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1.
Plant Cell Rep ; 2021 Apr 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33837823

RESUMO

In vitro cultured plant cells, in particular the tobacco BY-2 cell, have demonstrated their potential to provide a promising bioproduction platform for therapeutic proteins by integrating the merits of whole-plant cultivation systems with those of microbial and mammalian cell cultures. Over the past three decades, substantial progress has been made in improving the plant cell culture system, resulting in a few commercial success cases, such as taliglucerase alfa (Elelyso®), the first FDA-approved recombinant pharmaceutical protein derived from plant cells. However, compared to the major expression hosts (bacteria, yeast, and mammalian cells), plant cells are still largely underutilized, mainly due to low productivity and non-human glycosylation. Modern molecular biology tools, in particular RNAi and the latest genome editing technology CRISPR/Cas9, have been used to modulate the genome of plant cells to create new cell lines that exhibit desired "traits" for producing therapeutic proteins. This review highlights the recent advances in cellular engineering of plant cells towards improved recombinant protein production, including creating cell lines with deficient protease levels or humanized glycosylation, and considers potential development in the future.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33919529

RESUMO

This secondary analysis was designed to evaluate the independent effect of physical activity (PA) on hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) level in Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). A total of 799 T2DM patients from eight communities of Shanghai, China, were randomized into one control arm and three intervention arms receiving 1-year interventions of health literacy, exercise, or both. PA was measured using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire at baseline, 12 months, and 24 months and quantified as metabolic equivalents (Mets). A multiple level mixed regression model was applied to evaluate the associations between PA and HbA1c level. After adjusting for potential confounders including interaction of PA level with initial PA or HbA1c, a significant improved HbA1c was observed for the patients in the medium versus the lowest tertile groups of overall PA at 12 months (ß: -3.47, 95%CI: -5.33, -1.60) and for those in the highest versus the lowest tertile group at 24 months (ß: -0.50, 95%CI: -1.00, -0.01), resulting in a ß (95%CI) of -3.49 (95%CI: -5.87, -1.11) during the whole two-year period of follow-up. The negative association was also observed when the subjects were classified according to their exercise levels using the World Health Organization (WHO) recommendation as a cut-off point. The beneficial effect of higher PA level was only observed among patients having a lower level of baseline HbA1c or PA or both (all p values for interaction <0.05). Our results provide evidence for the beneficial effect of PA and suggest that the exercise intervention should be addressed to the physically inactive patients to improve their PA level to a physiological threshold.

3.
J Glob Antimicrob Resist ; 25: 119-123, 2021 Mar 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33762207

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (VRE) belonging to sequence type 80 (ST80) have been successfully disseminating in hospital settings. This study aimed to explore whole-genome sequencing (WGS)-based approaches in epidemiological typing of VRE by investigating a collection of ST80 strains. METHODS: In total, 41 VRE ST80 isolates in three suspected transmission chains were subjected to WGS. The genetic relationship of the isolates was analysed by core genome multilocus sequence typing (cgMLST) and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-based typing. The published genome sequence of a predominant ST80 clone in Copenhagen was also included in the analyses. RESULTS: Group 1 isolates (n = 10) were recovered in the same geographic area, including two isolates from an outbreak of vanA genotype. Group 2 isolates (n = 4) were detected from another outbreak. Group 3 consisted of 3 non-outbreak isolates and 24 representative isolates from an outbreak of vanB genotype. Our findings indicated ≥24 allelic difference and >16 SNPs as the cut-off for excluding VRE strains from an outbreak. cgMLST identified >200 differing alleles between genomes of the Copenhagen clone and outbreak strains in this study. Our findings also demonstrated that SNP analysis was not suitable for typing samples from different groups, even with the same ST, owing to lack of an optimal reference genome. CONCLUSION: cgMLST and SNPs provided comparable epidemiological discrimination for isolates with a suspected transmission chain. For diverse isolates, SNP analysis could be suboptimal. An approach applying cgMLST as the first-line typing method and SNPs as a complementary tool is suggested.

