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1.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 191: 110236, 2020 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32001424

RESUMO

Copper (Cu), a transition metal, is an essential trace element in human and animal nutrition at low concentration, but Cu has toxic effects on tissues and organs at high concentration. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a toxicological target in Cu poison. Thus far, no studies have focused on the relationship among copper, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and apoptosis in animal and human livers. In the present study, mice treated with copper sulfate (CuSO4) were used to assess the impacts of copper on ER stress and hepatic apoptosis. A total of 240 mice were orally administered with 0 (control), 10, 20 and 40 mg/kg of CuSO4 for 42 days. The results indicated that CuSO4 at 10 mg/kg markedly induced hepatocyte apoptosis and ER stress. In addition, ER stress was characterized by the increased mRNA and protein levels of glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78) and 94 (GRP94). Furthermore, ER stress-triggered 3 apoptotic pathways were also activated by the increased intracellular calcium and up-regulated expression levels of genes involved in growth arrest- and DNA damage-inducible gene 153 (Gadd153/CHOP), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and cysteine aspartate-specific protease 12 (caspase-12) signaling pathways in CuSO4-treated mice. In conclusion, CuSO4-induced ER stress can promote hepatic apoptosis in mice by activating CHOP, JNK and caspase-12 signaling pathways.

2.
Environ Pollut ; 260: 114037, 2020 Jan 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32006888

RESUMO

Pathways for the physical disintegration of biochar (BC) and the release of water dispersible BC colloids (WDBC) have received much attention due to their unique impacts on carbon loss and contaminant. However, the current understanding of the mechanisms involved in WDBC formation and associated influencing factors is rather limited. This study systematically explored the effects of pyrolysis temperature, initial particle size, and solution chemistry on WDBC formation in aqueous solutions and examined the formation and colloidal stability of WDBC in natural solutions. Results showed that pyrolysis temperature determined the abrasion resistance of pyrolyzed BC, and the submicron fragment rate decreased in the order 400 °C (BC400) > 700 °C (BC700) > 200 °C (BC200). The WDBC yield decreased in the order BC400 (77.5-331 mg g-1) > BC700 (33.5-173 mg g-1) > BC200 (16.8-125 mg g-1) depending on BC size at a solution ionic strength (IS) ≤ 1 mM, which was positively correlated with the submicron fragment rate of bulk BC. With the exception of BC200, increasing IS (0.1-20 mM) and decreasing pH (3.0-10.0) significantly inhibited WDBC yield. Release and sedimentation dominated the WDBC formation processes with the former being more susceptible to solution chemistry. Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek interactions properly explained the effect of IS on WDBC from BC400 and BC700, while the steric resistance of abundant dissolved organic carbon on BC200 was mainly responsible for the high formation of WDBC at high IS (20-50 mM). WDBC had high colloidal stability and could form and stabilize well in natural surface waters and soil solutions, suggesting the relevant risk of long-distance migration of WDBC in environments. These findings represent new knowledge regarding the physical decomposition and the fate of BC in the environment.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31926918

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chemoprevention of colorectal adenoma and colorectal cancer remains an important public health goal. The present study aimed to investigate the clinical potential and safety of berberine for prevention of colorectal adenoma recurrence. METHODS: This double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled trial was done in seven hospital centres across six provinces in China. Individuals aged 18-75 years who had at least one but no more than six histologically confirmed colorectal adenomas that had undergone complete polypectomy within the 6 months before recruitment were recruited and randomly assigned (1:1) to receive berberine (0·3 g twice daily) or placebo tablets via block randomisation (block size of six). Participants were to undergo a first follow-up colonoscopy 1 year after enrolment, and if no colorectal adenomas were detected, a second follow-up colonoscopy at 2 years was planned. The study continued until the last enrolled participant reached the 2-year follow-up point. All participants, investigators, endoscopists, and pathologists were blinded to treatment assignment. The primary efficacy endpoint was the recurrence of adenomas at any follow-up colonoscopy. Analysis was based on modified intention-to-treat, with the full analysis set including all randomised participants who received at least one dose of study medication and who had available efficacy data. The study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT02226185; the trial has ended and this report represents the final analysis. FINDINGS: Between Nov 14, 2014, and Dec 30, 2016, 553 participants were randomly assigned to the berberine group and 555 to the placebo group. The full analysis set consisted of 429 participants in the berberine group and 462 in the placebo group. 155 (36%) participants in the berberine group and 216 (47%) in the placebo group were found to have recurrent adenoma during follow-up (unadjusted relative risk ratio for recurrence 0·77, 95% CI 0·66-0·91; p=0·001). No colorectal cancers were detected during follow-up. The most common adverse event was constipation (six [1%] of 446 patients in the berberine group vs one [<0·5%] of 478 in the placebo group). No serious adverse events were reported. INTERPRETATION: Berberine 0·3 g twice daily was safe and effective in reducing the risk of recurrence of colorectal adenoma and could be an option for chemoprevention after polypectomy. FUNDING: National Natural Science Foundation of China.

