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1.
Small ; : e2103855, 2021 Oct 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34643061

RESUMO

Full-Stokes polarimeters, equipped with the capability of discriminating light polarization states, can find important applications in various optical and optoelectronic devices. Nevertheless, currently most full-Stokes polarimeters require complex and bulky optical elements or optical metasystems integrated with metasurfaces, which can increase the cost and cause energy loss. Here, the anisotropy of chiral 2D perovskite single crystals is explored and the full-Stokes polarimeter based on pure chiral 2D perovskite single crystals is reported. By using optical anisotropy and the ability to distinguish the helicity of the circularly polarized light, chiral 2D perovskite polarimeter integrates the polarizer, waveplate, and photodetector together and thus can be able to discriminate the polarization states of light. The as-fabricated device exhibits a photoresponsivity of 0.136 A W-1 and a detectivity of 1.2 × 1010 Jones. This study provides a paradigm to construct filterless on-chip Stokes polarimeter with great simplicity and low cost.

2.
J Diabetes ; 2021 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34617682

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We aimed to report the pregnancy outcomes of women with type 1 diabetes (T1D) in China, on which data was sparse. METHODS: This is a nationwide retrospective study conducted in 11 general medical centers in eight cities across China. We investigated the clinical data of all women who attended these centers with a singleton pregnancy and whose pregnancy ended between January 1st , 2004, and December 31st , 2014. Pregnancies of women with pregestational T1D were ascertained and compared with those of women without T1D. RESULTS: From over 300,000 pregnancies over the 11-year study period, we identified 265 singleton pregnancies of women with T1D. One out of 265 (0.37%) maternal death was documented among women with T1D, and 83 out of 318,486 (0.03%) in those without T1D. Women with T1D suffered from higher rates of pregnancy loss(13.21% vs 2.92%, crude risk ratio [cRR] 5.08, 95% confidence interval [CI] 3.56-7.26) and pre-eclampsia(17.74% vs 4.20%, cRR 4.94, 95% CI 3.60-6.77) compared with those without T1D. Infants of these women with T1D had elevated rates of neonatal death(5.65% vs 0.16%, cRR 37.36, 95% CI 21.21-65.82) and congenital malformation(s)(8.26% vs 3.53%, cRR 2.46, 95% CI 1.54-3.93), compared with those of women without T1D. No significant improvement in pregnancy outcomes in women with T1D was observed over 2004-2014. CONCLUSION: Pregnancy outcomes were persistently poor in women with T1D during 2004-2014 in China. Pregnancy care needs improving to reduce adverse pregnancy outcomes among Chinese women with T1D.

3.
Accid Anal Prev ; 162: 106425, 2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34601181

RESUMO

Automated driving is a developing trend that is coming to the consumer market, and conditionally automated driving (CAD) is anticipated to become the primary automated driving system. For enhancing both the comfort and security of human drivers in self-driving cars, the most significant concern of CAD is ensuring that not only can the driver conduct non-driving related tasks (NDRT) while automated driving is in progress, but also quickly and competently take over when the system reaches a limit and issues a takeover request (TOR). However, the level of distraction by NDRTs may affect the transition from automated driving to the human driver taking over. The focus of the present study was allowing a driver immersed in NDRTs to discover the TOR and take control of the driving quickly. A 3×2×2 factor experimental design was used: vehicle display interface information load (basic vs. prediction vs. advanced prediction interfaces); TOR information load (directional vs. non-directional information notifications); and degree of NDRT immersion (not performing vs. performing an NDRT when TOR prompt was issued). 48 participants were recruited, and different automotive display interfaces were used as TOR prompts with different information loads during driving to analyze the takeover behavior, performance, and subjective perception of the drivers, who were immersed in a smartphone-related task. The takeover process out of NDRT immersion was found to be more efficient with the advanced prediction interface, compared to the other two interfaces. All groups achieved faster takeovers and demonstrated better takeover performance if given directional rather than non-directional information, regardless of interface type or NDRT immersion.