4.
Am J Surg Pathol ; 2021 Feb 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33739784

RESUMO

Lymph nodes (LNs) involved by a myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) are rare and uncommonly biopsied. In this study, we report 6 MDS patients who underwent an LN biopsy that showed MDS, and we summarize the clinicopathologic features of this cohort. All patients presented with lymphadenopathy (generalized in 5), 5 patients had splenomegaly, and 3 patients had hepatomegaly. Histologically, the LN architecture was distorted without complete effacement. MDS cells, mostly of the myeloid lineage, produced interfollicular expansion. These myeloid cells exhibited a spectrum of maturation, and immature and atypical forms were common, including eosinophils. Scattered megakaryocytes and nucleated erythroid cells were often present. Concurrent bone marrow aspirate and biopsy specimens in these patients showed persistent/resistant MDS. Following the diagnosis of LN involvement, patients did not respond well to therapy and all died by the time of the last follow-up, with a median survival of 6.7 months (range, 4.5 to 21.6 mo). In summary, patients with MDS uncommonly develop clinically evident lymphadenopathy prompting biopsy as a result of infiltration by MDS. MDS in LNs can be subtle, showing incomplete and sometimes mild distortion of the architecture, and ancillary studies including immunohistochemical and flow cytometric immunophenotypic analysis are often needed to establish the diagnosis. These data also suggest that the emergence of lymphadenopathy attributable to MDS is associated with poor treatment response and prognosis in MDS patients and that aggressive therapy or alternative treatment regimens need to be explored in this context.

5.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 46(6): 1401-1409, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33787138

RESUMO

To investigate the effects of six common drying methods on the quality of different specifications of Sophorae Flos, in order to select their suitable drying methods. According to appearance and morphology, Sophorae Flos was divided into the following three specifications: flower bud type(HL), half-open type(BK) and blooming type(SK). All specifications of samples were treated with shade-drying method(25 ℃, natural temperature), sun-drying method, hot-air-drying method(60, 105 ℃), and drying method(60 ℃) after steaming. The contents of total flavonoids, rutin, narcissus, quercetin, isorhamnetin, and Fe~(3+) reducing ability, DPPH free radical scavenging ability, ABTS free radical scavenging ability and fluorescence recovery after photobleaching(FRAP) were detected by UV, HPLC and colorimetry, respectively. Principal component analysis(PCA), cluster analysis(CA) and correlation analysis were used to comprehensively evaluate the quality of samples. According to the results, there were significant differences in the effect of drying methods on different specifications of samples. The drying method(60 ℃) after steaming was suitable for HL and BK, while the hot-air-drying method(60 ℃) was suitable for SK. When the fresh medicinal materials could not be treated in time, they should be spread out in a cool and ventilated place. Under high and low temperature conditions, the quality of three specifications of Sophorae Flos would be reduced. The hot-air-drying method(105 ℃) and shade-drying method(25 ℃) were not suitable for the treatment of fresh flowers and flower buds of Sophora japonicus. There were obviously differences of chemical compositions and antioxidant activities among the three specifications of samples. Therefore, the specifications of medicinal materials should be controlled to ensure the uniform quality. The study provided the abundant data reference for the selection of appropriate drying methods for the three specifications of Sophorae Flos, and useful exploration for the classification and processing of medicinal materials of flowers.


