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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31603228

RESUMO

Late-life depression (LLD) is an affective disorder that is highly prevalent among older people. Cognitive reserve (CR) refers to an active process that facilitates the flexibility and efficiency of the neural networks to compensate for impairments that emerge in consequence of brain pathology. The current functional magnetic resonance imaging study investigated whether and how CR affects emotional regulation, level of depression severity and neural activity associated with affective control during emotional Stroop (eStroop) task. Altogether, 90 older people participated in this study, 50 of whom suffered from LLD. We used years of education and verbal fluency capacity as proxies for CR. Clinical participants with relatively higher CR presented with milder degrees of depression, better eStroop performance and stronger neural activity in the middle frontal gyrus (MFG) involved with exercising affective control. Results of the mediation analysis indicated that both education and verbal fluency significantly mediated the association between the depression severity and MEG activity. These results suggest a negative association between CR and age-related clinical symptoms of emotional dysregulation. Our neurobehavioral findings provide supportive evidence that CR implies efficiency of top-down emotional regulation and operates as a protective factor against emotional and cognitive vulnerability in the aging brain.

2.
Brain Res ; : 146474, 2019 Sep 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31557476

RESUMO

Intranasal insulin exerts neuroprotective effects in a variety of neurological diseases. Whether intranasal insulin affects epileptic activity and whether it has neuroprotective effects in epileptic diseases is however still unknown. In this study we show that low-dose intranasal insulin inhibited kainicacid (KA)- or pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced acute seizures and reduced epileptic discharge activities in mice, potentially by alleviating the increase in seizure-induced glutamate in the hippocampus. Meanwhile, intranasal insulin increased GABA levels and the activities of hippocampal theta, which may affect the excitability of the hippocampus. In chronic KA-induced epilepsy, low-dose intranasal insulin reduces the frequency of spontaneous recurrent seizures and epileptic discharges, while it increases theta energy and thereby improves spatial memory. Larger doses of intranasal insulin increased the frequency of seizures but did not aggravate cognitive impairment, suggesting that the frequency of seizures may not be related to impaired cognitive function. Overall, our findings show that low-dose intranasal insulin inhibits epileptic events and improves cognitive impairment in epileptic mice, suggesting that learning and memory can be improved by intranasal insulin. However, larger doses might increase the risk of epileptic seizures.

3.
Dalton Trans ; 48(37): 14044-14048, 2019 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31490480

RESUMO

Two macrocyclic titanium-oxo clusters, namely, [Ti32(µ3-O)8(µ2-O)8(OCH2CH2O)32(OCH2CH2OH)16(BTA)16]·44H2O (BTA = butyrate) and [Ti32(µ3-O)8(µ2-O)8(OCH2CH2O)32(OCH2CH2OH)16(DMBTA)16(HDMBTA)2]·24H2O (DMBTA = 2,2-dimethylbutyrate) were synthesized and structurally characterized. The framework of the Ti32-oxo macrocycle was cyclically fixed by the double-deprotonated ethylene glycolate ligands, which exhibit an inner cavity of about 1.2 × 1.2 nm. The catalytic properties of the Ti32-oxo macrocycles towards the oxidative desulfurization (ODS) reaction were investigated. The structure-dependent catalytic properties towards oxidative desulfurization were observed for the Ti32-oxo macrocycles functionalized with the different carboxylate ligands.

4.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 55(76): 11374-11377, 2019 Sep 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31478534

RESUMO

An efficient organocatalytic cyclization strategy was developed to synthesize pharmacologically interesting bicyclic imidazoline derivatives. Morita-Baylis-Hillman carbonates were applied as C3 electrophiles to react with N,C-dinucleophiles for the first time, yielding the desired products in good to excellent yields with outstanding diastereoselectivities. The optically pure bicyclic imidazolines were expeditiously prepared by utilizing the readily available chiral ketene aminals as building blocks. The products were found to inhibit MDM2-p53 binding and cell proliferation. The most potent compound 5c induced the accumulation of MDM2, p53 and p21 proteins in HCT116 cells and blocked interaction between MDM2 and p53.

