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1.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 45(4): 755-763, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32237475

RESUMO

The aim of this paper was to observe the toxic effect of Tripterygium Glycosides Tablets on the reproductive system of Ⅱ type collagen induced arthritis(CIA) male rats, and to explore the toxic mechanism preliminarily. Fifty SD rats were randomly divided into normal control group(Con), model group(CIA), Tripterygium Glycosides Tablets clinical equivalent dose groups of 1, 2, 4 times(9, 18, 36 mg·kg~(-1)), 10 rats in each group, and were given by gavage once a day for 42 days after the first immunization. The organ index of testis and epididymis were calculated on days 21 and 42. Histopathological and morphological changes of testis and epididymis were observed under optical microscope. Sperm count, sperm malformation rate and sperm kinetic parameters in epididymal tissues were observed by computer assisted sperm analysis(CASA). The concentration of testosterone(T), nitric oxide synthase(NOS) and aromatase(CYP19 A1) in serum were detected by ELISA. Immunohistochemistry was used to observe the expression of Bax and Bcl-2 related proteins in the apoptosis pathway of testis and epididymis. The results showed that, compared with Con group, CIA group significantly increased the rate of testicular spermatogenic tubule lesion and sperm malformation, decreased the average path speed, and no significant changes were observed in other groups. Tripterygium Glycosides Tablets at 4 times clinical equivalent dose can significantly reduce the testis index(P<0.01), each dose group can reduce the epididymis index(P<0.05). Each dose group of Tripterygium Glycosides Tablets could cause different degrees of damage to the testis and epididymis, the proportion of testicular histopathology lesions increased, the number of spermatogenic cells in the seminiferous tubules decreased, and so on. It could reduce the number of sperm, increase the rate of sperm deformity, make the parameters of sperm dynamics abnormal, and so on. Tripterygium Glycosides Tablets at 4 times dose could significantly reduce the content of serum sex hormone T and key enzyme of androgen synthesis(P<0.05 or P<0.01), but had no effect on CYP19 A1. The expression of Bax and Bcl-2 in testis and epididymis were increased by 2 and 4 times doses of Tripterygium Glycosides Tablets(P<0.05, P<0.01 or P<0.01). The results showed that 21 d administration of Tripterygium Glycosides Tablets at equal or higher doses could induce obvious toxic effect to the reproductive organs of CIA male rats, and lower the level of serum sex hormone T and the key enzyme of androgen synthesis, NOS. The mechanism of abnormal changes of Bax and Bcl-2 in Testis and epididymis is still to be elucidated.

2.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 45(4): 764-774, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32237476

RESUMO

To systematically evaluate the effects of Tripterygium Glycosides Tablets alone or in combination with methotrexate(MTX) and leflunomide(LEF) on the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines in patients or animal models with rheumatoid arthritis(RA), and to provide reference for clinical application and related basic research, this study systematically searched databases of CNKI, VIP, WanFang, PubMed, Embase and Cochrane Library, collected relevant clinical or animal experimental studies, used risk assessment tools to evaluate the quality of research, and used Revman 5.3 software to conduct Meta-analysis or descriptive analysis of the outcome indicators included in the literatures. Of the 1 709 papers retrieved, 3 clinical studies and 12 animal experiments were included. The results showed that compared with MTX alone, Tripterygium Glycosides Tablets combined with MTX could further reduce the expression levels of peripheral blood TNF-α(SMD=-8.88,95%CI[-10.77,-6.99],P<0.000 01),IL-1ß(P<0.000 01) and IL-6(SMD=-8.63, 95%CI[-10.57,-6.69], P<0.000 01) in RA patients. Compared with LEF alone, the combination of Tripterygium Glycosides Tablets and LEF could not further reduce the expression levels of TNF-α(P=0.20), IL-1ß(P=0.17), IL-6(P=0.31). In RA animal model, compared with model group, Tripterygium Glycosides Tablets could reduce the expression levels of peripheral blood IL-1ß(SMD=-6.29,95%CI[-9.64,-2.93],P<0.000 2)in peripheral blood(SMD=-1.39,95%CI[-1.77,-1.02],P<0.000 01), joint fluid(P<0.000 01) and paw plasma(P=0.02), and also reduce the expression levels of TNF-α in RA animal model group. Compared with MTX alone, Tripterygium Glycosides Tablets alone reduced the same levels of TNF-α(P=0.42) and IL-6(P=0.08) in joint fluid, while Tripterygium Glycosides Tablets combined with MTX could further reduce the levels of IL-6(P=0.000 1) in joint fluid; compared with LEF alone, Tripterygium Glycosides Tablets have the similar effects on reducing the expression levels of peripheral blood TNF-α(P=0.16), IL-1ß(P=0.32), IL-6(P=0.12), while Tripterygium Glycosides Tablets combined with LEF could further reduce the expression levels of TNF-α(P=0.008), IL-1ß(P=0.02), IL-6(P<0.000 1) in peripheral blood. Therefore, Tripterygium Glycosides Tablets combined with MTX could further reduce the expression levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines in peripheral blood of RA patients. Tripterygium Glycosides Tablets alone could reduce the expression levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines in peripheral blood and local joint of RA animal models. Tripterygium Glycosides Tablets combined with MTX or LEF could further reduce the express levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines in peripheral blood of RA animal models. Due to the limitation of literature, this conclusion needs to be further validated.