Assuntos
Sophora , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Flavonoides/análise , Flores/química , Rutina
6.
Pharmacol Res Perspect ; 9(2): e00725, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33641233

RESUMO

Acute phase hyperglycemia and exaggerated glucose fluctuation may be associated with poor outcomes in diabetic patients after acute myocardial infarction (AMI). This study aimed to determine whether intervention by clinical pharmacists can mitigate blood glucose and glucose fluctuations in these fragile patients. This retrospective study enrolled patients with diabetes and AMI, from 1 January 2019 to 30 June 2020 in our institution. Blood glucose and glucose fluctuations were calculated before and after the pharmacist's intervention and between patients who underwent intervention and those who did not. Propensity score matching (PSM) was used to reduce the impact of patient characteristics on the results. A total of 170 patients were included in our primary analysis, including 29 patients who received the pharmacist intervention and 141 patients who did not. After the pharmacist's intervention, blood glucose (fasting blood glucose-FBG, from 11.9 to 9.8; postprandial blood glucose-PBG, from 15.3 to 13.2; mean blood glucose-BG, 14.5 to 12.3 mmol/L; p < .001), and glucose fluctuations (standard deviation of blood glucose-SDBG, from 3.8 to 3.0, mmol/L, p = .005) were significantly improved. Before PSM, no clear effects were found in intervention versus nonintervention patients, in terms of blood glucose and glucose fluctuation indicators, except for FBG (9.3 vs. 8.0. mmol/L, p = .005). Further analysis indicated a high incidence of FBG <7.8 mmol/L in nonintervention versus intervention patients (51.5% vs. 27.6%, p = .003). After PSM, a significant reduction in blood glucose fluctuation (SDBG, 3.0 vs. 4.1, p = .031; PBGE, 2.1 vs. 4.1, p = .017; LAGE, 4.7 vs. 7.2, mmol/L, p = .004), and PBG (11.1 vs. 13.0, mmol/L, p = .048) was observed in the intervention group than in the nonintervention group. The clinical pharmacist intervention contributed to improved outcomes, specifically, in reducing blood glucose fluctuations and potential hypoglycemia risk.

7.
Am J Hematol ; 96(5): 589-598, 2021 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33639000

RESUMO

Early T-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia/lymphoma (ETP-ALL/LBL) is characterized by a distinct immunophenotype (CD1a-negative, CD8-negative, CD5-negative or weak-positive <75%, myeloid/stem-cell markers positive) and poor clinical outcomes. Near-ETP ALL is transcriptionally similar to ETP-ALL but CD5 expression level is not low enough to meet the criteria of ETP immunophenotype. Outcomes of near-ETP ALL are not well characterized. We reviewed 171 patients with newly-diagnosed T-ALL/LBL. Patients were categorized into three groups; ETP (N = 27), near-ETP (N = 24), and non-ETP ALL/LBL (N = 120). ETP-ALL/LBL was associated with a significantly worse survival compared with non-ETP ALL/LBL: 5-year overall survival (OS) rates 32% versus 63% (p < .001). Outcome was similar between near-ETP and non-ETP ALL/LBL: 5-year OS rates 56% versus 63% (p = .543). Landmark analysis showed that allogeneic stem cell transplant (allo-SCT) in first remission was beneficial in ETP-ALL/LBL (5-year event-free survival rates 36% versus 18%, p = .030) but not in near-ETP or non-ETP ALL/LBL. Multivariate analysis selected the following as significant independent prognostic factors for OS: age ≥ 60 years (HR 3.11; p = .003); elevated WBC ≥100 × 109 /L (HR 2.60; p = .005); and ETP immunophenotype (HR 2.29; p = .010). A survival advantage with adding nelarabine to hyper-CVAD was observed in non-ETP ALL (5-year OS rates 83% versus 38% with hyper-CVAD plus neralabine versus hyper-CVAD, p = .003). In conclusion, outcome of ETP-ALL/LBL was poor and improved with allo-SCT; outcome of near-ETP ALL/LBL was similar to non-ETP ALL/LBL; the addition of nelarabine to hyper-CVAD improved the survival in non-ETP ALL only.

