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2.
Elife ; 92020 Apr 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32297854

RESUMO

The mitotic deacetylase complex (MiDAC) is a recently identified histone deacetylase (HDAC) complex. While other HDAC complexes have been implicated in neurogenesis, the physiological role of MiDAC remains unknown. Here, we show that MiDAC constitutes an important regulator of neural differentiation. We demonstrate that MiDAC functions as a modulator of a neurodevelopmental gene expression program and binds to important regulators of neurite outgrowth. MiDAC upregulates gene expression of pro-neural genes such as those encoding the secreted ligands SLIT3 and NETRIN1 (NTN1) by a mechanism suggestive of H4K20ac removal on promoters and enhancers. Conversely, MiDAC inhibits gene expression by reducing H3K27ac on promoter-proximal and -distal elements of negative regulators of neurogenesis. Furthermore, loss of MiDAC results in neurite outgrowth defects that can be rescued by supplementation with SLIT3 and/or NTN1. These findings indicate a crucial role for MiDAC in regulating the ligands of the SLIT3 and NTN1 signaling axes to ensure the proper integrity of neurite development.

3.
Nat Immunol ; 21(5): 578-587, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32231298

RESUMO

The pool of beta cell-specific CD8+ T cells in type 1 diabetes (T1D) sustains an autoreactive potential despite having access to a constant source of antigen. To investigate the long-lived nature of these cells, we established a DNA methylation-based T cell 'multipotency index' and found that beta cell-specific CD8+ T cells retained a stem-like epigenetic multipotency score. Single-cell assay for transposase-accessible chromatin using sequencing confirmed the coexistence of naive and effector-associated epigenetic programs in individual beta cell-specific CD8+ T cells. Assessment of beta cell-specific CD8+ T cell anatomical distribution and the establishment of stem-associated epigenetic programs revealed that self-reactive CD8+ T cells isolated from murine lymphoid tissue retained developmentally plastic phenotypic and epigenetic profiles relative to the same cells isolated from the pancreas. Collectively, these data provide new insight into the longevity of beta cell-specific CD8+ T cell responses and document the use of this methylation-based multipotency index for investigating human and mouse CD8+ T cell differentiation.


Assuntos
Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/fisiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/imunologia , Células Secretoras de Insulina/imunologia , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Animais , Autoantígenos/imunologia , Plasticidade Celular , Células Cultivadas , Metilação de DNA , Epigênese Genética , Feminino , Citometria de Fluxo , Humanos , Memória Imunológica , Masculino , Camundongos , Análise de Célula Única , Adulto Jovem
4.
Cancer Discov ; 10(4): 568-587, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32086311

RESUMO

Disease recurrence causes significant mortality in B-progenitor acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL). Genomic analysis of matched diagnosis and relapse samples shows relapse often arising from minor diagnosis subclones. However, why therapy eradicates some subclones while others survive and progress to relapse remains obscure. Elucidation of mechanisms underlying these differing fates requires functional analysis of isolated subclones. Here, large-scale limiting dilution xenografting of diagnosis and relapse samples, combined with targeted sequencing, identified and isolated minor diagnosis subclones that initiate an evolutionary trajectory toward relapse [termed diagnosis Relapse Initiating clones (dRI)]. Compared with other diagnosis subclones, dRIs were drug-tolerant with distinct engraftment and metabolic properties. Transcriptionally, dRIs displayed enrichment for chromatin remodeling, mitochondrial metabolism, proteostasis programs, and an increase in stemness pathways. The isolation and characterization of dRI subclones reveals new avenues for eradicating dRI cells by targeting their distinct metabolic and transcriptional pathways before further evolution renders them fully therapy-resistant. SIGNIFICANCE: Isolation and characterization of subclones from diagnosis samples of patients with B-ALL who relapsed showed that relapse-fated subclones had increased drug tolerance and distinct metabolic and survival transcriptional programs compared with other diagnosis subclones. This study provides strategies to identify and target clinically relevant subclones before further evolution toward relapse.