5.
J Neurochem ; 2019 Aug 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31418825

RESUMO

Pyroptosis is a type of programmed cell death, displaying caspase-1-dependent and pro-inflammatory features. Purinergic 2X4 (P2X4 ) receptor activation in response to high adenosine triphosphate (ATP) release can induce inflammation. Envelope glycoprotein 120 (gp120) of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) is considered one of the primary pathogens leading to neuronal injury. In this study, we investigated the possible role of P2X4 receptor activation in gp120-triggered pyroptosis in cultured satellite glial cells (SGCs) of rat dorsal root ganglia (DRG). MTS assay, TUNEL assay, Real-time RT-PCR, and Western blotting et al. methods were used. The results indicated that the expression of P2X4 receptor in SGCs of DRG was upregulated upon cultured with gp120 for 24 h. The highest decrease in viability of SGCs due to gp120 treatment was accompanied by marked increases of positive pyroptosis cells and cellular lactate dehydrogenase release, elevated levels of interleukin-1ß (IL-1ß), interleukin-18 (IL-18), active caspase-1 and NOD-like receptor family, pyrin domain containing 1 (NLRP1), and enhanced phosphorylation of p38MAPK. These abnormal changes due to gp120 were significantly inhibited and cell viability was markedly improved when SGCs of DRG were treated with short hairpin RNAs (shRNAs) targeting P2X4 receptor. Our data suggest that silencing of P2X4 receptor may act effectively against gp120-induced pyroptosis mediated by activation of NLRP1 inflammasome and caspase-1 signaling in SGCs of DRG. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

6.
Eur Urol ; 2019 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31103390

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Level III-IV robot-assisted inferior vena cava (IVC) thrombectomy (RA-IVCT) has been reported in limited series. OBJECTIVE: To report our initial series of level III-IV RA-IVCT with step-by-step procedures and 1-yr outcomes. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: From November 2014 to January 2018, 13 patients with level III-IV IVC tumor thrombi underwent RA-IVCT with a minimum of 1-yr follow-up. SURGICAL PROCEDURE: Level III RA-IVCT requires liver mobilization and clamping of first porta hepatis (FPH), and suprahepatic and infradiaphragmatic IVC. Level IV RA-IVCT requires establishment of cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). Thoracoscopy-assisted thrombectomy was performed for the intra-atrium part of the thrombus under CPB. Infradiaphragmatic RA-IVCT was completed in a manner similar to that of level III RA-IVCT. MEASUREMENTS: Detailed techniques were described for various scenarios. Baseline and perioperative outcomes were reported, and descriptive statistical analysis was performed. RESULTS AND LIMITATIONS: Median operative time was 465 (interquartile range [IQR]: 338-567) min. Median estimated intraoperative blood loss was 2000 (IQR: 1000-3000) ml. The rates of intraoperative blood transfusion and postoperative transformation to the intensive care unit ward were 92.3% and 100%, respectively. Median FPH blocking time was 40 (IQR: 25-60) min and the CPB time was 72 (IQR: 51-87) min. Three cases had grade IV complications, including two vascular injuries that were treated with intraoperative endoscopic sutures and one perioperative death. The perioperative mortality rate was 7.7%. During an 18-mo follow-up, two patients died and one patient progressed. CONCLUSIONS: Although the risks involved are high, level III-IV RA-IVCT is feasible and serves as an alternative minimally invasive method for selected patients. It also requires more complex techniques and multidisciplinary cooperation. PATIENT SUMMARY: We studied the treatment of patients with level III-IV inferior vena cava (IVC) tumor thrombi using a robotic approach. This technique was feasible for well-selected patients. However, level III-IV robot-assisted IVC thrombectomy requires more complex techniques and multidisciplinary cooperation.