8.
Clin Ther ; 43(3): 637-649, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33581877

RESUMO

PURPOSE: For the treatment of cerebral edema, the use of glycerol, an osmotic agent, as well as mannitol, is popular in Asia. However, the relative therapeutic benefit of glycerol remains unknown. The goal of this study was to investigate the comparative efficacy and safety of glycerol infusion versus mannitol infusion for cerebral edema. METHODS: A systematic search was performed in PubMed, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Web of Science, EMBASE, and Scopus for all eligible articles published before July 2020, with no restrictions on language. Two reviewers independently screened the articles, extracted data, and carefully assessed the quality of the evidence. FINDINGS: Eight studies (6 clinical, 2 animal) were ultimately included in the qualitative analysis, and five were included in the quantitative analysis. Pooled analyses revealed nonsignificant differences in the successful control of cerebral edema (relative risk [RR], 0.97; 95% CI, 0.81-1.15). The combination therapy with glycerol led to a favorable trend in neurologic improvements. Regarding safety, glycerol was associated with a significantly lower risk of acute kidney injury (RR, 0.27; 95% CI, 0.11-0.69) and electrolyte disturbances (RR, 0.20; 95% CI, 0.06-0.64), as well as a lower possibility of rebound effects. No hemolysis was observed at the final follow-up. IMPLICATIONS: Although the data are limited, compared with mannitol, glycerol shows a similar level of effectiveness, a more favorable safety profile, and promising neurologic improvement in individuals with cerebral edema. Additional research is needed to confirm these findings. PROSPERO: CRD42020187702.

9.
J Am Acad Dermatol ; 2021 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33556412

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Small case series and case reports indicated atypical persistent pruritic eruptions (PPEs), another type of skin lesions in adult-onset Still's disease (AOSD), imply a worse prognosis than typical evanescent rashes. OBJECTIVE: To investigate clinical characteristics and macrophage activation syndrome (MAS) occurrence in AOSD with PPEs. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study analyzed 150 AOSD patients with rashes at the First Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang University from January 2013 to December 2019. RESULTS: AOSD with PPEs had higher lactate dehydrogenase (492.00 U/L vs 382.00 U/L, p<0.0001) and ferritin (6944.10 ng/mL vs 4286.60 ng/mL, p=0.033), and lower fibrinogen (5.05 g/L vs 5.77 g/L, p=0.014) than those with evanescent rashes. AOSD with PPEs had a higher incidence (17.4% vs 3.1%, p=0.006) and cumulative event rate for MAS (p=0.008), who tended to receive high-dose glucocorticoid (36% vs 20.3%, p=0.036). Multivariate analysis indicated PPEs (HR=5.519, 95%CI=1.138-26.767, p=0.034), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) >120 U/L (HR=8.084, 95%CI=1.728-37.826, p=0.008) and splenomegaly (HR=21.152, 95%CI=2.263-197.711, p=0.007) were independent risk factors for MAS. LIMITATIONS: Single-center, retrospective nature, small sample size. CONCLUSION: PPEs indicated increased severity and MAS occurrence than evanescent rashes. PPEs, AST >120 U/L and splenomegaly were risk factors for MAS in AOSD with skin involvement.

10.
Mod Pathol ; 2021 Feb 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33558656

RESUMO

t(6;9)(p22;q34.1)/DEK-NUP214 is a recurrent genetic abnormality that occurs in 1-2% of patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML), and rarely in myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS). It has been suggested by others that all myeloid neoplasms with t(6;9)/DEK-NUP214 may be considered as AML, even when blast count is <20%. In this study, we compared the clinicopathologic features of 107 patients with myeloid neoplasms harboring t(6;9)/DEK-NUP214: 33 MDS and 74 AML. Compared with patients with AML, patients with MDS were older (p = 0.10), had a lower white blood cell count (p = 0.0017), a lower blast count in the peripheral blood (p < 0.0001) and bone marrow (p < 0.0001), a higher platelet count (p = 0.022), and a lower frequency of FLT3-ITD mutation (p = 0.01). In addition, basophilia was not a common feature in the patients of this cohort. Although there was no difference in overall survival between MDS and AML patients (p = 0.18) in the entire cohort, the survival curves did show a trend toward favorable survival in MDS patients. Multivariate analyses showed that initial diagnosis of MDS vs. AML and allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation were prognostic factors for survival of patients with t(6;9)/DEK-NUP214 (p = 0.008 and p < 0.0001, respectively). Our data suggest that MDS with t(6;9)/DEK-NUP214 is prognostically not equivalent to AML with t(6;9)/DEK-NUP214. These data also show that stem cell transplantation greatly improves the survival of MDS and AML patients with myeloid neoplasms associated with t(6;9)/DEK-NUP214.