5.
Nat Immunol ; 21(4): 412-421, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32066954

RESUMO

Central memory T (TCM) cells patrol lymph nodes and perform conventional memory responses on restimulation: proliferation, migration and differentiation into diverse T cell subsets while also self-renewing. Resident memory T (TRM) cells are parked within single organs, share properties with terminal effectors and contribute to rapid host protection. We observed that reactivated TRM cells rejoined the circulating pool. Epigenetic analyses revealed that TRM cells align closely with conventional memory T cell populations, bearing little resemblance to recently activated effectors. Fully differentiated TRM cells isolated from small intestine epithelium exhibited the potential to differentiate into TCM cells, effector memory T cells and TRM cells on recall. Ex-TRM cells, former intestinal TRM cells that rejoined the circulating pool, heritably maintained a predilection for homing back to their tissue of origin on subsequent reactivation and a heightened capacity to redifferentiate into TRM cells. Thus, TRM cells can rejoin the circulation but are advantaged to re-form local TRM when called on.


Assuntos
Plasticidade Celular/imunologia , Memória Imunológica/imunologia , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T/imunologia , Animais , Diferenciação Celular/imunologia , Feminino , Mucosa Intestinal/imunologia , Intestino Delgado/imunologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL
6.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 913, 2020 02 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32060267

RESUMO

Aggressive cancers often have activating mutations in growth-controlling oncogenes and inactivating mutations in tumor-suppressor genes. In neuroblastoma, amplification of the MYCN oncogene and inactivation of the ATRX tumor-suppressor gene correlate with high-risk disease and poor prognosis. Here we show that ATRX mutations and MYCN amplification are mutually exclusive across all ages and stages in neuroblastoma. Using human cell lines and mouse models, we found that elevated MYCN expression and ATRX mutations are incompatible. Elevated MYCN levels promote metabolic reprogramming, mitochondrial dysfunction, reactive-oxygen species generation, and DNA-replicative stress. The combination of replicative stress caused by defects in the ATRX-histone chaperone complex, and that induced by MYCN-mediated metabolic reprogramming, leads to synthetic lethality. Therefore, ATRX and MYCN represent an unusual example, where inactivation of a tumor-suppressor gene and activation of an oncogene are incompatible. This synthetic lethality may eventually be exploited to improve outcomes for patients with high-risk neuroblastoma.


Assuntos
Proteína Proto-Oncogênica N-Myc/genética , Neuroblastoma/metabolismo , Proteína Nuclear Ligada ao X/genética , Animais , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Amplificação de Genes , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Camundongos , Mitocôndrias/genética , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Mutação , Proteína Proto-Oncogênica N-Myc/metabolismo , Neuroblastoma/genética , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Proteína Nuclear Ligada ao X/metabolismo
7.
Leukemia ; 34(3): 735-745, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31645648

RESUMO

Recently, mRNA-expression signature enriched in LSCs was used to create a 17-gene leukemic stem cell (LSC17) score predictive of prognosis in adult AML. By fitting a Cox-LASSO regression model to the clinical outcome and gene-expression levels of LSC enriched genes in 163 pediatric participants of the AML02 multi-center clinical trial (NCT00136084), we developed a six-gene LSC score of prognostic value in pediatric AML (pLSC6). In the AML02 cohort, the 5-year event-free survival (EFS) of patients within low-pLSC6 group (n = 97) was 78.3 (95% CI = 70.5-86.9%) as compared with 34.5(95% CI = 24.7-48.2 %) in patients within high-pLSC6 group (n = 66 subjects), p < 0.00001. pLSC6 remained significantly associated with EFS and overall survival (OS) after adjusting for induction 1-MRD status, risk-group, FLT3-status, WBC-count at diagnosis and age. pLSC6 formula developed in the AML02 cohort was validated in the pediatric AML-TARGET project data (n = 205), confirming its prognostic value in both single-predictor and multiple-predictor Cox regression models. In both cohorts, pLSC6 predicted outcome of transplant patients, suggesting it as a useful criterion for transplant referrals. Our results suggest that pLSC6 score holds promise in redefining initial risk-stratification and identifying poor risk AML thereby providing guidance for developing novel treatment strategies.