4.
Cell Death Differ ; 2020 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31959916

RESUMO

Intestinal epithelia self-renew constantly and generate differentiated cells such as secretary goblet cells. The intestine goblet cells secrete gel-forming mucins that form mucus to create a barrier of defense. We reported previously that loss of prolyl hydroxylase (PHD) 3 led to disruption of the intestinal epithelial barrier function. However, the underlying mechanism remains elusive. Here, we demonstrate that PHD3 controls the generation of intestine goblet cell. We found that genetic ablation of Phd3 in mice intestine epithelial cells reduced the amount of goblet cells. Mechanistically, PHD3 bounds the E3 ubiquitin ligase HUWE1 and prevented HUWE1 from mediating ubiquitination and degradation of ATOH1, an essential driver for goblet cell differentiation. The prolyl hydroxylase activity-deficient variant PHD3(H196A) also prevented ATOH1 destruction. A genetic intestine epithelial PHD3(H196A)-knockin had no effect on ATOH1 expression or goblet cell amount in mice, suggesting that the PHD3 prolyl hydroxylase activity is dispensable for its ability to control ATOH1 expression and goblet cell generation. In dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced experimental colitis, PHD3-knockout rather than PHD3(H196A)-knockin sensitized the mice to DSS treatment. Our results reveal an additional critical mechanism underlying the regulation of ATOH1 expression and goblet cell generation and highlight that PHD3 plays a role in controlling intestine goblet cell generation in a hydroxylase-independent manner.

5.
Phytopathology ; 2020 Jan 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31961254

RESUMO

Berberine, a botanical drug, has great ability to inhibit the growth of Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo). However, the antibacterial mechanism of berberine against Xoo remains poorly understood. In this study, we investigated the physiological and transcriptional response of Xoo to berberine. When strain Xoo-GX13 was treated with berberine (10 µg/mL), the hypersensitive response in tobacco, virulence to rice, pathogen population in the rice xylem, production of extracellular polysaccharide (EPS) and activity of extracellular hydrolases decreased, but the levels of pyruvate and ATP increased. Moreover, biofilm formation was inhibited, and the cell membrane was damaged. Transcriptome sequencing analysis showed downregulated expression of gspD, gspE and gspF, involved in the type II secretion system (T2SS); hrcC, hrcJ, hrcN, etc., involved in the type III secretion system (T3SS); gumB and gumC, associated with EPS; zapE, ftsQ and zapA, associated with cell division; lpxH, lpxK, kdtA, etc., associated with the membrane; and pyk, pgk and mdh, encoding pyruvate kinase, phosphoglycerate kinase and malate dehydrogenase, respectively. Upregulated expression was observed for nuoA, nuoB and nuoH, encoding the NADH dehydrogenase complex, and atpF, atpC and atpB, encoding ATP synthase. An adenylate cyclase (CyaA) fusion assay showed that berberine affects T3E secretion via the T3SS and reduces effector translocation in Xoo. It is speculated that the negative growth and virulence phenotypes of berberine-treated Xoo-GX13 may involve differentially expressed genes associated with cytoarchitecture and energy metabolism, these effects on primary cell function may further dampen virulence and result in differential expression of T3SS- and T2SS-related genes.

6.
Elife ; 92020 Jan 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31916937

RESUMO

Immune factors in snails of the genus Biomphalaria are critical for combating Schistosoma mansoni, the predominant cause of human intestinal schistosomiasis. Independently, many of these factors play an important role in, but do not fully define, the compatibility between the model snail B. glabrata, and S. mansoni. Here, we demonstrate association between four previously characterized humoral immune molecules; BgFREP3, BgTEP1, BgFREP2 and Biomphalysin. We also identify unique immune determinants in the plasma of S. mansoni-resistant B. glabrata that associate with the incompatible phenotype. These factors coordinate to initiate haemocyte-mediated destruction of S. mansoni sporocysts via production of reactive oxygen species. The inclusion of BgFREP2 in a BgFREP3-initiated complex that also includes BgTEP1 almost completely explains resistance to S. mansoni in this model. Our study unifies many independent lines of investigation to provide a more comprehensive understanding of the snail immune system in the context of infection by this important human parasite.