3.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 45(4): 791-797, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32237478

RESUMO

To evaluate the clinical efficacy of single administration of Tripterygium Glycosides Tablets(TGT) or combined administration with methotrexate(MTX) against rheumatoid arthritis(RA) based on American College of Rheumatology(ACR) efficacy standard. Six databases, namely CNKI, WanFang, VIP, PubMed, Embase and Cochrane Library, were retrieved for randomized controlled trials(RCT), and clinical trials were screened out according to the preset inclusion and exclusion criteria. Then, the study quality was evaluated by the risk assessment tools. Data extraction and analysis were performed by using RevMan 5.3 software for Meta-analysis. Sensitivity analysis and publication bias analysis were made to test the stability and reliability of results. Until December 2018, a total of 1 709 articles were obtained, and finally 10 clinical RCT studies with a total of 1 184 patients were included. As a result, the single administration of TGT showed a significantly better ACR efficiency(RR=1.31, 95%CI[1.15, 1.49], P<0.000 1) than methotrexate(MTX). The combined administration of TGT and MTX showed a significantly better ACR efficiency(RR=1.28, 95%CI[1.20, 1.38], P<0.000 01) than the single administration of MTX. In conclusion, the single administration of TGT and the combined administration of TGT and MTX were more effective in achieving ACR20, ACR50, ACR70 compliance than the single administration of MTX. Further validations based on more RCT studies with high-quality are required.

4.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 44(16): 3406-3414, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31602902

RESUMO

This paper summarizes the research progress of reproductive toxicity of Tripterygium wilfordii from 1979,and the toxicity characterization,damage mechanism,and attenuated measures are summarized. It was found that,the reproductive toxicity caused by T. wilfordii is mainly distributed on components of Tripterygium glycosides,triptolide,tripchlorolide,and clinically preparations,such as Leigongteng Tablets and Tripterygium Glycosides Tablets. Adverse reactions to male reproductive system caused by Tripterygium preparations mainly include decreased sperm motility,oligospermia or spermatozoa,decreased fertility or infertility,etc. Long-term drug use may also lead to testicular atrophy and decreased sexual desire. Adverse reactions to women are mainly manifested as menstrual disorders,decreased menstrual volume or even amenorrhea,decreased sexual desire,infertility,etc. The reproductive toxicity of T. wilfordii is related to apoptosis of reproductive cells,disturbance of spermatogenesis or oogenesis,damage of testis and ovary in reproductive target tissues,and changes of internal environment in gonad tissues( hormones,hormone synthesis rate-limiting enzymes and energy metabolism). Drug compatibility,hormone replacement,medication duration and dosage form changes can help reduce the damage of T. wilfordii to the reproductive system. In addition,in view of the existing problems in the current study,the author proposes new directions in clinical studies,pharmacological metabolism mechanism,preparation quality standards and new therapeutic effects,etc.,to provide a basis for the safe and reasonable clinical application of T. wilfordii.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/toxicidade , Genitália/efeitos dos fármacos , Tripterygium/toxicidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Ovário/efeitos dos fármacos , Testículo/efeitos dos fármacos
5.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 44(16): 3486-3493, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31602913