8.
Bioinformatics ; 36(4): 1270-1272, 2020 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31566663

RESUMO

MOTIVATION: The traditional reads per million normalization method is inappropriate for the evaluation of ChIP-seq data when treatments or mutations have global effects. Changes in global levels of histone modifications can be detected with exogenous reference spike-in controls. However, most ChIP-seq studies overlook the normalization that must be corrected with spike-in. A method that retrospectively renormalizes datasets without spike-in is lacking. RESULTS: ChIPseqSpikeInFree is a novel ChIP-seq normalization method to effectively determine scaling factors for samples across various conditions and treatments, which does not rely on exogenous spike-in chromatin or peak detection to reveal global changes in histone modification occupancy. Application of ChIPseqSpikeInFree on five datasets demonstrates that this in silico approach reveals a similar magnitude of global changes as the spike-in method does. AVAILABILITY AND IMPLEMENTATION: St. Jude Cloud (https://pecan.stjude.cloud/permalink/spikefree) and St. Jude Github ( https://github.com/stjude/ChIPseqSpikeInFree). SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

9.
Genes Dev ; 34(1-2): 37-52, 2020 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31831628

RESUMO

In animals, the brain regulates feeding behavior in response to local energy demands of peripheral tissues, which secrete orexigenic and anorexigenic hormones. Although skeletal muscle is a key peripheral tissue, it remains unknown whether muscle-secreted hormones regulate feeding. In Drosophila, we found that decapentaplegic (dpp), the homolog of human bone morphogenetic proteins BMP2 and BMP4, is a muscle-secreted factor (a myokine) that is induced by nutrient sensing and that circulates and signals to the brain. Muscle-restricted dpp RNAi promotes foraging and feeding initiation, whereas dpp overexpression reduces it. This regulation of feeding by muscle-derived Dpp stems from modulation of brain tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) expression and dopamine biosynthesis. Consistently, Dpp receptor signaling in dopaminergic neurons regulates TH expression and feeding initiation via the downstream transcriptional repressor Schnurri. Moreover, pharmacologic modulation of TH activity rescues the changes in feeding initiation due to modulation of dpp expression in muscle. These findings indicate that muscle-to-brain endocrine signaling mediated by the myokine Dpp regulates feeding behavior.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Drosophila/metabolismo , Drosophila/genética , Drosophila/metabolismo , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Animais , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/metabolismo , Dopaminérgicos/farmacologia , Neurônios Dopaminérgicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Neurônios Dopaminérgicos/fisiologia , Drosophila/enzimologia , Ativação Enzimática/efeitos dos fármacos , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Levodopa/farmacologia , Monoiodotirosina/farmacologia , Transdução de Sinais , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Tirosina 3-Mono-Oxigenase/genética , Regulação para Cima
10.
Cell Rep ; 28(5): 1268-1281.e6, 2019 07 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31365869

RESUMO

Skeletal muscle cell (myofiber) atrophy is a detrimental component of aging and cancer that primarily results from muscle protein degradation via the proteasome and ubiquitin ligases. Transcriptional upregulation of some ubiquitin ligases contributes to myofiber atrophy, but little is known about the role that most other ubiquitin ligases play in this process. To address this question, we have used RNAi screening in Drosophila to identify the function of > 320 evolutionarily conserved ubiquitin ligases in myofiber size regulation in vivo. We find that whereas RNAi for some ubiquitin ligases induces myofiber atrophy, loss of others (including the N-end rule ubiquitin ligase UBR4) promotes hypertrophy. In Drosophila and mouse myofibers, loss of UBR4 induces hypertrophy via decreased ubiquitination and degradation of a core set of target proteins, including the HAT1/RBBP4/RBBP7 histone-binding complex. Together, this study defines the repertoire of ubiquitin ligases that regulate myofiber size and the role of UBR4 in myofiber hypertrophy.