7.
8.
Eur Spine J ; 28(9): 2169-2178, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31093750

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To assess the feasibility of diffusion kurtosis imaging (DKI) for diagnosing lumbar intervertebral disk degeneration (IDD) and to compare the potential of DKI and T2* mapping in the diagnosis of early IDD. METHODS: Sagittal T2WI, DKI, and T2* mapping were performed in 75 subjects with 375 lumbar intervertebral disks at a 3.0-T MRI. DKI-related parameters including mean kurtosis (MK), mean diffusivity (MD), fractional anisotropy (FA), and T2* values were calculated for each disk which was segmented into three regions: nucleus pulposus (NP), anterior annulus fibrosus (AAF), and posterior annulus fibrosus (PAF). RESULTS: MK and FA were positively correlated with Pfirrmann grade (all P < 0.001). MD and T2* were negatively correlated with Pfirrmann grade (all P < 0.001) except for T2* value of AAF (r = 0.087, P > 0.05). MK and FA values increased, while MD and T2* values decreased with age. No statistical significance was found between men and women (P > 0.05). Cephalic lumbar disks (L1/L2 and L2/L3) got lower MK and FA values than caudal lumbar disks (L4/L5 and L5/S1) (all P < 0.05), while cephalic lumbar disks got higher MD value than caudal lumbar disks (all P < 0.05). ROC analysis demonstrated that MK, MD, and FA showed significantly higher diagnostic accuracies than T2*, especially in NP and PAF. CONCLUSIONS: DKI can be used to assess human lumbar IDD. And DKI was more sensitive to the quantitative detection of early lumbar IDD than T2* mapping. These slides can be retrieved under Electronic Supplementary Material.

9.
J AOAC Int ; 102(5): 1448-1454, 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31088594

RESUMO

Background: The essential oil content of the water lily is extremely low; thus, finding a new method that can extract essential oil from water lilies with a high extraction rate and no residual organic solvents is essential. Objective: The optimal processing conditions for the ultrasound-enhanced subcritical fluid extraction of essential oil from Nymphaea alba var (red water lily) and the antioxidant activity of the essential oil in vitro are investigated to provide theoretical bases for identification and development. Methods: Single-factor experiments and orthogonal designs are performed to determine the effects of extraction conditions on essential oil yields. The chemical composition of essential oil is analyzed using GC-MS. Results: The optimum extraction parameters are established as follows: extraction temperature, 35°C; extraction time, 30 min/time for four times; ratio of material to liquid, 1:3; ultrasound power, 250 W/L; and ultrasonic frequency, 20 kHz. The extraction rate of essential oil is 0.315% under these conditions. Eleven components comprise more than 1% content. The main chemical constituents are 8-hexadecyne (31.04%) and 2,6,10-trimethyl-tetradecane (3.95%). The essential oil from N. alba var has an antioxidant activity in vitro; however, its antioxidant activity is weaker than that of butylated hydroxytoluene. Conclusions: Subcritical fluid is suitable for the extraction of essential oil from N. alba var, and the essential oil has a good antioxidant activity. Highlights: The essential oil content of N. alba var is 0.315%. Forty-seven chemical constituents are identified and isolated from N. alba var and analyzed by GC-MS.

10.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 241: 111920, 2019 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31042594

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGY RELEVANCY: Mauremys mutica (Asian yellow pond turtle, YPT) and Cuora trifasciata (Chinese three-striped box turtle, TBT) are traditional Chinese medicine. They possess many biological characteristics, such as immune-enhancement, anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer effects. They have been used as folk anti-cancer drugs in central and southern China for a long time. However, there was no reports of comparing the immune-enhancement effect of YPT and TBT, nor of identifying the structures of YPT peptides and TBT peptides. AIMS OF THE STUDY: The aim of this study was to evaluate the protective efficacy of YPT and TBT on immunodeficient mice and to compare the primary structures of YPT peptides and TBT peptides. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The protein extracts were extracted using 100 °C water, and peptides were obtained by hydrolyzing protein extracts using alkaline protease. Cyclophosphamide (CTX) was used to induce immunodeficiency in mice. The immune enhancement effect was evaluated by measuring body weight gain curve, thymus index, spleen index, serum SOD activity and GSH-Px activity. Primary structure of peptides was identified by HPLC-ESI-MS/MS. RESULTS: The protein extracts and peptides of the YPT and TBT had certain recovery effects on immunodeficient mice. YPT peptide has the best effect on the recovery of damaged immune organs and the improvement of SOD and GSH-Px activities in mice. In the identification of the primary structure of the polypeptide, we find that YPT and TBT contain some similar peptides as well as different peptides, and the concentration of the peptide segments in HPLC data is very different. The difference of biological activity may be determined by both the difference of specific peptide structure and concentration. CONCLUSIONS: Two kinds of healthy turtle protein extracts and peptides could have immune-enhancement function, and peptides obtained by enzymatic hydrolysis of YPT protein extracts have the best immune-enhancement effect. The identification of the primary structure of the peptide segment preliminarily showed that its biological activity was affected by the amino acid sequence and the concentration of part of the peptide segment. It laid a foundation for the follow-up search of immune-enhancement peptides and the development of high-value YPT products.