RESUMO

The aim of this paper was to observe the toxic effect of Tripterygium Glycosides Tablets( TG) on the reproductive system of Ⅱ type collagen induced arthritis( CIA) male rats,and to explore the toxic mechanism preliminarily. Fifty SD rats were randomly divided into normal control group( Con),model group( CIA),Tripterygium Glycosides Tablets clinical equivalent dose groups of 1,2,4 times( 9,18,36 mg·kg-1),10 rats in each group,and were given by gavage once a day for 42 days after the first immunization.The organ indexes of uterine and ovarian were calculated on days 21 and 42. Histopathological and morphological changes of uterine and ovarian were observed under optical microscope. The concentration of estradiol( E2),follicle-stimulating hormone( FSH),luteinizing hormone( LH),17α-hydroxylase( CYP17 A1) and cytochrome P450 19 A1( CYP19 A1) in serum were detected by ELISA. Immunohistochemistry was used to observe the expression of Bax and Bcl-2 related proteins in the apoptosis pathway of uterus and ovary. The results showed that compared with the Con group,CIA group could reduce the number of uterine glands( P<0.05),but no significant changes were observed in other groups. Compared with the CIA group,there were no significant changes in the coefficients of uterus and ovary in the Tripterygium Glycosides Tablets groups. The number of uterine glands,total follicles in the ovary,mature follicles and corpus luteum,the distribution of blood vessels and mitochondria had a certain inhibitory trend,and also slightly increased the number of atresia follicles,but the histopathological quantitative indicators were not statistically different. Except that 2 times clinical dose of Tripterygium Glycosides Tablets could significantly reduce the content of CYP19 A1( P<0. 05) after 42 d administration,there were no significant changes in serum estrogen E2,FSH,LH and estrogen synthesis key enzymes CYP17 A1 in each administration group. Medium and high doses of Tripterygium Glycosides Tablets could increase the expression of apoptotic protein Bax in uterine and ovarian tissues( P<0. 05,P<0. 01),and all the administration groups could inhibit the expression of apoptotic inhibiting protein Bcl-2( P <0. 05,P<0. 01,P<0.001),42 d was more obvious than 21 d. In conclusion,4 times and less than 4 times Tripterygium Glycosides Tablets did not cause obvious toxicity and histopathological changes in the reproductive organs of CIA rats,but it could reduce the level of serum estrogen synthesis key enzyme CYP19 A1 and affect the content of apoptosis-related proteins Bax and Bcl-2 in uterus and ovary tissues. The relevant mechanism needs further study.


Assuntos
Artrite Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/toxicidade , Genitália Feminina/efeitos dos fármacos , Glicosídeos/toxicidade , Tripterygium/química , Animais , Apoptose , Aromatase/metabolismo , Artrite Experimental/induzido quimicamente , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacologia , Feminino , Glicosídeos/farmacologia , Distribuição Aleatória , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Comprimidos
6.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 44(16): 3494-3501, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31602914