4.
BMC Genomics ; 22(1): 634, 2021 Aug 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34465304

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The gut microbiota provides health benefits in humans by producing short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), whose deficiency causes multiple disorders and inflammatory diseases. However, gut bacteria producing SCFAs in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF), an arrhythmia with increasing prevalence, have not been reported. To investigate major gut microbial organisms related to SCFA synthesis, SCFAs-associated KEGG orthologues (KOs), enzymatic genes, and potential producers were examined according to metagenomic data-mining in a northern Chinese cohort comprising 50 non-AF control and 50 AF patients. RESULTS: Compared with non-AF controls, individuals with AF had marked differences in microbial genes involved in SCFA-related synthesis, including 125 KOs and 5 SCFAs-related enzymatic genes. Furthermore, there were 10 species that harbored SCFA-synthesis related enzymatic genes, and were markedly decreased in the gut of AF patients. Notably, discriminative features about SCFA-synthesis related function, including 8 KOs (K01752, K01738, K00175, K03737, K01006, K01653, K01647 and K15023), 4 genes (menI, tesB, yciA and CO dehydrogenase acetyl-CoA synthase complex) and 2 species (Coprococcus catus and Firmicutes bacterium CAG:103), were selected as key factors based on LASSO analysis. Furthermore, PLS-SEM analysis showed that 72.8 and 91.14 % of the overall effects on gut microbiota diversity and key species on AF, respectively, were mediated by the key KOs. Meanwhile, 46.31 % of the total effects of SCFA-synthesis related function on left atrial enlargement was mediated by hsCRP. Upon incorporation of clinical properties in AF, the KO score was still significantly associated with AF incidence (OR = 0.004, P = 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The current study revealed that dysbiotic gut microbiota in AF is coupled with disrupted SCFA-synthesis related genes, characterized by decreased abundances of KEGG orthologues, synthesis enzymatic genes and harboring species.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial , Fibrilação Atrial/genética , Clostridiales , Disbiose , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis , Humanos
5.
Scand J Gastroenterol ; : 1-7, 2021 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34487462

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Accurate serological assays are desirable for the diagnosis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). We identify an antigen-like substance called Crohn's disease (CD) antibody binding polypeptide (CABP). As a serological marker, anti-CABP may contribute to the diagnosis of IBD. The present study aims to evaluate the clinical role of anti-CABP as a serological antibody for IBD. METHODS: Using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), serum anti-CABP, anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae antibody (ASCA) and perinuclear anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (pANCA), titers were tested in 168 CD patients, 123 ulcerative colitis (UC) patients and 170 controls. The correlation between serum antibody and clinical characteristics was investigated. The diagnostic potential of the anti-CABP was evaluated by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. RESULTS: The titers of anti-CABP (IgA or IgG) and ASCA IgG of CD patients were significantly higher than non-CD group (all p < .01). In the differential diagnosis of CD and non-CD, anti-CABP IgA revealed an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.706 and anti-CABP IgG demonstrated an AUC of 0.788. As an individual antibody, anti-CABP could effectively distinguish CD from non-CD (AUC 0.816), and the diagnostic efficacy was better than that of ASCA (AUC 0.680). The combined use of anti-CABP, ASCA and pANCA significantly improved the diagnostic value (AUC 0.857). Anti-CABP positive rates were associated with perianal lesions and disease location in CD patients (both p < .05). CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggested that anti-CABP could be used as a serological marker to assist the diagnosis of CD. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: This trial is registered with clinical trial registration unique identifier ChiCTR2000037094.

6.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(35): e27104, 2021 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34477149

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: To evaluate the diagnostic values of shear wave elastography (SWE) alone and in combination with the Toronto clinical scoring system (TCSS) on diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM).The study included 41 DPN patients, 42 non-DPN patients, and 21 healthy volunteers. Conventional ultrasonography and SWE were performed on the 2 sides of the tibial nerves, and cross-sectional area (CSA) and nerve stiffness were measured. TCSS was applied to all patients. A receiver operating characteristic curve analysis was performed.The stiffness of the tibial nerve, as measured as mean, minimum or maximum elasticity, was significantly higher in patients in the DPN group than the other groups (P < .05). The tibial nerve of subjects in the non-DPN group was significantly stiffer compared to the control group (P < .05). There was no significant difference of the tibial nerve CSA among the 3 groups (P > .05). Mean elasticity of the tibial nerve with a cutoff of 71.3 kPa was the most sensitive (68.3%) and had a higher area under the curve (0.712; 0.602-0.806) among the 3 shear elasticity indices for diagnosing DPN when used alone. When combining SWE with TCSS in diagnosing DPN, the most effective parameter was the EMax, which yielded a sensitivity of 100.00% and a specificity of 95.24%.SWE is a better diagnostic tool for DPN than the conventional ultrasonic parameter CSA, and a higher diagnostic value is attained when combining SWE with TCSS.