11.
J Endourol ; 33(7): 533-540, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31037969

RESUMO

Renal ischemic time is one of the most variable risk factors in partial nephrectomy (PN). Our purpose was to investigate if intermittent ischemia could decrease renal impairment in the process of PN in porcine model and explore the feasibility of this surgical procedure in nephrectomy. A kidney ischemia-reperfusion injury model was successfully established in six pigs under laparoscopic surgery. One kidney of each pig was continuously ischemic, and intermittent ischemia was administered to the kidney of another side. Laparoscopic renal artery occlusion was applied to each kidney for 120 minutes. Intermittent ischemia was 15/3 minutes of cycles (ischemia for 15 minutes and reperfusion for 3 minutes). Microdialysis technique, immunohistochemistry, and histopathology were used to evaluate the extent of renal function injures. The concentration of glycerol in intermittently ischemic group was significantly lower than that in continuously ischemic group (F = 19.06, p = 0.001). NGAL and BCL-2 immunostaining of the renal tubular epithelial cell in the intermittent ischemia kidneys was significantly reduced compared with that in the continuously ischemic kidneys (F = 5.51, p = 0.041; F = 13.53, p = 0.004). Our study has shown that intermittent ischemia is a possibly effective and practicable surgical process for reducing renal ischemic damage in porcine model nephrectomy.

12.
J Endourol ; 33(7): 557-563, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31106582

RESUMO

Objective: The aim of this study was to explore a new treatment strategy for left renal vein tumor thrombus directed at the thrombus level and the therapeutic effect of robotic surgery. Materials and Methods: Fifteen patients with left renal cell carcinoma with renal vein tumor thrombus (Mayo level 0) who underwent robotic radical nephrectomy and thrombectomy from July 2013 to July 2017 were included in this series. If the left renal vein thrombus transcended the superior mesenteric artery (SMA), the thrombus was classified as level 0b, the patient was positioned right side up for thrombectomy and repositioned left side up for nephrectomy, and angioembolization of left renal artery was necessary; otherwise, the thrombus was classified as level 0a and the patient was positioned left side up for both nephrectomy and thrombectomy. Baseline, perioperative, and follow-up data were analyzed. Results: Of all 15 patients, 10 had a level 0a tumor thrombus and 5 had a level 0b tumor thrombus. For level 0a patients, median operating time was 130 minutes, median estimated blood loss was 125 mL, with no patient receiving transfusion, and median hospital stay was 3.5 days. For level 0b patients, median operating time was 180 minutes, median estimated blood loss was 250 mL, with one patient receiving transfusion, and median hospital stay was 5 days. No perioperative complications or positive surgical margins occurred. For level 0a patients, one patient with preexisting lumbar vertebral metastasis died during a median follow-up of 39 months. For level 0b patients, all patients were alive at a median follow-up of 16.5 months. Conclusions: Our initial experience shows that the new treatment strategy for left renal vein tumor thrombus with the SMA as a dividing landmark directed at the thrombus level is safe and feasible. A larger cohort of level 0b patients and longer-term follow-up are needed to further assess the strategic advantages.

13.
Macromol Rapid Commun ; 40(13): e1900118, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31038774

RESUMO

In this research, a new design of organic-inorganic hybrid networks involving covalently bonding, novel, electron-donating triphenylamine (TPA)-containing electroactive molecules to inorganic metal oxides is successfully developed by using a facile sol-gel process. These anodically electrochromic TPA-containing materials exhibit multicolor electrochromic behaviors at various oxidation states. By introducing zirconium oxide into electrochromic materials, not only can an excellent optical transparency in the visible light region at a neutral state be achieved given the nature of the large energy bandgap, but the electrochromic switching can also be driven by a lower oxidation potential with an enhanced response capability (shorter coloring times and bleaching times). Moreover, the hybrid films show outstanding electrochemical stability and high reversibility under long-term operations owing to their good adhesion to the electrode. Consequently, the electrochromic devices derived from these novel hybrid electroactive materials reveal a huge potential for electrochromic applications.