11.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(16)2019 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31443159

RESUMO

Beige adipose tissue has been considered to have potential applications in combating obesity and its related metabolic diseases. However, the mechanisms of acute cold-stimulated beige formation still remain largely unknown. Here, transcriptional analysis of acute cold-stimulated (4 °C for 4 h) subcutaneous white adipose tissue (sWAT) was conducted to determine the molecular signatures that might be involved in beige formation. Histological analysis confirmed the appearance of beige adipocytes in acute cold-treated sWAT. The RNA-sequencing data revealed that 714 genes were differentially expressed (p-value < 0.05 and fold change > 2), in which 221 genes were upregulated and 493 genes were downregulated. Gene Ontology (GO) analyses showed that the upregulated genes were enriched in the GO terms related to lipid metabolic process, fatty acid metabolic process, lipid oxidation, fatty acid oxidation, etc. In contrast, downregulated genes were assigned the GO terms of regulation of immune response, regulation of response to stimulus, defense response, etc. The expressions of some browning candidate genes were validated in cold-treated sWAT and 3T3-L1 cell browning differentiation. In summary, our results illustrated the transcriptional response of sWAT to acute cold exposure and identified the genes, including Acad11, Cyp2e1, Plin5, and Pdk2, involved in beige adipocyte formation in mice.


Assuntos
Adipócitos Bege/metabolismo , Tecido Adiposo Branco/metabolismo , Células 3T3-L1 , Animais , Temperatura Baixa , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Receptores Ativados por Proliferador de Peroxissomo/metabolismo , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Tela Subcutânea/metabolismo
12.
Diabetologia ; 62(12): 2340-2353, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31396659

RESUMO

AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: ATPase copper transporting α (ATP7A), also known as Menkes disease protein, is a P-type ATPase that transports copper across cell membranes. The critical role of ATP7A-mediated copper homeostasis has been well recognised in various organs, such as the intestine, macrophages and the nervous system. However, the importance of adipocyte ATP7A-mediated copper homeostasis on fat metabolism is not well understood. Here, we sought to reveal the contribution of adipose ATP7A to whole-body fat metabolism in mice. METHODS: We generated adipocyte-specific Atp7a-knockout (ASKO) mice using the Cre/loxP system, with Cre expression driven by the adiponectin promoter. ASKO mice and littermate control mice were aged on a chow diet or fed with a high-fat diet (HFD); body weight, fat mass, and glucose and insulin metabolism were analysed. Histological analysis, transmission electron microscopy and RNA-sequencing (RNA-Seq) analysis of white adipose tissue (WAT) were used to understand the physiological and molecular changes associated with loss of copper homeostasis in adipocytes. RESULTS: Significantly increased copper concentrations were observed in adipose tissues of ASKO mice compared with control mice. Aged or HFD-fed ASKO mice manifested a lipoatrophic phenotype characterised by a progressive generalised loss of WAT. Dysfunction of adipose tissues in these ASKO mice was confirmed by decreased levels of both serum leptin and adiponectin and increased levels of triacylglycerol and insulin. Systemic metabolism was also impaired in these mice, as evidenced by a pronounced glucose intolerance, insulin resistance and hepatic steatosis. Moreover, we demonstrate a significant induction of lipolysis and DNA-damage signalling pathways in gonadal WAT from aged and HFD-fed ASKO mice. In vitro studies suggest that copper overload is responsible for increased lipolysis and DNA damage. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: Our results show a previously unappreciated role of adipocyte Atp7a in the regulation of ageing-related metabolic disease and identify new metallophysiologies in whole-body fat metabolism. DATA AVAILABILITY: The datasets generated during the current study are available in the Genome Sequence Archive in BIG Data Center, Beijing Institute of Genomics (BIG), Chinese Academy of Sciences, under accession number CRA001769 (http://bigd.big.ac.cn/gsa).