Assuntos
Nefropatias Diabéticas/diagnóstico por imagem , Técnicas de Imagem por Elasticidade/normas , Projetos de Pesquisa , Idoso , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/fisiopatologia , Nefropatias Diabéticas/complicações , Técnicas de Imagem por Elasticidade/métodos , Técnicas de Imagem por Elasticidade/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso Periférico/classificação , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso Periférico/diagnóstico por imagem , Curva ROC , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34554721

RESUMO

High energy density lithium-ion batteries with preferable cycling stability are critical for the development of all-electric vehicles. Silicon (Si) has demonstrated a remarkable potential for application as anode materials due to its superior capacity performance and worldwide abundance. However, Si intrinsically undergoes substantial volume fluctuation during repeated lithiation/delithiation processes, which pulverizes the Si particles and undermines the integrity of the electrode structures, thus resulting in frustrating cycling stability. We developed a polymer binder with a highly stretchable and elastic network structure that can accommodate volume variation of Si. This was realized by an in situ cross-linking of polyacrylic acid (PAA) with isocyanate-terminated polyurethane oligomers that consist of polyethylene glycol (PEG) chains and 2-ureido-4-pyrimidinone (UPy) moieties through the reaction between isocyanate and carboxyl during the electrode preparation process. In this binder network, PAA could strongly adhere to the Si particles by forming hydrogen bonding with the surface hydroxyl groups. The PEG chains induce the flexibility of the polymer network, while the UPy moieties endow the polymer network with desirable mechanical strength through the formation of reversible and strong quadruple H-bonding cross-linkers. This binder not only can sufficiently accommodate the volume change of Si but can also provide a strong mechanical support to effectively sustain the integrity for the Si anode, consequently enhancing cycle stability and rate performance.

8.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 13(15): 19908-19919, 2021 08 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34390329

RESUMO

SMARCA5 (circSMARCA5) is involved in the occurrence of different cancers, but its role in prostate cancer carcinogenesis and metastatic transformation remains elusive. Thus, we evaluated the circSMARCA5 functional relevance in prostate cancer and its associated molecular mechanism. First, circSMARCA5 expression and function in this cancer were evaluated. To determine the miR-181b-5p/miR-17-3p target and clarify how circSMARCA5 regulates the miR-181b-5p-TIMP3 and miR-17-3p-TIMP3 axis, RNA immunoprecipitation, biotin-coupled microRNA capture, luciferase reporter, Western blot, and quantitative real-time PCR assays were employed. In primary and metastatic prostate cancer tissues, circSMARCA5 was significantly downregulated compared with normal controls. Functionally, circSMARCA5 exhibited a suppressive effect on prostate cancer cells' metastasis and growth. At the molecular level, circSMARCA5 could affect the tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases 3 (TIMP3) expression through miR-181b-5p or miR-17-3p interactions. Moreover, lysine acetyltransferase 5 (KAT5) induced circSMARCA5 biogenesis and regulated the miR-181b-5p-TIMP3 and miR-17-3p-TIMP3 axis. These results suggested that targeting circSMARCA5-miR-181b-5p-TIMP3 and circSMARCA5-miR-17-3p-TIMP3 axis might be a novel therapeutic strategy for prostate cancer.

9.
Ultrason Sonochem ; 77: 105675, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34298309

RESUMO

In this paper, the ultrasound-assisted solvent-mediated polymorphic transformation of theophylline was explored in detail. The induction time and reconstruction time were significantly decreased by ultrasound, thereby decreasing the total transformation time and promoting the transformation process. The ultrasound-promoted efficiency of nucleation was different in three alcoholic solvents, which was difficult to explain by traditional kinetic effects. To resolve the above confusion, binding energies calculated by Density Functional Theory were applied to explore the relationship between the ultrasound-promoted efficiency of nucleation and solute-solvent interactions. Then, a possible molecular self-assembly nucleation pathway affected by ultrasound was proposed: the ultrasound could change and magnify the crucial effect of the specific sites of solute-solvent interactions in the nucleation process. Finally, the transformation kinetics with different effective ultrasonic energies was quantitatively analyzed by Avrami-Erofeev model, indicating that the dissolution element in the rate-limiting step was gradually eliminated by higher ultrasonic energy. Fortunately, the elusive crystal form V could be easily obtained by the ultrasound-assisted polymorph transformation. This proved to be a robust method to produce high purity form V of theophylline. The outcome of this study demonstrated that the proper ultrasonic irradiation had the potential to produce specific polymorphs selectively.