RESUMO

The aim of this paper was to compare the performance of acute liver injury in mice induced by Tripterygium Glycosides Tablets from 6 different manufacturers,and to explore the toxicity mechanism from the perspective of oxidative stress and apoptosis preliminarily. Male or female mice were randomly divided into normal group,Zhejiang group,Hunan group,Hubei group,Shanghai group,Jiangsu group and Fujian group. Mice in Tripgerygium Glycosides Tablets groups were given 16 times the clinical equivalent dose( 300 mg·kg-1) Tripgerygium Glycosides Tablets by oral administration for one time,mice were executed in 24 h after lavaged.Then the visceral brain coefficient of the organ was calculated. Histopathological changes of liver were observed by hematoxylin-eosin staining. Td T-mediated d UTP nick-end labeling was used to detect the apoptosis of the liver cells and the protein content of oxidative stress related factors in liver homogenate. Nuclear transcription factor E2-related factor( Nrf2) and heme oxygenase-1( HO-1) as well as mitochondrial mediated apoptosis-related protein expression levels of Bax and Bcl-2 in hepatic tissue were measured by Western blot.Within 24 hours of administration,6 male mice in Jiangsu group and 2 female mice in Zhejiang group were dying; compared with normal ones,liver coefficients of mice in Zhejiang,Shanghai,Jiangsu and Hunan groups were significantly increased,thymus coefficients in the first two groups were significantly reduced,as well as the lung coefficients of Fujian group mice,the rest was normal. In addition to Hubei group,serum AST,ALT or ALP levels of mice were increased,while TBi L were not being affected. Histopathological changes and apoptosis of liver cells were observed in all mice,and the degree of severity was ranked as Jiangsu,Zhejiang,Shanghai,Hunan,Hubei and Fujian group. All Tripterygium Glycosides Tablets increased the MDA and reduced the content of T-SOD,CAT or GSH in liver tissue while inhibited Nrf2,HO-1 and Bcl-2,increased the protein expression level of Bax( except Hunan group). Tripgerygium Glycosides Tablets from 6 manufacturers all resulted in liver function damage and liver histopathological changes,especially in Jiangsu,Hubei and Fujian,and the mechanism may related to inhibit Nrf2/HO-1 oxidative stress pathway and activate Bax/Bcl-2 apoptosis pathway to mediate lipid peroxidation and induce liver cell apoptosis. Triptolide A may be one of the main toxic components of Tripgerygium Glycosides Tablets that causing drug-induced liver injury. This study was conducted on normal mice with super dose medication,so the relevant results are for reference only.


Assuntos
Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/toxicidade , Glicosídeos/toxicidade , Tripterygium/toxicidade , Animais , Apoptose , Feminino , Heme Oxigenase-1/metabolismo , Peroxidação de Lipídeos , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Camundongos , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2/metabolismo , Distribuição Aleatória , Comprimidos , Proteína X Associada a bcl-2/metabolismo
7.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 44(16): 3502-3511, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31602915

RESUMO

The aim of this paper was to compare the properties of Tripterygium Glycosides Tablets and Tripterygium wilfordii Tablets from dose-effect-toxicity on type Ⅱ collagen-induced arthritis( CIA) in rats. SD rats were randomly divided into eight groups,including normal group,model group,Tripterygium Glycosides Tablets groups( 1 times equivalent dose 0.009 g·kg-1,4 times equivalent dose 0.036 g·kg-1,16 times equivalent dose 0.144 g·kg-1),Tripterygium wilfordii Tablets groups( 1 times equivalent dose 0.007 5 mg·kg-1,4 times equivalent dose 0.030 mg·kg-1,16 times equivalent dose 0.120 mg·kg-1). Beginning on the first immunization,Tripterygium Glycosides Tablets and Tripterygium wilfordii Tablets administered intraperitoneally once a day. After the second immunization,the symptoms such as redness and swelling of joints were observed,and the clinical score and incidence of arthritis were evaluated. HE and Masson staining were used to examine the histopathological changes of joints. The expression level of anti-type Ⅱ collagen antibody Ig G in serum was detected by ELISA,routine testing of blood components,the concentration of ALP( alkaline phosphatase),ALT( alanine aminotransferase),AST( aspartate aminotransferase),GGT( gamma-glutamyltransferase),TBi L( total bilirubin),CRE( creatinine) and UREA( urea) in serum were detected by enzymatic assay. The rate of sperm deformity in the epididymis was evaluated under light microscope. The extent of damage to the testis and ovarian tissue was assessed by HE staining. Tripterygium Glycosides Tablets and Tripterygium wilfordii Tablets attenuated the inflammation,redness,swelling and deformity of joints and reduced the clinical score and incidence of arthritis in CIA rats. Meanwhile,it also exhibited obvious reduction in all pathological features such as joint synovitis,pannus,cartilage erosion and bone destruction. Tripterygium Glycosides Tablets and Tripterygium wilfordii Tablets reduced Ig G in a dose-dependent manner,and Tripterygium Glycosides Tablets is better than Tripterygium wilfordii Tablets( P<0.05 or P<0.01). The high doses of Tripterygium Glycosides Tablets and Tripterygium wilfordii Tablets could significantly increase the organ coefficient of liver and spleen and reduced RBC and HGB in CIA rats( P<0.01),and severity leading to death. Gastric mucosal injury and morphological changes of liver and kidney were not observed in CIA rats of Tripterygium Glycosides Tablets and Tripterygium wilfordii Tablets treatment group. The 4 and 16 times doses of Tripterygium Glycosides Tablets and Tripterygium wilfordii Tablets could significantly increase serum ALT,GGT and decrease CRE( P<0.05 or P<0.01). Tripterygium Glycosides Tablets and Tripterygium wilfordii Tablets could increase the sperm deformity rate and damage the testicular seminiferous tubules of CIA male rats. Severity increased with dose and time increasing. The effect of Tripterygium Glycosides Tablets( 16 times) is more significant than Tripterygium wilfordii Tablets( 16 times). Tripterygium Glycosides Tablets and Tripterygium wilfordii Tablets significantly delayed onset of arthritis and inhibited the paw edema and arthritic score. Tripterygium Glycosides Tablets and Tripterygium wilfordii Tablets also caused male reproductive damage,high dose affected hematopoiesis,and maximum dose leading to death. Tripterygium Glycosides Tablets and Tripterygium wilfordii Tablets all depended on dose-effect-toxicity manner. Anti-arthritis effect of Tripterygium Glycosides Tablets is better than Tripterygium wilfordii Tablets,but the toxicity of Tripterygium Glycosides Tablets maximum dose is more obvious. The relevant conclusions of our study will provide experimental references for clinical rational use of drugs,and further clinical studies are needed to confirm our conclusions.


