukocyte antigen-E (HLA-E) has been extensively investigated in various human cancers including glioma. However, the clinical significance of HLA-E expression in glioma patients has not been elucidated. The current study aimed to investigate the association of HLA-E expression with clinicopathological features and survival in patients with diffuse glioma. METHODS: A total of 261 glioma patients were enrolled, subsequently, mRNA microarray analysis was conducted to identify the relationship of HLA-E with clinicopathological features and patient survival. RESULTS: HLA-E was significantly overexpressed in high-grade gliomas compared to low-grade gliomas (LGGs). Moreover, HLA-E expression was significantly higher in diffuse astrocytomas than oligodendrogliomas (p = 0.032, t-test). Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were significantly better in LGG patients with low HLA-E expression (p = 0.018 for PFS and p = 0.020 for OS, Log-rank test). Furthermore, HLA-E expression was identified to be an independent prognostic factor by Cox analysis (p = 0.020 for PFS and p = 0.024 for OS). CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study which identified the clinical significance of HLA-E in diffuse glioma. HLA-E expression was correlated with more aggressive tumor grade and histological type and was identified as an independent prognostic biomarker in LGG patients.

15.
Stem Cell Rev Rep ; 16(2): 385-396, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31970687

RESUMO

The recent FDA approval of the first CAR immunotherapy marks a watershed moment in the advancement toward a cure for cancer. CD19 CAR treatment for B cell acute lymphocytic leukemia has achieved unprecedented remission rates. However, despite success in treating previously relapsed and refractory patients, CD19 CAR faces similar challenges as traditional chemotherapy, in that malignancy can adapt and overcome treatment. The emergence of both antigen positive and negative blasts after CAR treatment represents a need to bolster current CAR approaches. Here, we report on the anti-tumor activity of a CAR T cell possessing 2 discrete scFv domains against the leukemic antigens CD19 and CD123. We determined that the resulting compound CAR (cCAR) T cell possesses consistent, potent, and directed cytotoxicity against each target antigen population both in vitro and in vivo. Our findings indicate that targeting CD19 and CD123 on B-ALL cells may be an effective strategy for augmenting the response against leukemic blasts and reducing rates of relapse.

16.
J Coll Physicians Surg Pak ; 30(1): 23-27, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31931927

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determinate the clinical effect of butyphthalide combined with idebenone in the treatment of vascular dementia (VD) and the influence on inflammatory cytokines and vascular endothelial functions. STUDY DESIGN: Clinical comparative study. PLACE AND DURATION OF STUDY: Department of Neurology, Baoding First Central Hospital, from June 2017 to June 2018. METHODOLOGY: Eighty-eight VD patients were divided into observation group (44 cases) and control group (44 cases) at random. Idebenone was given to the control group, and butyphthalide combined with idebenone was given to the observation group for 12 weeks. C-reactive protein (CRP), tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and interleukin-1ß (IL-1ß) were detected before and after the treatment to evaluate the level of serum inflammatory factors. Peripheral blood endothelial microparticles (EMPs), endothelin (ET-1), and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) were detected to evaluate vascular endothelial functions. Mini-mental state examination (MMSE), clinical dementia scale (CDR), and ability of daily life (ADL), were used to evaluate cognitive function, dementia degree, and self-care ability in daily life. The occurrences of adverse reactions were recorded. RESULTS: Before the treatment, the comparison differences in the indexes of both groups had no statistical significance (p>0.05). After the treatment, the scores of CD62E+, VEGF, and MMSE of observation group rose obviously, compared with those before the treatment, and were significantly higher than those of control group (p <0.05). After the treatment, the scores of IL-6, CRP, TNF-α, IL-1ß, CD31+, CDl44+, ET-1, CDR and ADL of observation group significantly lowered, compared with those before the treatment, and were significantly lower than those of control group (p <0.05). The differences in the adverse reactions of both groups had no statistical significance (p >0.05). CONCLUSION: Butyphthalide combined with idebenone can effectively reduce serum inflammatory factor level of VD patients, regulate vascular endothelial functions, relieve dementia degree, and improve cognitive function and daily activity ability.