Assuntos
Teofilina/química , Ondas Ultrassônicas , Cristalização , Cinética , Modelos Moleculares , Conformação Molecular , Solubilidade , Solventes/química
10.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 13(14): 18223-18237, 2021 07 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34321364

RESUMO

Radiotherapy plays an essential role in the treatment of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, cancer cells' resistance to ionizing radiation (IR) is the primary reason for radiotherapy failure leading to tumor relapse and metastasis. DNA double-strand breaks (DSB) repair after IR is the primary mechanism of radiotherapy resistance. In this study, we investigated the effects of autophagy-inducing agent, Rapamycin (RAPA), combined with the histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi), Suberoylanilide Hydroxamic Acid (SAHA), on the radiosensitivity of A549 and SK-MES-1 cells, and examined the combination effects on DNA damage repair, and determined the level of autophagy and acetylation in A549 cells. We also investigated the combination treatment effect on the growth of A549 xenografts after radiotherapy, and the level of DNA damage, autophagy, and acetylation. Our results showed that RAPA combined with SAHA significantly increased the inhibitory effect of radiotherapy compared with the single treatment group. The combined treatment increased the expression of DNA damage protein γ-H2AX and decreased DNA damage repair protein expression. RAPA combined with SAHA was induced mainly by regulating acetylation levels and autophagy. The effect of combined treatment to increase radiotherapy sensitivity will be weakened by inhibiting the level of autophagy. Besides, the combined treatment also showed a significantly inhibited tumor growth in the A549 xenograft model. In conclusion, these results identify a potential therapeutic strategy of RAPA combined with SAHA as a radiosensitizer to decreased DSB repair and enhanced DNA damage by inducing acetylation levels and autophagy for NSCLC.

11.
Nano Lett ; 2021 Jul 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34279971

RESUMO

The detection of polarization states of light is essential in photonic and optoelectronic devices. Currently, the polarimeters are usually constructed with the help of waveplates or a comprehensive metasurface, which will inevitably increase the fabrication complexity and unnecessary energy loss. Here, we have successfully demonstrated a self-powered filterless on-chip full-Stokes polarimeter based on a single-layer MoS2/few-layer MoS2 homojunction. Combining the built-in electric field enhanced circular photogalvanic effect with the intrinsic optical anisotropy of MoS2 between in-plane and out-of-plane directions, the device is able to conveniently sense four Stokes parameters of incident light at zero bias without requiring an extra filtering layer and can function in the wavelength range of 650-690 nm with acceptable average errors. Besides, this homojunction device is easy to integrate with silicon-based chips and could have much smaller sizes than metasurface based polarimeters. Our study thus provides an excellent paradigm for high-performance on-chip filterless polarimeters.

12.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 13(13): 17864-17879, 2021 07 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34257164

RESUMO

Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) are closely related to cancer progression. NETs-related lncRNAs play crucial roles in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) but there have been no systematic studies regarding NETs-related long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) signatures to forecast the prognosis of NSCLC patients. It's essential to build commensurate NETs-related lncRNA signatures. The expression profiles of prognostic mRNAs and lncRNAs and relevant clinical data of NSCLC patients were downloaded from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database. The NETs-related genes came from the results of our transcriptome RNA microarray data. The co-expression network of lncRNAs and NETs-related genes was structured to confirm NETs-related lncRNAs. The 19 lncRNAs correlated with overall survival (OS) were selected by exploiting univariate Cox regression (P < 0.05). Lasso regression and multivariate Cox regression (P < 0.05) were utilized to develop a 12-NETs-related lncRNA signature. We established a risk score based on the signature, which suggested that patients in the high-risk group displayed significantly shorter OS than patients in the low-risk group (P < 0.0001, P = 0.0023 respectively in the two cohorts). The risk score worked as an independent predictive factor for OS in both univariate and multivariate Cox regression analyses (HR> 1, P< 0.001). Additionally, by RT-qPCR, we confirmed that NSCLC cell lines have higher levels of the three adverse prognostic NETs-related lncRNAs than normal lung cells. The expression of lncRNAs significantly increases after NETs stimulation. In short, the 12 NETs-related lncRNAs and their model could play effective roles as molecular markers in predicting survival for NSCLC patients.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/análise , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/diagnóstico , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/genética , Espaço Extracelular/química , Armadilhas Extracelulares/química , Neoplasias Pulmonares/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Neutrófilos/química , Prognóstico , RNA Longo não Codificante/análise , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biologia Computacional , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Medição de Risco , Análise de Sobrevida
13.
JMIR Med Inform ; 2021 Jun 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34086596