Assuntos
Artrite Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/administração & dosagem , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/toxicidade , Glicosídeos/administração & dosagem , Glicosídeos/toxicidade , Tripterygium/toxicidade , Animais , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Masculino , Distribuição Aleatória , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Comprimidos
8.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 44(16): 3533-3541, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31602919

RESUMO

To systematically review the improvement effects of Tripterygium Glycosides Tables( TGT) alone or in combination with methotrexate( MTX) on the clinical signs and symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis( RA),and provide a basis for the rational use of TGT in clinic,in the current study,six literature databases including CNKI,Wan Fang,VIP,PubMed,EMbase,and Cochrane Library,were systematically searched,according to the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Review Manager 5.3 software was used to input the literatures,and we assessed the risk bias on the level of outcome indicators for each included literature. A total of 18 literatures were included,and the classification results showed that: compared with MTX,TGT alone can reduce the number of joint swelling( MD =0. 18,95%CI[-1.06,1.42],P = 0.78) and joint tenderness( MD =-0.06,95% CI[-1.69,1.56],P = 0.94) in RA patients with the same effect as MTX. In terms of drug combination,TGT combined with MTX had an advantage over MTX alone in lessening the morning stiffness time( MD = 18. 24,95% CI[12. 64,23. 84],P < 0. 000 01) of RA,joint tenderness( MD = 2. 65,95% CI[1. 85,3. 44],P<0.000 01) and joint swelling( MD = 3.01,95% CI[2.09,3.39],P< 0.000 01). In conclusion,this Meta-analysis suggest that TGT alone was superior to MTX in improving joint swelling and tenderness in RA patients,TGT combined with MTX may improve the clinical manifestation of RA patients better than MTX alone.


Assuntos
Antirreumáticos/uso terapêutico , Artrite Reumatoide/tratamento farmacológico , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/uso terapêutico , Glicosídeos/uso terapêutico , Metotrexato/uso terapêutico , Tripterygium/química , Quimioterapia Combinada , Humanos , Comprimidos , Resultado do Tratamento
9.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 44(16): 3542-3550, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31602920