14.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(17): e15251, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31027073

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Aberrant expression of long non-coding RNA Zinc finger E-box binding homeobox 1 antisense 1 (lncRNA ZEB1-AS1) can be detected in numerous malignancies. Therefore, a meta-analysis had been carried out in this study, aiming to examine the prognostic value of lncRNA ZEB1-AS1 in malignancies. METHODS: Electronic databases, such as PubMed, OVID as well as Web of Science, had been systemically retrieved from inception to February 14th, 2019. Besides, the hazard ratios (HRs), together with the corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs), had also been analyzed for determining the association of lncRNA ZEB1-AS1 expression with the overall survival (OS) and recurrence-free survival (RFS). In addition, the pooled odds ratios (ORs) would also be computed using the Stata SE12.0 software for evaluating the relationship of lncRNA ZEB1-AS1 expression with pathological factors. RESULTS: A total of 21 original studies involving 1801 cancer patients had been enrolled into the current meta-analysis. As suggested by the pooled HR, high expression of lncRNA ZEB1-AS1 had displayed marked correlation with OS (HR = 2.16, 95% CI: 1.89-2.47) among cancer patients, and no significant heterogeneity was detected. Additionally, high expression of lncRNA ZEB1-AS1 was also markedly associated with RFS among cancer patients (pooled HR = 2.55, 95% CI: 1.61-4.03). Besides, the expression of lncRNA ZEB1-AS1 had displayed marked correlation with poor histological grade (PHG) (OR = 2.86, 95% CI: 2.11-3.87), high tumor stage (HTS) (OR = 3.81, 95% CI: 2.72-5.34) as well as lymph node metastasis (LNM) (OR = 3.33, 95% CI: 2.47-4.49). Additionally, no distinct asymmetry had been detected for RFS, PHG as well as HTS based on Begg funnel plot. CONCLUSIONS: Taken together, high expression of lncRNA ZEB1-AS1 can predict the dismal OS, RFS, LNM, PHG, and HTS, indicating that lncRNA ZEB1-AS1 can be potentially used as a new biomarker to predict the dismal prognosis for cancer patients.


Assuntos
Neoplasias/metabolismo , Neoplasias/mortalidade , RNA Longo não Codificante/biossíntese , Biomarcadores Tumorais , China , Estudos Clínicos como Assunto , Humanos , Metástase Linfática , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Razão de Chances , Prognóstico , Análise de Sobrevida
15.
Arch Biochem Biophys ; 666: 46-51, 2019 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30930283

RESUMO

Streptococcus mutans, a bacterium mainly inhabiting the tooth surface, is a major pathogen of dental caries. The bacterium metabolizes sugars to produce acids, resulting in an acidic microenvironment in the dental plaque. Hence, S. mutans should possess a mechanism for surviving under acidic conditions. In the current study, we report the effects of inhibitors of Escherichia coli proton-pumping F-type ATPase (F-ATPase) on the activity of S. mutans enzyme, and the growth and survival of S. mutans under acidic conditions. Piceatannol, curcumin, and demethoxycurcumin strongly reduced the ATPase activity of S. mutans F-ATPase. Interestingly, these compounds inhibited the growth of S. mutans at pH 5.3 but not at pH 7.3. They also significantly reduced the colony-forming ability of S. mutans after incubation at pH 4.3, while showing essentially no effect at pH 7.3. These observations indicate that S. mutans is highly sensitive to F-ATPase inhibitors under acidic conditions and that F-ATPase plays an important role in acid tolerance of this bacterium.