7.
Transbound Emerg Dis ; 2020 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31904194

RESUMO

Ranaviruses are important emerging pathogens of ectothermic vertebrates that threaten aquaculture and wildlife worldwide. A mortality event occurred in a cultured population of catfish-like loach (Triplophysa siluorides) in Sichuan Province, China. Gross clinical signs of the affected fish included skin lesions and haemorrhagic ulcers, which are often associated with ranaviruses. Inoculation of liver, kidney and spleen tissue homogenates in epithelioma papulosum cyprini (EPC) cells at 25°C resulted in cytopathic effect within 24 hr. Transmission electron microscopy of infected EPC cells revealed hexagonal viral arrays in the cytoplasm and icosahedral geometry of the virions. Following exposure of T. siluroides to the isolated virus, similar clinical signs were observed and the fish experienced 40% and 90% mortality after 21 days at 103.58 and 107.8 TCID50 /0.1 ml doses, respectively, providing evidence the isolated virus was the main causative agent of the mortality event. Diagnostic PCR of the major capsid protein gene of ranavirus showed that all samples of diseased fish and isolated virus were positive. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the isolated virus, designated as FYLl40220, was associated with the Common Midwife Toad Virus (CMTV)-like ranavirus clade. To our knowledge, this case represents the first report of CMTV-associated mortality in a fish species. Collectively, these results suggest that the host range of CMTV-like ranaviruses is greater than previously thought, and this clade of ranaviruses could have significant economic and biodiversity impacts.

8.
Gut ; 2020 Jan 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31974134
9.
Sci Total Environ ; 708: 134734, 2020 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31780143

RESUMO

Foliar uptake of airborne lead (Pb) may be particularly important for Pb accumulation in plant organs. However, the aerosol bioconcentration factor (BCF) in different seasons has seldom been reported. In the present study, we collected ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) and size-segregated aerosols (SSA) during the corresponding growing seasons, and analyzed these for both Pb concentrations and isotopic ratios. Airborne Pb showed a seasonally varying concentration that was approximately 20% higher in winter than in spring. The bioavailability index, however, was higher in spring. Coupling the stable isotope technique with the bioavailable Pb of aerosol was more reliable in identifying airborne Pb accumulation in leaves than the total determination, suggesting that the hydrophilic absorption pathway was probably dominant for the foliar uptake of Pb in ryegrass. Contributions of airborne Pb accumulation were 88%-92% for washed ryegrass growing outdoors, indicating that the foliar uptake of Pb in the field was mainly from atmospheric deposition. The aerosol BCF of Pb for ryegrass was 6.4-11.4 m3/g in winter and 22.9-31.5 m3/g in spring. The increased aerosol BCF in spring was due to the suitable temperature, abundant rainfall, and increased Pb solubility of the aerosol. Therefore, our results indicate that, for the foliar uptake of Pb, both the aerosol Pb concentration, composition, and seasonal influence should be considered.

10.
Virulence ; 11(1): 23-31, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31826705

RESUMO

Vibrio mimicus is a foodborne pathogen, which is widely distributed in the aquatic environment. Moreover, it is often involved in aquatic animal diseases. In recent years, V. mimicus is an emerging pathogen in some species of Siluriformes. The strain SCCF01 was isolated from yellow catfish (Pelteobagrus fulvidraco). In this study, we aimed to perform genomic analysis of V. mimicus strain SCCF01 to identify genetic features and evolutionary relationships. Information on gene function and classification was obtained by functional annotation, and circular graph of strain SCCF01 genome, which was created by Circos v0.64. Information on virulence genes (adhesion, flagellum system, exotoxin, and secretory system, etc.) was obtained by virulence genes annotation. Genome element prediction showed that most of the mobile elements were distributed in chromosome I. Therefore, chromosome I of SCCF01 genome has more plasticity than chromosome II and might be larger in size. Genomic linear relationship between the strain of V. mimicus and strain SCCF01 was analyzed by linear pairwise comparison but was unable to determine the relationship. Gene family analysis predicted that the evolutionary direction of strain SCCF01 was: clinical strain → environmental strain → SCCF01 strain. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the strain SCCF01 was more closely related to environmental strains. According to gene family analysis and phylogenetic analysis, we speculated that strain SCCF01 has probably diverged from environmental strains.