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sepsis is a life-threatening syndrome that can rapidly lead to organ damage and death. Existing risk scores predict outcomes for patients who have already become acutely ill. OBJECTIVE: Our objective is to develop a model to identify patients at risk of getting sepsis within two years, to support reduction of sepsis morbidity and mortality. METHODS: Machine learning was applied to 2,683,049 electronic health records (EHRs) with over 64 million encounters across five states to develop models for predicting a patient's risk of getting sepsis within two years. Features were selected to be easily obtainable from a patient's chart in real-time during ambulatory encounters. RESULTS: Models showed consistent prediction scores, with the highest AUROC of 0.82 and positive likelihood ratio of 2.9 achieved with gradient boosting on all features combined. Predictive features included age, sex, ethnicity, average ambulatory heart rate, standard deviation of body mass index, and the number of prior medical conditions and procedures. Results identified both known and potential new risk factors for long-term sepsis. Model variations also illustrated trade-offs between incrementally higher accuracy, implementability and interpretability. CONCLUSIONS: Accurate, implementable models were developed to predict two-year risk of sepsis, using EHR data that is easy to obtain from ambulatory encounters. These results help advance understanding of sepsis and provide a foundation for future trials of risk-informed preventive care.

14.
Waste Manag ; 131: 1-9, 2021 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34091233

RESUMO

In this study, the effects of covering the compost pile with a semi-permeable membrane in combination with intermittent aeration on the gas emissions during aerobic composting from the solid fraction of dairy manure at industrial scale were investigated. A large-scale composting experiment was carried out to compare a membrane-covered (CT) group with a control (CK) group. The results indicated that the CT group could maintain a suitable aerobic and positive micro-pressure environment. The carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and ammonia emissions outside the membrane during the aeration interval were reduced by 64.23%, 70.07%, 54.87%, and 11.32%, respectively, compared with that inside the membrane. It was also determined that the methane and nitrous oxide emissions from the CT group were reduced by 99.89% and 60.48% relative to the CK group, confirming that the combined process represented a novel strategy for reducing gas emissions during dairy manure composting.


Assuntos
Compostagem , Esterco , Amônia/análise , Metano , Óxido Nitroso/análise , Solo
15.
J Mol Cell Cardiol ; 159: 80-90, 2021 Jun 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34097926

RESUMO

Circular RNAs (circRNAs) are essential regulators associated with many cardiac conditions, including myocardial infarction (MI). This study aimed to explore circRNA expression during MI development in an animal model and in hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R)-treated cardiomyocytes. Microarray and real-time quantitative PCR showed that the circRNA PVT1 (circPVT1) was expressed at high levels in MI tissues and H/R-triggered cardiomyocytes. Loss-of-function assays were utilized for examining the influence of circPVT1 on cardiac function and cardiomyocyte properties. Cardiac function was measured by echocardiography at 7 d after MI. Reduced circPVT1 expression significantly decreased MI-triggered myocardial infarct size by 60% and prevented MI-triggered reductions in fractional shortening (%FS) and ejection fraction (EF%). Results of LDH, CCK-8, EdU staining, colony formation assays, and flow cytometry showed that circPVT1 silencing restored cell viability and proliferation while decreased apoptosis. Mechanistic experiments indicated that microRNAs (miR)-125b and miR-200a associated with circPVT1. We demonstrated that circPVT1 functioned as a competitive endogenous RNA (ceRNA) to sponge both miR-125b and miR-200a. Gain-of-function assays showed that miR-125b and miR-200a upregulation partially eliminated the effects of circPVT1 on cardiomyocyte properties. In addition, we found that the previously reported p53/TRAF6, SIRT7, Keap1/Nrf2, and PDCD4 pathways were regulated by the circPVT1/miR-125b/miR-200a axis. In conclusion, our study suggests that circPVT1 protects the myocardium from MI and H/R injury by preventing miR-125b- and miR-200a-mediated apoptotic signaling.