11.
Semin Arthritis Rheum ; 51(1): 198-210, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33385860

RESUMO

Macrophage activation syndrome (MAS) is a potentially life-threatening complication of systemic autoinflammatory/autoimmune diseases, generally systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis and adult-onset Still's disease. It is characterized by an excessive proliferation of macrophages and T lymphocytes. Recent research revealed that cytokine storm with elevated pro-inflammatory cytokines, including IFN-γ, IL-18, and IL-6, may be central to the pathogenesis of MAS. Though the mainstream of MAS treatment remains corticosteroids and cyclosporine, targeted therapies with anti-cytokine biologics are reported to be promising for controlling systemic inflammation in MAS.

12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33398346

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The present study aimed to determine the correlation between serum carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) level and the severity of interstitial lung disease (ILD) in clinically amyopathic DM (CADM) patients. METHODS: We performed a retrospective study including 41 Chinese CADM patients without malignancy. Serum CEA levels, clinical and laboratory findings were collected. Association tests between CEA levels and disease activity parameters were performed. RESULTS: Among the 41 patients, 16 (39.0%) developed rapidly progressive (RP)-ILD; of them, 14 (87.5%) had elevated serum CEA levels. Multivariate logistic regression analysis indicated that an elevated serum CEA level was an independent risk factor for RP-ILD. The incidence of elevated CEA level was significantly higher in patients with RP-ILD than in those without RP-ILD (87.5 vs 16.0%, P < 0.001). Furthermore, CEA levels were higher in patients with CADM with RP-ILD [26.87 (6.71) µg/l] than in those without RP-ILD [3.23 (0.64) µg/l] (P < 0.001). CEA levels in CADM patients were associated with the ferritin, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase and lactate dehydrogenase levels, and CT scores of the lungs. Also, elevated CEA levels are related to the organizing pneumonia pattern and lower lung zone consolidation in high-resolution CT. Moreover, the cumulative survival rate was significantly lower (68.4 vs 31.6%, P < 0.001) in the group with a CEA level >8.75 µg/l than that in the group with a CEA level <8.75 µg/l. CONCLUSIONS: An elevated serum CEA level is common in patients with CADM, and a higher serum CEA level is a powerful indicator of RP-ILD and poor prognosis in those patients.

13.
Appl Opt ; 60(2): 257-263, 2021 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33448947

RESUMO

We experimentally achieve over 10 W linearly polarized supercontinuum (SC) generation in a polarization-maintaining (PM) erbium-doped fiber (EDF) master oscillator power-amplifier (MOPA). The house-built PM seeding EDF laser can deliver ∼209fs soliton around ∼1563.7nm, which is then stretched to >15ps using a long piece of normal-dispersion fiber. The wideband spectrum of the ultrashort seeding soliton facilitates the further spectral broadening with nonlinear effects. The soliton stretching decelerates the peak power increase, thus facilitating higher amplified average power. After several stages of pre-amplification, the stretched soliton is fed into the main amplifier constructed with PM large mode area fibers. The output average power is finally amplified to ∼11.51W. The corresponding spectrum spans from ∼1450 to ∼2200nm, indicating that SC is formed due to the induced strong nonlinear effects. The polarization extinction ratio at the output reaches over 18 dB. The PM characteristic potentially enhances the system's resistance to environmental disturbances and eliminates instabilities relating to polarization-mode coupling. Our result represents, so far, the highest SC power directly produced in an EDF MOPA, to the best of our knowledge, especially in a linearly polarized manner. This also suggests a scheme for powerful SC generation that employs direct laser diode pumping and duration-managed pulse seeding.