13.
Genome Res ; 29(8): 1262-1276, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31249065

RESUMO

Organisms use endogenous clocks to adapt to the rhythmicity of the environment and to synchronize social activities. Although the circadian cycle is implicated in aging, it is unknown whether natural variation in its function contributes to differences in lifespan between populations and whether the circadian clock of specific tissues is key for longevity. We have sequenced the genomes of Drosophila melanogaster strains with exceptional longevity that were obtained via multiple rounds of selection from a parental strain. Comparison of genomic, transcriptomic, and proteomic data revealed that changes in gene expression due to intergenic polymorphisms are associated with longevity and preservation of skeletal muscle function with aging in these strains. Analysis of transcription factors differentially modulated in long-lived versus parental strains indicates a possible role of circadian clock core components. Specifically, there is higher period and timeless and lower cycle expression in the muscle of strains with delayed aging compared to the parental strain. These changes in the levels of circadian clock transcription factors lead to changes in the muscle circadian transcriptome, which includes genes involved in metabolism, proteolysis, and xenobiotic detoxification. Moreover, a skeletal muscle-specific increase in timeless expression extends lifespan and recapitulates some of the transcriptional and circadian changes that differentiate the long-lived from the parental strains. Altogether, these findings indicate that the muscle circadian clock is important for longevity and that circadian gene variants contribute to the evolutionary divergence in longevity across populations.


Assuntos
Fatores de Transcrição ARNTL/genética , Relógios Circadianos/genética , Proteínas de Drosophila/genética , Drosophila melanogaster/genética , Genoma de Inseto , Longevidade/genética , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Proteínas Circadianas Period/genética , Fatores de Transcrição ARNTL/metabolismo , Animais , Evolução Biológica , Ritmo Circadiano/genética , DNA Intergênico/genética , DNA Intergênico/metabolismo , Proteínas de Drosophila/metabolismo , Drosophila melanogaster/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Drosophila melanogaster/metabolismo , Genética Populacional , Genômica , Músculo Esquelético/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Proteínas Circadianas Period/metabolismo , Polimorfismo Genético , Transcriptoma , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
14.
Nature ; 571(7764): 265-269, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31207605

RESUMO

Cytotoxic T cells are essential mediators of protective immunity to viral infection and malignant tumours and are a key target of immunotherapy approaches. However, prolonged exposure to cognate antigens often attenuates the effector capacity of T cells and limits their therapeutic potential1-4. This process, known as T cell exhaustion or dysfunction1, is manifested by epigenetically enforced changes in gene regulation that reduce the expression of cytokines and effector molecules and upregulate the expression of inhibitory receptors such as programmed cell-death 1 (PD-1)5-8. The underlying molecular mechanisms that induce and stabilize the phenotypic and functional features of exhausted T cells remain poorly understood9-12. Here we report that the development and maintenance of populations of exhausted T cells in mice requires the thymocyte selection-associated high mobility group box (TOX) protein13-15. TOX is induced by high antigen stimulation of the T cell receptor and correlates with the presence of an exhausted phenotype during chronic infections with lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus in mice and hepatitis C virus in humans. Removal of its DNA-binding domain reduces the expression of PD-1 at the mRNA and protein level, augments the production of cytokines and results in a more polyfunctional T cell phenotype. T cells with this deletion initially mediate increased effector function and cause more severe immunopathology, but ultimately undergo a massive decline in their quantity, notably among the subset of TCF-1+ self-renewing T cells. Altogether, we show that TOX is a critical factor for the normal progression of T cell dysfunction and the maintenance of exhausted T cells during chronic infection, and provide a link between the suppression of effector function intrinsic to CD8 T cells and protection against immunopathology.


Assuntos
Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/patologia , Hepatite C Crônica/imunologia , Hepatite C Crônica/virologia , Proteínas de Grupo de Alta Mobilidade/metabolismo , Proteínas de Homeodomínio/metabolismo , Coriomeningite Linfocítica/imunologia , Coriomeningite Linfocítica/virologia , Animais , Proliferação de Células , Doença Crônica , Citocinas/imunologia , Citocinas/metabolismo , Epigênese Genética , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/imunologia , Hepacivirus/imunologia , Fator 1-alfa Nuclear de Hepatócito/metabolismo , Humanos , Memória Imunológica , Vírus da Coriomeningite Linfocítica/imunologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Fenótipo , Timócitos/citologia , Timócitos/imunologia , Transcrição Genética
15.
NPJ Aging Mech Dis ; 5: 6, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31123597