17.
Appl Opt ; 60(12): 3492-3500, 2021 Apr 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33983257

RESUMO

The reciprocate scanning scheme of two-dimensional galvanometers is widely used in laser confocal scanning microscopes with high speed. However, the equal interval acquisition of an analog digital acquisition card (AD) and the unequal change of the galvanometer's scanning speed will cause the dislocation of pixels and distortion of the reconstructed image. Meanwhile, the movement properties of the galvanometers in the edge of the scanning area are complex, which will increase the difficulty of segmenting the collected one-dimensional data stream the AD collected into row data of a two-dimensional reconstructed image. Therefore, how to timely and accurately segment the one-dimensional data stream the AD collected into the row data of two-dimensional reconstructed image is not only the key to solve image distortion of a laser confocal scanning microscope with high speed but also the prerequisite to improve the accuracy of row data dislocation correction. A driving mode based on the nonlinear triangular wave and a dislocation-correcting method using a square wave index are proposed. Namely, on the basis of the galvanometer's scanning analysis, the equation of a nonlinear triangular wave driving voltage is established, and the switching frequency of the Y-galvanometer's driving voltage is obtained by calculating the collected switching frequency of the X-galvanometer; thus, the uniformity of the galvanometer's scanning trajectories is secured. Finally, the row segmentation flag pulse is first introduced into the one-dimensional data stream the AD collected, and the square wave index is used to segment the collected data, which means the one-dimensional data stream can be segmented timely and accurately via hardware method. Meanwhile, the pixel dislocation can be corrected. The experimental result shows that, compared with the Nikon A1R+ confocal microscope, the proposed method can effectively correct the pixel dislocation, and the position coincidence error is less than 0.7%. The proposed method will be helpful to improve the image quality of a laser confocal scanning microscope with high speed.

18.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 42(6): 2856-2867, 2021 Jun 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34032085

RESUMO

To clarify the interactions between heavy metals, antibiotics, and humic acid, copper (Cu2+), oxytetracycline (OTC), norfloxacin (NOR), and humic acid samples from river sediment in the Polder area were selected to build single and coexisting systems. Groups of experiments were designed to investigate the kinetics, thermodynamics, and isotherms of Cu2+, OTC, and NOR adsorption onto humic acid in single and Cu2++OTC and Cu2++NOR coexisting systems (concentration ratio=1:1). The physicochemical properties of humic acid were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), BET tests, and IR spectroscopy, and the possible adsorption mechanisms are discussed. The results showed that the humic acid was a typical amorphous material with a negative charge and non-uniform porous structure, and the pore size was at the mesoporous scale. In the single systems, the saturated adsorption capacity (qm) of Cu2+, OTC, and NOR onto humic acid was 33.043, 19.512, and 26.676 mg·g-1, respectively. In the Cu2++OTC system, the qm of Cu2+ and OTC was 38.053 and 25.965 mg·g-1, respectively. In the Cu2++NOR system, the qm of Cu2+ and NOR was 39.187 and 32.728 mg·g-1, respectively. The adsorption behaviors in the single and coexisting systems were similar and the adsorption processes were well fitted by the pseudo-second-order kinetic equation; the Sips model provided good descriptions for the isothermal adsorption equilibrium. Moreover, adsorption thermodynamics were characterized by spontaneous endothermic reactions with the reduction of free energy and the increase of enthalpy and entropy. It can be concluded that Cu2+ combines with OTC and NOR to form complexes, which increases the number of species available for adsorption by humic acid. Also, adsorbed Cu2+ can combine with free OTC and NOR in a bridging manner. Thus, a more favorable adsorption situation occurred in the coexisting systems. The IR characteristics of the carboxyl, phenolic hydroxyl, ketone, and aldehyde groups of humic acid changed by different degrees after adsorption, indicating that oxygen-containing functional groups generally participated in the adsorption reactions.