16.
Environ Pollut ; 250: 233-240, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30999200

RESUMO

Microbes in sediments contribute to nutrient release and play an important role in lake eutrophication. However, information about the profiles of functional genes and bacterial communities and the most important environmental factor affecting them in the sediments of eutrophic lake remains unrevealed. In this work, the real-time fluorescent quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assay and 16S ribosomal RNA gene next generation sequencing analysis were used to explore the profiles of functional genes and bacterial communities in the sediments of Chaohu Lake. The selected 18 functional genes involved in C, N and P cycles were detected in most of samples. Seasonal variation and sediment variables were found to affect the profiles of functional genes and bacterial communities, and total nitrogen was the dominant environmental factor to drive the formation of bacterial community structure. Proteobacteria and Firmicutes were observed to be the two dominant phyla in the sediments with relative abundance ranging from 10.8% to 36.0% and 7.7%-46.7%, respectively. Three bacterial phyla, i.e., Actinobacteria, Proteobacteria, and Spirochaetes, were found to be significantly positively correlated with the C, N and P-cycle related functional genes. Bacterial community structure was the most important driver to shape the profiles of functional genes. Seasonal variation also influenced the co-occurrence patterns between functional genes and bacterial taxa as revealed by network analysis. The findings from this work facilitate a better understanding about the C, N, and P cycles in the sediments of eutrophic lakes.


Assuntos
Sedimentos Geológicos/microbiologia , Lagos/microbiologia , Microbiota/genética , Nitrogênio/química , Estações do Ano , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Bactérias/metabolismo , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Eutrofização , Sedimentos Geológicos/química , Lagos/química , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Microbiologia da Água
17.
Curr Med Sci ; 39(2): 228-236, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31016515

RESUMO

Histone deacetylases (HDACs) inhibitors are novel in cancer therapy nowadays. HDAC6-selective inhibitors exert advantageous effects due to higher selectivity and less toxicity. We explored the anti-tumor effect and the molecular mechanism of cay10603, a potent HDAC6 inhibitor in Burkitt's lymphoma cells. Our study revealed cay10603 inhibited the proliferation of Burkitt's lymphoma cell lines, and induced caspase-dependent apoptosis. Cay10603 inhibited the expression of CDKs and cyclins to impede cell cycle progression in both Burkitt's lymphoma cell lines. Cay10603 also showed the additive effect with vp16 notably. Our data presented the promising anti-tumor effect of cay10603 in the Burkitt's lymphoma therapy.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Linfoma de Burkitt/tratamento farmacológico , Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Inibidores de Histona Desacetilases/farmacologia , Histona Desacetilases/metabolismo , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos
18.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(7)2019 Mar 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30934751

RESUMO

Monotonous cucumber double-cropping systems under plastic greenhouse vegetable cultivation (PGVC) previously intensified by long-term anthropogenic activities and manipulative treatments leads to a crop productivity reduction and soil biota disturbances. In this study, the role of the indigenous arbuscular mycorrhizal strain (AM: Glomus versiforme L.) and organic substrate (GS: Garlic stalk) application were assessed for plant microbe interaction and crop productivity feedback in a greenhouse (2016⁻2018) under a cultivated Anthrosol characterized as a replanted degraded soil. We found that repetitively adding AM inocula with organic substrates (GS) improved the cucumber growth and physiology. The useful trait of AM symbiosis with C-amended organic substrates preferentially manifested as increased root colonization, hyphal density proliferation, AM sporulation, root activity, and suppressed Fusarium incidence. The post AM development further prevailed the synergistic interaction, and the co-inoculation effect resulted in an increase in fruit nutrition uptake, seasonal cucumber yield and fruit quality attributes. Illumina MiSeq analysis of the 18S rRNA gene amplicons revealed that the dominant AM genera that are particularly enriched with the Glomus taxon may be important ecological drivers associated with plant productivity and fruit quality characteristics. These results suggest that the AM-organic substrate association might be a pragmatic option for use as an economic and efficient biological resource and as a newly-sustainable plant microbe mediator to enhance the regional ecosystem services and plant productivity of the anthropogenic PGVC of this region.