RESUMO

The GeneSwitch (GS) is a modified Gal4/UAS system, whereby transgene expression is induced in Drosophila by adding the drug RU486 to food. The GS system is routinely used in Drosophila aging and behavioral studies to avoid confounding effects related to genetic background mutations. Here, we report transcriptional and functional defects that are induced by RU486 in a stock- and tissue-dependent manner, such as defects in flight and mitochondrial gene expression. In addition to including proper controls, our findings suggest that context-specific side effects induced by RU486 should be considered in the experimental design and when interpreting the observed phenotypes.

17.
Nat Neurosci ; 22(3): 362-373, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30718900

RESUMO

UTX is a chromatin modifier required for development and neural lineage specification, but how it controls these biological processes is unclear. To determine the molecular mechanisms of UTX, we identified novel UTX protein interaction partners. Here we show that UTX and 53BP1 directly interact and co-occupy promoters in human embryonic stem cells and differentiating neural progenitor cells. Human 53BP1 contains a UTX-binding site that diverges from its mouse homolog by 41%, and disruption of the 53BP1-UTX interaction abrogated human, but not mouse, neurogenesis in vitro. The 53BP1-UTX interaction is required to upregulate key neurodevelopmental genes during the differentiation of human embryonic stem cells into neurons or into cortical organoids. 53BP1 promotes UTX chromatin binding, and in turn H3K27 modifications and gene activation, at a subset of genomic regions, including neurogenic genes. Overall, our data suggest that the 53BP1-UTX interaction supports the activation of key genes required for human neurodevelopment.


Assuntos
Córtex Cerebral/metabolismo , Células-Tronco Embrionárias/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Histona Desmetilases/metabolismo , Células-Tronco Neurais/metabolismo , Neurônios/metabolismo , Proteínas Nucleares/metabolismo , Proteína 1 de Ligação à Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/metabolismo , Animais , Diferenciação Celular , Células Cultivadas , Córtex Cerebral/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Feminino , Código das Histonas , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Organoides/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Organoides/metabolismo , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas
18.
Acta Neuropathol ; 137(4): 637-655, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30770999

RESUMO

Histone H3 K27M mutation is the defining molecular feature of the devastating pediatric brain tumor, diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma (DIPG). The prevalence of histone H3 K27M mutations indicates a critical role in DIPGs, but the contribution of the mutation to disease pathogenesis remains unclear. We show that knockdown of this mutation in DIPG xenografts restores K27M-dependent loss of H3K27me3 and delays tumor growth. Comparisons of matched DIPG xenografts with and without K27M knockdown allowed identification of mutation-specific effects on the transcriptome and epigenome. The resulting transcriptional changes recapitulate expression signatures from K27M primary DIPG tumors and are strongly enriched for genes associated with nervous system development. Integrated analysis of ChIP-seq and expression data showed that genes upregulated by the mutation are overrepresented in apparently bivalent promoters. Many of these targets are associated with more immature differentiation states. Expression profiles indicate K27M knockdown decreases proliferation and increases differentiation within lineages represented in DIPG. These data suggest that K27M-mediated loss of H3K27me3 directly regulates a subset of genes by releasing poised promoters, and contributes to tumor phenotype and growth by limiting differentiation. The delayed tumor growth associated with knockdown of H3 K27M provides evidence that this highly recurrent mutation is a relevant therapeutic target.