Assuntos
Metais Pesados , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Adsorção , Antibacterianos , Cobre/análise , Substâncias Húmicas/análise , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Cinética , Rios , Termodinâmica , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
19.
Zhongguo Fei Ai Za Zhi ; 24(3): 204-211, 2021 Mar 20.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33819971

RESUMO

Immunotherapy is one of the main strategies of anti-tumor therapy at present, in which immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) are the most widely used drug. ICIs resistance is mediated by a variety of cytokines and immune cells, and the mechanism is complex, which is the main reason for the failure of immunotherapy in cancer patients. Histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi), as a class of epigenetic regulatory drugs, plays an important role in regulating cell cycle, proliferation, differentiation, and activity. In recent years, Studies have found that HDACi can not only regulate cell biological characteristics, but also closely related to the improvement of tumor ICIs drug resistance. Therefore, the study on how HDACi enhances the efficacy of ICIs is of great significance to tumor immunotherapy. This article will review the research progress of HDACi combined with ICIs in treating malignant tumors and their related mechanism.
.


Assuntos
Inibidores de Histona Desacetilases/uso terapêutico , Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Ciclo Celular , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos , Quimioterapia Combinada , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/fisiopatologia
20.
Acta Diabetol ; 58(9): 1239-1249, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33890177

RESUMO

AIMS: Chronic inflammation of autoimmune diseases, including type 1 diabetes (T1D), is mainly mediated by memory T(Tm) cells, predominantly effector memory T (Tem) cells. The roles of the programmed death-1 (PD-1) receptor on lymphocytes have been well studied in tumor and other infection models. However, little is known about the relationship between the expression of PD-1 on CD8+ Tem cells and the pathogenesis of T1D. METHODS: A total of 52 patients diagnosed with T1D and 39 gender-, age-, and ethnically matched health control individuals were enrolled in this study. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells from these individuals were isolated and analyzed by flow cytometry. We evaluated the frequencies of PD-1+ CD8+ memory T cell subsets from patients' peripheral blood with T1D and the spleen cells of nonobese diabetic (NOD) mice in the present study. We also investigated the effects of blocking PD-1/PD-L1 pathway on islet's inflammation in NOD mice. RESULTS: Frequencies of PD-1+ CD8+ Tem cells were decreased significantly in PBMC of patients with T1D (40.73 ± 12.72 vs 47.43 ± 15.56, *p < 0.05). The frequencies of PD-1+ CD8+ Tem cells were decreased in patients with T1D who were positive for two or more autoantibodies compared with the patients with one autoantibody (13.46% vs 46.95 ± 12.72%, *p < 0.05). Meanwhile, the frequencies of PD-1+ CD8+ central memory T (Tcm) cells were also significantly decreased in patients with two or more autoantibodies compared with other groups (≥ 2AAb vs HC 33.1 ± 8.92% vs 43.71 ± 11.78%, *p < 0.05; ≥ 2AAb vs AAb-33.1 ± 8.92% vs 41.65 ± 11.2%, *p < 0.05; ≥ 2AAb vs 1AAb 33.1 ± 8.92% vs 48.09 ± 10.58%, ***p < 0.001). The frequencies of PD-1+CD8+ Tem cells were positively correlated with fasting serum C-peptide levels (r = 0.4308, *p < 0.05) and C-peptide levels 2 h after meal in T1D patients (r = 0.5723, **p < 0.01). The frequencies of PD-1+CD8+ Tcm cells were only negatively correlated with the levels of HbA1c (r = - 0.2992, *p < 0.05). Similarly, the frequencies of PD-1+CD8+ Tem were significantly decreased in intervention group (anti-mouse PD-1 mAb) compared with the control group (14.22 ± 6.455% vs 27.69 ± 9.837%, *p < 0.05). Pathologically, CD8, PD-1 and PD-L1 were strongly expressed in the islets of diabetic mice after PD-1 blockade. CONCLUSIONS: It is the first report of the expression of PD-1 on CD8+ Tem cells in T1D in the present study. Our observations suggest that the PD-1/PD-L1 signal pathway on CD8+ Tem cells of T1D subjects might identify a new pathway for delaying the occurrence and development by inhibiting autoimmunity.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Experimental , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1 , Animais , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos , Humanos , Leucócitos Mononucleares , Camundongos , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1
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