14.
Drug Des Devel Ther ; 15: 111-124, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33469264

RESUMO

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is the fourth leading cause of death across the globe. Its repeated exacerbation will seriously worsen the quality of life, aggravate the patients' symptoms, and bring a heavy burden on the patients and the society. Understanding the current status of drug therapy and the role of pharmaceutical care is essential for the management of COPD. In addition to the drugs already on the market, recent clinical trials also show that emerging novel drugs for treating COPD are being developed to prevent the symptoms, reduce the frequency of acute exacerbation, and improve the quality of life. Recent progress in new drug research should lead to novel treatment options for COPD patients in future clinical practice. The pharmaceutical care has shown significantly favourable impacts on addressing drug-related problems, supporting its vital role in the management of COPD, especially when there are a wide range of therapeutic agents. This review not only provides an overview of current treatment strategies but also further underlines the importance of new drug development and pharmaceutical care for patients with COPD.

16.
J Infect Dev Ctries ; 14(11): 1288-1295, 2020 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33296342

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The interferon-γ release assays as potent adjunct tools for the quick detection of TB in high burden countries is feasible. In this retrospective study, we aimed to identify the risk factors for negative T-SPOT results in confirmed active tuberculosis. METHODOLOGY: We consecutively enrolled 1,021 patients who were positive for acid-fast bacilli smear staining or culture-confirmed mycobacterial infection and simultaneously tested with the T-SPOT.TB assay. All of the included specimens were used to discriminate the Mycobacterium species using the biochip assay. We collected basic clinical characteristics and laboratory results for further analysis. RESULTS: Of the 1,021 patients enrolled in the study, 89 patients were identified as having nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM). Ninety-nine patients were excluded from the analysis because of indeterminate T-SPOT.TB results, while the remaining 833 patients were identified as having Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. In total, 159 patients had false-negative T-SPOT.TB results (19.1% of 833). The concordance rate between the T-SPOT.TB results and final diagnoses in females was always lower than that in males. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that female sex (OR 1.81; 95% CI 1.19, 2.7; p = 0.006), age (OR 1.02; 95% CI 1.01, 1.03; p = 0.003), acid-fast bacilli (AFB) smear-negative (OR 5.45; 95% CI 3.62, 8.19; p < 0.001), HIV coinfection (OR 6.83; 95% CI 2.73, 17.10; p < 0.001) were associated with negative T-SPOT.TB result. CONCLUSIONS: Female is another independent risk factor of negative T-SPOT.TB results, besides to elder, HIV co-infection, acid-fast bacilli (AFB) smear-negative who are suspected of having active TB infection.

17.
Front Immunol ; 11: 594735, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33281823

RESUMO

Interleukin-17 (IL-17) is an essential proinflammatory cytokine, which is mainly secreted by the CD4+ helper T cells (Th17 cells) and subsets of innate lymphoid cells. IL-17A is associated with the pathogenesis of inflammatory diseases, including psoriasis, atopic dermatitis, hidradenitis suppurativa, alopecia areata, pityriasis rubra pilaris, pemphigus, and systemic sclerosis. Interleukin-23 (IL-23) plays a pivotal role in stimulating the production of IL-17 by activating the Th17 cells. The IL-23/IL-17 axis is an important pathway for targeted therapy for inflammatory diseases. Emerging evidence from clinical trials has shown that monoclonal antibodies against IL-23, IL-17, and tumor necrosis factor are effective in the treatment of patients with psoriasis, atopic dermatitis, hidradenitis suppurativa, pityriasis rubra pilaris, pemphigus, and systemic sclerosis. Here, we summarize the latest knowledge about the biology, signaling, and pathophysiological functions of the IL-23/IL-17 axis in inflammatory skin diseases. The currently available biologics targeting the axis is also discussed.