11.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 189: 109944, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31757513

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Phthalates are endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) that pose a serious hazard to the human health. Many epidemiological studies revealed a relationship between phthalates exposure and blood pressure in general population, while the relationship in pregnant women remains unknown. OBJECTIVES: Aimed to elucidate whether phthalate exposure is associated with blood pressure among pregnant women. METHODS: This study included 636 participants from Wuhan, China. Urine samples were conducted repeatedly in three trimesters, and 9 phthalates were measured in these samples. After each urine was sampled, all the participants completed blood pressure measurements. Associations between repeated measurements of phthalate concentration and blood pressure were evaluated by using generalized estimating equations. Stratified analysis by fetus gender was conducted. RESULTS: Among the pregnant women with male fetuses, mono-i-butyl phthalate (MiBP) exposed in the 1st trimester was associated with the increased diastolic blood pressure (DBP) measured in the 2nd trimester, while the environmental risk score (ERS) measured in the 1st and 2nd trimester was positively associated with systolic blood pressure (SBP) and DBP in the 2nd trimester. No significant relationships were observed among all the population or pregnant women with female fetuses. CONCLUSIONS: Exposure to higher levels of MiBP may be related to increased blood pressure during pregnancy in pregnant women with male fetuses.

12.
Toxicol Mech Methods ; 30(3): 219-227, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31805805

RESUMO

Flurochloridone (FLC) is a widely used herbicide in developing countries. Although the testes are a target organ for FLC in rats, the adverse effects of FLC on testes have not been fully elucidated. To clarify them, we performed RNA-seq analysis using the testes of FLC-treated rats from our previous subchronic toxicity tests. Unilateral testes of three male rats from solvent control groupand three FLC-treated groups (3 mg/kg, 31.25 mg/kg and 125 mg/kg) were used for RNA extraction. A poly A selection protocol coupled with an Illumina TruSeq RNA-Seq library protocol was used to construct RNA-Seq libraries. Principal component analysis (PCA), differentially expressed gene (DEG) analysis, and hierarchical clustering analysis (HCA) were conducted using R. Gene Ontology (GO) term enrichment analysis and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway enrichment analysis were performed to understand the biological characteristics of the DEGs using the Database for Annotation, Visualization and Integrated Discovery (DAVID). The results indicated that many up-regulated DEGs were enriched in pathways associated with testicular injury, such as mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling, lysosome and focal adhesion. Many down-regulated DEGs were enriched in pathways associated with testicular reproduction function, such as sexual reproduction, spermatogenesis and germ cell development. Moreover, we confirmed the oral no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) of 3 mg/kg in subchronic toxicity test, because the overall testicular gene expression in 3 mg/kg FLC-treated group was similar to that of the solvent control group. In 31.25 mg/kg and 125 mg/kg groups, DEGs revealed that testicular injury was related to oxidative stress.

13.
Interact Cardiovasc Thorac Surg ; 30(2): 303-311, 2020 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31642911

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to establish an original transapical septal myectomy procedure that can be performed in the beating heart via a minimally invasive approach for the treatment of hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy. METHODS: We designed an original intracardiac septum resection device to conduct off-pump septal myectomy in swine. A subxiphoid minithoracotomy was performed to access the apex of the heart. This resection device was inserted into the left ventricular outflow tract of the heart via the apex. The basal anteroseptal myocardium beneath the right aortic cusp was identified using a combination of transoesophageal and transthoracic echocardiography and then resected and collected by the device. RESULTS: Six consecutive operations were successfully and accurately performed using the custom-made device under echocardiographic guidance. All pigs survived and appeared to be normal until planned euthanasia 1 week after operation. A 300-700 mg portion of the septal myocardium was resected from the normal swine heart. Echocardiography and electrocardiogram revealed no abnormalities after resection. One exception was the fifth pig, in which mild annular regurgitation of the aortic valve occurred after repetitive resection. Postmortem necropsy demonstrated that all resections were correctly located at the basal anteroseptal septum beneath the right aortic cusp. CONCLUSIONS: Our study provides the first proof-of-concept evidence for a novel beating heart transapical septal myectomy procedure, which showed promising translational potential for the treatment of hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy. This procedure would probably reduce operative risks and improve outcomes and reduce the demanding expertise required to perform conventional surgical myectomy.