Assuntos
Cucumis sativus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Cucumis sativus/microbiologia , Frutas/normas , Glomeromycota/fisiologia , Atividades Humanas , Micorrizas/fisiologia , Compostos Orgânicos/farmacologia , Microbiologia do Solo , Biodiversidade , Frutas/microbiologia , Humanos , Fotossíntese/efeitos dos fármacos , Desenvolvimento Vegetal/efeitos dos fármacos , Análise de Componente Principal , Estações do Ano , Solo
19.
Purinergic Signal ; 15(1): 53-67, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30809739

RESUMO

In recent years, immunotherapy has produced many unexpected breakthroughs in oncological therapy; however, it still has many deficiencies. For example, the number of patients who are unresponsive to anti-programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1), anti-cytotoxic T-like antigen-4 (CTLA4), and anti-programmed death-1 (PD1) therapies cannot be ignored, and the search for an undiscovered immunosuppressive pathway is imminent. Five decades ago, researchers found that activation of the adenosinergic pathway was negatively correlated with prognosis in many cancers. This review describes the entire process of the adenosinergic pathway in the tumor microenvironment and the mechanism of immunosuppression, which promotes tumor metastasis and drug resistance. Additionally, the review explores factors that regulate this pathway, including signaling factors secreted by the tumor microenvironment and certain anti-tumor drugs. Additionally, the combination of adenosinergic pathway inhibitors with chemotherapy, checkpoint blockade therapy, and immune cell-based therapy is summarized. Finally, certain issues regarding treatment via inhibition of this pathway and the use of targeted nanoparticles to reduce adverse reactions in patients are put forward in this review. Graphical Abstract The inhibitors of adenosinergic pathway loaded nanoparticles enter tumor tissue through EPR effect, and inhibit adenosinergic pathway to enhance or restore the effect of immune checkpoint blockade therapy, chemotherapies and immune cell-based therapy. Note: EPR means enhanced penetration and retention, × means blockade.


Assuntos
Adenosina/metabolismo , Neoplasias/metabolismo , Evasão Tumoral/fisiologia , Microambiente Tumoral/fisiologia , Animais , Humanos , Imunoterapia , Neoplasias/terapia
20.
J Magn Reson Imaging ; 50(3): 889-898, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30779402

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Diffusion-tensor-imaging (DTI) is sensitive in detecting white matter changes in type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). However, DTI indices can be affected by either neurite density or spatial variation. A novel diffusion MRI technique, termed neurite orientation dispersion and density imaging (NODDI), can provide distinct indices of fiber density and dispersion. PURPOSE: To characterize brain microstructural alterations in T2DM patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) using the NODDI model. STUDY TYPE: Cross-sectional. SUBJECTS: Twenty T2DM patients with (DM-MCI group), 18 age- and gender-matched T2DM patients with normal cognition (DM-NC group), and 28 euglycemic healthy controls (HC). FIELD STRENGTH/SEQUENCE: 3T/NODDI. ASSESSMENT: Diffusion data were analyzed using tract-based-spatial-statistics (TBSS) analysis in white matter and voxel-based analysis in both white and gray matter. NODDI indices, including intracellular volume fraction (Vic) and orientation dispersion index (ODI), were estimated from multiple regions and compared among these groups. STATISTICAL TESTS: Differences between groups were compared by Student's t-test, Pearson chi-square test, or analysis of variance when appropriate. Correlation analyses were performed to investigate the relationship between NODDI variables and clinical measurements. RESULTS: Whole-brain TBSS revealed that 2.29% and 2.02% of the white matter regions exhibited decreased fractional anisotropy and Vic, respectively, between the DM-NC and HC, while considerably larger white matter areas showed decreased fractional anisotropy (38.38%) and Vic (34.64%) between the DM-MCI and HC (Student's t-test, P < 0.05). However, the angular variation of neurites, characterized by ODI, exhibited very little (0.1%, P < 0.05) or no difference (P > 0.05) between either the DM-MCI or DM-NC groups and HC. Decreased Vic values in the genu of the corpus callosum (R = 0.580, 0.551 and 0.586, P < 0.01) and thalamus (R = 0.570, 0.616, and 0.595, P < 0.05) correlated with glycosylated hemoglobin A1c level, disease duration, and neuropsychological scores, respectively. DATA CONCLUSION: T2DM patients with cognitive decline had reduced Vic, which indicated decreased density of axons and dendrites. NODDI might be able to help probe microstructural changes in white and gray matter and provide information on diabetic encephalopathy, including those with cognitive impairment. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: 1 Technical Efficacy: Stage 2 J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2019;50:889-898.

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