18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33312157

RESUMO

Background: The gut microbiota is recognized as a major modulator of metabolic disorders such as type 2 diabetes. Dapagliflozin, sodium glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors (SGLT2i), enhances renal glucose excretion, and lowers blood glucose levels. The study aimed to determine the effects of dapagliflozin on fecal microbiota in a type 2 diabetic rat model. Methods: Four-week-old male Sprague Dawley rats (n = 24) were fed a high-fat diet (HFD) for 8 weeks and then given a single dose of STZ injection (30 mg/kg, i.p). They were randomly divided into three groups (n = 8). Each group received intragastric infusion of normal saline (2 ml, 0.9%) or metformin (215.15 mg/kg/day) or dapagliflozin (1 mg/kg/day) for 4 weeks. Blood glucose levels and plasma insulin levels were detected during intragastric glucose tolerance. Fecal samples were collected to access microbiome by 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing. Results: Dapagliflozin significantly decreased fasting and postprandial blood glucose levels as metformin in type 2 diabetic rats (P < 0.001). Enterotype was composed of Ruminococcaceae after treatment of dapagliflozin, whereas Ruminococcaceae and Muribaculaceae were the main enterotypes following metformin treatment. Dapagliflozin did not increase the abundance of beneficial bacteria including Lactobacillaceae and Bifidobacteriaceae. However, these were increased in the metformin group. It is surprising to find that Proteobacteria (especially Desulfovibrionaceae) were enriched in the dapagliflozin group. Conclusion: Dapagliflozin and metformin exerted complementary effects on the main beneficial bacteria. A combination of these two drugs might be beneficial to improve the structure of fecal microbiota in the treatment of type 2 diabetes.

19.
Microsc Res Tech ; 2020 Nov 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33231351

RESUMO

Melolonthinae are the largest subfamily of Scarabaeidae, considered as serious pests for their larvae attacking plant roots and tubers. The edaphic larvae are difficult to be identified because the study on larval taxonomy is far from satisfactory. In this study, multivoltine white grubs Melolontha incana (Motschulsky, 1853) were investigated using light and scanning electron microscopy, in order to provide more morphological characters for the pest identification. The white grubs are atypical for the epipharynx bearing 14 heli arranged in two rows; the mandible is furnished with a patch of minute granules; the maxilla is equipped with 18 acute stridulatory teeth arranged in line; each femur and tibiotarsus is furnished ventrally with a cluster of fossorial setae. The morphological comparisons with the other melolonthine species were provided. The adaptative relationship between the morphological feature and the multivoltine life history were briefly discussed.

20.
Clin Exp Hypertens ; : 1-8, 2020 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33233955

RESUMO

Purpose: We sought to observe the effect of submaximal aerobic exercise on abdominal obesity in hypertension patients and to clarify a correlation between blood pressure improvement and visceral fat, along with arterial elasticity. Materials and Methods: According to the treatment plan, the patients were divided into two groups: the combined treatment group and the single drug group. During the training period, the subjects in the combined treatment group performed a 60 min treadmill exercise at 65% of Pmax. PWV was measured using blood pressure pulse-wave detectors before and after treatment. We assessed carotid stiffness and visceral fat area by B­mode ultrasonography. Results: The 24-h SBP and DBP changed significantly in the two groups in the pre- and post-treatment comparison. Significant statistical differences among SBP and DBP in the two groups of combination therapy and drug therapy after 12 months were demonstrated. Visceral fat area was significantly reduced in the combination therapy group compared to the drug therapy group at the last assessment. Compared with the drug group, arterial compliance in the combination therapy group was higher after treatment. Blood pressure showed significant positive correlation with visceral fat area, PWV, ß­stiffness, Ep, and PWVß in the combination therapy group. Conclusion: The combination of drug therapy and is more effective than just pursuing single drug treatment of hypertension in patients with abdominal obesity. Submaximal aerobic exercise contributes to anti-hypertension. The main mechanism of anti-hypertension in combination with drug therapy and submaximal aerobic exercise is the improvement of vascular elasticity and decreased central body-fat distribution.

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