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to systematically evaluate the clinical efficacy of Tripterysium Glycosides Tablets( TGT) alone or in combination with methotrexate( MTX) in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis( RA) based on the laboratory index criteria and to provide a basis for the clinical application of TGT against RA. Six databases including CNKI,Wan Fang,VIP,PubMed,EMbase and Cochrane were retrieved for randomized controlled trials( RCT) about TGT alone or combination with MTX in the treatment of RA.Then risk assessment tools were used for quality evaluation of the studies,and data extraction and analysis were conducted by using Rev Man 5.3 software for Meta-analysis. A total of 1 709 articles were retrieved,and finally 25 studies were included,with a total sample size of 2 507 cases. Meta-analysis results showed that between TGT alone and TGT alone,MDESR=-2. 66,95%CI[-8.17,2.86],P = 0.35; MDCRP=-2.38,95%CI[-9.01,4.24],P = 0.48; between TGT combined with MTX and MTX alone,MDESR= 8.74,95%CI[6.72,10.76],P<0.000 01; MDCRP= 5.37,95%CI[3.71,7.03],P<0.000 01; SMDRF= 1.05,95%CI[0.51,1.60],P = 0.000 1.The effect of TGT on decreasing CRP and ESR in RA patients was similar to the MTX. In addition,TGT combined with MTX were more effective in decreasing CRP,ESR,RF than MTX alone. However,due to the potential bias in the included studies,more and high-quality randomized controlled trials would be needed to improve the level of evidence.


Assuntos
Antirreumáticos/uso terapêutico , Artrite Reumatoide/tratamento farmacológico , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/uso terapêutico , Glicosídeos/uso terapêutico , Metotrexato/uso terapêutico , Tripterygium/química , Quimioterapia Combinada , Humanos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Comprimidos , Resultado do Tratamento
10.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 11(12): 4032-4049, 2019 06 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31219800

RESUMO

The reproductive tissues are negatively influenced by estrogens in hormone therapy. Qingyan formula ethanol extract (QYFE)'s estrogenic effects and safety on reproductive tissues after long-term administration and its mechanism via estrogen receptor (ER) pathway haven't been studied. Here, we characterized its estrogenic effects using ovariectomized rats together with in vitro studies for further molecular characterization. Ovariectomized rats were treated with QYFE at doses of 0.7, 1.4, and 2.8g/kg for 12 weeks. The results showed QYFE has a potent estrogenic activity, as indicated by restoring the disappeared estrous cycle, antagonizing the atrophy of uterus, vagina and mammary gland, and the estrogen decline in circulation caused by ovariectomy. In addition, QYFE upregulated ERα and ERß expressions and had a less stimulatory effect on PCNA and ki-67 antigen in reproductive tissues compared with estradiol valerate. QYFE components can bind to ERα and ERß, significantly increased ERα/ß-ERE luciferase reporter gene expression, upregulated the expressions of ERs, PR and pS2 in MCF-7 cells at protein and gene level. All these activities were significantly inhibited by the ER antagonist ICI182,780. QYFE's estrogenic activity maybe mediated by stimulating biosynthesis of estrogen and increasing the quantity of ERs in target tissue and via active ER to ERE-independent gene regulation.

11.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 4947, 2019 03 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30894625

RESUMO

Planting patterns affect nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and potassium (K) acquisition and distribution in maize and soybean under intercropping conditions. Here we reveal that strip relay-intercropping increases the N, P, and K uptake and distribution across plant organs (root, straw, and seed) of maize and soybean, accelerates the dry-matter production of intercrop-species, and compensates the slight maize yield loss by considerably increasing the soybean yield. In a two-year experiment, soybean was planted with maize in different planting patterns (SI, 50:50 cm and SII, 40:160 cm) of relay-intercropping, both planting patterns were compared with sole cropping of maize (SM) and soybean (SS). As compared to SI, SII increased the N, P, and K accumulation in each organ of soybean by 20, 32, and 18 (root) %, 71, 61, and 76 (straw) %, and 68, 65, and 62 (seed) %, respectively, whereas decreased the N, P, and K accumulation in each organ of maize by 1, 4, and 8 (root) %, 1, 10, and 3 (straw) %, and 5, 10, and 8 (seed) %, respectively. Overall, in SII, relay-cropped soybean accumulated 91% of total nutrient uptake (TNU) of sole soybean plants, and relay-cropped maize accumulated 94% of TNU of sole maize plants.

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