17.
Int J Oncol ; 56(2): 470-479, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31894264

RESUMO

microRNAs (miRNAs or miRs) are endogenous noncoding single­stranded RNA molecules that can regulate gene expression by targeting the 3'­untranslated region and play an important role in many biological and pathological processes, such as inflammation and cancer. In this study, we found that miR­20b was significantly increased in human non­small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell lines and patient tissues, suggesting that it may possess a carcinogenic role in lung cancer. This miRNA promoted the proliferation, migration and invasion of NSCLC cells by targeting and downregulating the expression of adenomatous polyposis coli (APC), which is a negative regulator of the canonical Wnt signaling pathway. Wnt signaling activation may increase transcription of miR­20b. Therefore, miR­20b and canonical Wnt signaling were coupled through a feed­forward positive feedback loop, forming a biological regulatory circuit. Finally, an in vivo investigation further demonstrated that an increase in miR­20b promoted the growth of cancer cells. Overall, our findings offer evidence that miR­20b may contribute to the development of NSCLC by inhibiting APC via the canonical Wnt signaling pathway.

18.
Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys ; 107(1): 98-105, 2020 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31987968

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This prospective phase 2 study evaluated the efficacy and safety of intensity modulated radiation therapy plus etoposide/cisplatin (EP) for patients with unresectable thymic epithelial tumors (TETs). METHODS AND MATERIALS: Patients with limited advanced unresectable TETs whose lesions could be encompassed within radiation fields were enrolled in this study. Two cycles of EP (75 mg/m2 etoposide and 25 mg/m2 cisplatin on days 1-3 and days 29-31) were administered concurrently with radiation therapy, followed by 2 cycles after radiation therapy. The primary endpoint was the objective response rate. The secondary endpoints were the progression-free survival rate, overall survival rate, and incidence of adverse events. RESULTS: Fifty-six patients were enrolled between June 2011 and May 2018. Twenty-two and 34 patients had thymomas and thymic carcinomas, respectively. The median age was 52 (range, 21-76) years, and 30 patients (53.6%) were men. Eight patients (14.3%) had stage III tumors, 6 (10.7%) had stage IVA tumors, and 42 (75.0%) had stage IVB tumors. The objective response rate was 85.7% (95% confidence interval, 76.3%-95.2%). With a median follow-up of 46 (range, 7-101) months, the 1-, 2-, and 5-year progression-free survival rates were 66.1%, 48.0%, and 29.5%, and the 1-, 2-, and 5-year overall survival rates were 91.0%, 76.2%, and 56.2%, respectively. The most common grade 3 to 4 adverse event was leukopenia (42.9%). Pulmonary fibrosis was also observed (5.3%). CONCLUSIONS: Because intensity modulated radiation therapy with EP is effective and safe for limited advanced unresectable TETs, it could be a suitable treatment option for such patients.

19.
Neurosurg Rev ; 2020 Jan 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31965363

RESUMO

To explore the relationship between postoperative motor deficits and the duration of reduced motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) in patients with middle cerebral artery (MCA) aneurysm. This study included 285 cases of MCA aneurysm treated with clipping surgery with MEP monitoring. The effects of MEP changes on postoperative motor function were assessed, and the key time point for minimizing the incidence of postoperative motor dysfunction was found through receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. Motor dysfunction was significantly associated with the occurrence of MEP changes, and patients with irreversible changes were more likely to suffer motor dysfunction than were those with reversible changes. The critical duration of MEP changes that minimized the risk of postoperative motor dysfunction was 8.5 min. This study revealed that MEP monitoring is an effective method for preventing ischemic brain injury during surgical treatment of MCA aneurysm and proposes a critical cutoff for the duration of MEP deterioration of 8.5 min for predicting postoperative motor dysfunction.

20.
Cell Mol Life Sci ; 2020 Jan 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31965214

RESUMO

Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been extensively investigated for the treatment of various diseases. The therapeutic potential of MSCs is attributed to complex cellular and molecular mechanisms of action including differentiation into multiple cell lineages and regulation of immune responses via immunomodulation. The plasticity of MSCs in immunomodulation allow these cells to exert different immune effects depending on different diseases. Understanding the biology of MSCs and their role in treatment is critical to determine their potential for various therapeutic applications and for the development of MSC-based regenerative medicine. This review summarizes the recent progress of particular mechanisms underlying the tissue regenerative properties and immunomodulatory effects of MSCs. We focused on discussing the functional roles of paracrine activities, direct cell-cell contact, mitochondrial transfer, and extracellular vesicles related to MSC-mediated effects on immune cell responses, cell survival, and regeneration. This will provide an overview of the current research on the rapid development of MSC-based therapies.

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