Assuntos
Neoplasias do Tronco Encefálico/genética , Diferenciação Celular/genética , Glioma Pontino Intrínseco Difuso/genética , Histonas/genética , Mutação , Animais , Neoplasias do Tronco Encefálico/patologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Glioma Pontino Intrínseco Difuso/patologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Técnicas de Silenciamento de Genes , Camundongos
19.
Cancer Cell ; 35(1): 140-155.e7, 2019 01 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30595505

RESUMO

Diffuse intrinsic pontine gliomas (DIPGs) are incurable childhood brainstem tumors with frequent histone H3 K27M mutations and recurrent alterations in PDGFRA and TP53. We generated genetically engineered inducible mice and showed that H3.3 K27M enhanced neural stem cell self-renewal while preserving regional identity. Neonatal induction of H3.3 K27M cooperated with activating platelet-derived growth factor receptor α (PDGFRα) mutant and Trp53 loss to accelerate development of diffuse brainstem gliomas that recapitulated human DIPG gene expression signatures and showed global changes in H3K27 posttranslational modifications, but relatively restricted gene expression changes. Genes upregulated in H3.3 K27M tumors were enriched for those associated with neural development where H3K27me3 loss released the poised state of apparently bivalent promoters, whereas downregulated genes were enriched for those encoding homeodomain transcription factors.


Assuntos
Neoplasias do Tronco Encefálico/genética , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Glioma/genética , Histonas/genética , Receptor alfa de Fator de Crescimento Derivado de Plaquetas/genética , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/genética , Animais , Autorrenovação Celular , Células Cultivadas , Epigênese Genética , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Histonas/metabolismo , Humanos , Camundongos , Mutação , Células-Tronco Neurais/citologia , Rombencéfalo/patologia , Análise de Sequência de RNA/métodos
20.
Nature ; 565(7737): 101-105, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30568299

RESUMO

A defining feature of adaptive immunity is the development of long-lived memory T cells to curtail infection. Recent studies have identified a unique stem-like T-cell subset amongst exhausted CD8-positive T cells in chronic infection1-3, but it remains unclear whether CD4-positive T-cell subsets with similar features exist in chronic inflammatory conditions. Amongst helper T cells, TH17 cells have prominent roles in autoimmunity and tissue inflammation and are characterized by inherent plasticity4-7, although how such plasticity is regulated is poorly understood. Here we demonstrate that TH17 cells in a mouse model of autoimmune disease are functionally and metabolically heterogeneous; they contain a subset with stemness-associated features but lower anabolic metabolism, and a reciprocal subset with higher metabolic activity that supports transdifferentiation into TH1-like cells. These two TH17-cell subsets are defined by selective expression of the transcription factors TCF-1 and T-bet, and by discrete levels of CD27 expression. We also identify signalling via the kinase complex mTORC1 as a central regulator of TH17-cell fate decisions by coordinating metabolic and transcriptional programmes. TH17 cells with disrupted mTORC1 signalling or anabolic metabolism fail to induce autoimmune neuroinflammation or to develop into TH1-like cells, but instead upregulate TCF-1 expression and acquire stemness-associated features. Single-cell RNA sequencing and experimental validation reveal heterogeneity in fate-mapped TH17 cells, and a developmental arrest in the TH1 transdifferentiation trajectory upon loss of mTORC1 activity or metabolic perturbation. Our results establish that the dichotomy of stemness and effector function underlies the heterogeneous TH17 responses and autoimmune pathogenesis, and point to previously unappreciated metabolic control of plasticity in helper T cells.


Assuntos
Transdiferenciação Celular , Células-Tronco/citologia , Células-Tronco/metabolismo , Células Th17/citologia , Células Th17/metabolismo , Animais , Doenças Autoimunes/imunologia , Doenças Autoimunes/metabolismo , Doenças Autoimunes/patologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Memória Imunológica/imunologia , Inflamação/imunologia , Inflamação/metabolismo , Inflamação/patologia , Masculino , Alvo Mecanístico do Complexo 1 de Rapamicina/metabolismo , Camundongos , Proteína Regulatória Associada a mTOR/deficiência , Proteína Regulatória Associada a mTOR/genética , Análise de Sequência de RNA , Transdução de Sinais , Análise de Célula Única , Células-Tronco/imunologia , Fator 1 de Transcrição de Linfócitos T/biossíntese , Fator 1 de Transcrição de Linfócitos T/metabolismo , Proteínas com Domínio T/biossíntese , Proteínas com Domínio T/metabolismo , Células Th17/imunologia , Membro 7 da Superfamília de Receptores de Fatores de Necrose Tumoral/metabolismo
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