14.
Environ Int ; 135: 105360, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31830730

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Benzotriazoles (BTRs) and benzothiazoles (BTHs) are emerging contaminants with potential insulin modulation activities. Pregnancy exposure to BTs (BTRs and BTHs) may be a risk factor for the development of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). However, epidemiological studies are limited. OBJECTIVES: We prospectively investigated the associations of exposure to BTs at early pregnancy with the blood glucose levels and the risks of GDM. METHODS: A prospective cohort of 1770 pregnant women who were free of diabetes at baseline was established between 2013 and 2015 in Wuhan, China. Urine samples collected at 13.1 ± 1.1 weeks of gestation were analyzed to estimate the exposure level of BTs. The diagnosis of GDM was based on a 75 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) conducted at 26.4 ± 2.4 weeks of gestation. We examined the associations between urinary concentration of BTs and blood glucose levels by linear regression models. The associations of urinary BTs concentrations with the relative risk (RR) of GDM were evaluated by generalized estimating equations with Poisson regression. Effect modifications by fetus sex and pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) were further evaluated in the sensitivity analysis. RESULTS: A total of 147 (8.31%) pregnant women were diagnosed with GDM. Median concentrations of urinary BTs did not differ significantly between pregnant women with and without GDM. It was found that urinary levels of benzothiazole and 2-hydroxy-benzothiazole (2-OH-BTH) were positively associated with 2-hour blood glucose (p for trend < 0.050). Comparing the high exposure group with the low exposure group of 2-OH-BTH, the adjusted RR of GDM was 1.79 (95% CI = 1.18 to 2.69, p for trend = 0.012). Sensitivity analysis indicated that the positive association of the urinary 2-OH-BTH level with the RR of GDM remained significant among pregnant women who had a male fetus (RR = 1.76, 95% CI = 1.02 to 3.03, p for trend = 0.041) and those with a normal pre-pregnancy BMI (RR = 1.85, 95% CI = 1.09 to 3.11, p for trend = 0.034). CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggested that higher urinary level of 2-OH-BTH in early pregnancy was associated with impaired glucose homeostasis and the increased risk of GDM. The results underscore the need of follow-up studies to validate the findings and elucidate the underlying biological mechanism.

15.
Res Social Adm Pharm ; 16(2): 183-189, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31085142

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The literature lacks information about the use and cost of prescribed antihypertensive medications, especially by the type and class of medication prescribed. OBJECTIVE: This study investigated the uses and expenses of antihypertensive medications among hypertensive adults in the United States. METHODS: Using the 2014-2015 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey data, adult men and nonpregnant women aged 18 or older who had a diagnosis code of hypertension and used any prescribed antihypertensive medication were included in the study (n = 10,971). Adults with hypertension who were using a single antihypertensive medication were defined as single medication users, and those using two or more medications were defined as multiple medication users. Medications were classified into angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs), angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs), calcium channel blockers (CCBs), thiazide-type diuretics (TDs), ß-blockers (BBs), and others. The average annual total antihypertensive medication expenses and the expenditures of each medication class were estimated by using generalized linear models with a log link and gamma distribution and were adjusted to 2015 US dollars. RESULTS: Among 10,971 hypertensive adults, 4759 (44.1%) were single medication users, and 6212 (55.9%) were multiple medication users. The average annual total cost for antihypertensive medications was $336 per person (95% confidence interval [CI] = $319-$353); $199 (95% CI = $177-$221) for single medication users and $436 (95% CI = $413-$459) for multiple medication users. The average annual costs for each medication class were estimated at $438 (95% CI = $384-$492) for ARBs and $49 for TDs (95% CI = $44-$55). CONCLUSIONS: Users of multiple medications incurred more than twice the expense than single medication users. When comparing classes of medications, the cost for ARBs was the highest, whereas the cost for TDs was the lowest. This information can be used in evaluating the cost-effectiveness of antihypertension therapies.

16.
J Clin Pharm Ther ; 45(1): 199-203, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31468568

RESUMO

WHAT IS KNOWN AND OBJECTIVE: Some patients with refractory depression who fail to respond to rapid injection of standard-dose ketamine are injected with high doses, but the safety and efficacy of this practice are unclear. CASE DESCRIPTION: A 57-year-old woman with refractory depression whose symptoms did not improve after 20-seconds intravenous injection of 0.5 mg/kg ketamine went into remission following eight, 1-minute intravenous injections of 1 mg/kg ketamine delivered over a 4-week period. By 6-month follow-up, no significant adverse events had occurred and cognitive function had improved. WHAT IS NEW AND CONCLUSION: High-dose intravenous injections of ketamine may stably improve depressive symptoms and cognitive function in patients with refractory depression who do not respond to rapid intravenous injection of standard-dose ketamine. The high-dose treatment appears to be associated with only mild side effects.

17.
Environ Int ; 134: 105322, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31739135

RESUMO

The separation of urine at source for phosphorus (P) recovery is attractive taking into account the high P concentration and small volume. However, the treatment of urine is still challenging due to its unpleasant odor and hygiene problems. Because the above problems could be solved by acidification to keep the pH of urine below 4, we propose a novel strategy to recover P from acidified urine using tailored hydrous zirconia-coated magnetite nanoparticles (Fe3O4@ZrO2). This strategy involves the selective adsorption of phosphate by easily separable and reusable Fe3O4@ZrO2, the desorption of adsorbed phosphate, and the precipitation of desorbed phosphate as calcium phosphate fertilizer. The results indicated that at pH 4, the P in synthetic urine was selectively adsorbed and could be exhausted using Fe3O4@ZrO2. Nearly all (>97.5%) of the sequestered P on the Fe3O4@ZrO2 nanoparticles was stripped using ≥1 M NaOH solution and ~100% of the stripped P was then successfully transformed into calcium phosphate, upon adding CaCl2 at pH >12 and a Ca/P molar ratio of 3. The liquid/solid (Fe3O4@ZrO2 particles) mixture could be conveniently separated for reuse using an external magnetic field. The reusability of the Fe3O4@ZrO2 nanoparticles in the extraction of P from synthetic urine was confirmed using five cycles of the adsorption-desorption process and their performance validated using real urine samples. The mechanism of phosphate adsorption was investigated using XPS, FTIR and zeta potential measurements, showing that phosphate was chemically adsorbed on the surface through direct coordination to zirconium atom via ligand exchange.

18.
Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl ; 107: 110224, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31761194

RESUMO

Multi-drug resistance (MDR) remains the main culprit for the low survival rate of advanced colorectal cancer (CRC). Photothermal-therapy (PPT) is effective to kill MDR tumor cells, but fails to completely eradicate tumors. In this study, we prepared a nanocomposite based on gold nanorod core with triple layer coating (GNRs/mSiO2/PHIS/TPGS/DOX) to combat multidrug resistant (MDR) colorectal cancer via multi-strategies. We first synthesized the mesoporous silica-coated gold nanorods (GNRs/mSiO2), and loaded with antitumor drug doxorubicin (DOX) to realize a combination of chemo- and photothermal-therapy. To reverse DOX resistance, pH responsive poly-histidine (PHIS) was conjugated on GNRs/mSiO2 to increase drug intracellular accumulation via efficient endo/lysosome escape; d-α-tocopherol polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate (TPGS) was then assembled on the surface of the particles to realize drug intracellular retention by inhibition P-glycoprotein. The results showed that the nanocomposite exhibited a highly efficient photothermal conversion in the NIR region, a pH and NIR triggered drug release profile and an increment of DOX intracellular accumulation and cytotoxicity on MDR SW620/Ad300 cells. Most importantly, the nanocomposite showed the most potent antitumor efficacy without obvious systemic toxicity comparing to other control groups with either chemo- or photothermal therapy alone on SW620/Ad300 tumor bearing mice. Altogether, the successful preparation of the nanocomposite and its potent efficacy might provide evidence for the future design and develop of nano-therapeutic system in the treatment of MDR colorectal cancer.

19.
Anal Bioanal Chem ; 412(4): 963-972, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31853600

RESUMO

In this study, palladium/carbon dot composites (Pd-CDs) were fabricated via a facial hydrothermal route using ethanediamine and palladium chloride dihydrate as precursors. The obtained Pd-CDs showed an excellent intrinsic peroxidase-like activity, which could catalyze the oxidization of 3,3'5,5'-tetramethylbenzidine with the assistance of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and thus resulted in color change, accompanied by an absorption peak which appeared at 652 nm. Such response is H2O2 concentration-dependent and allows for the assay of H2O2 in the range of 0.1 to 30 µM with a limit of detection of 0.03 µM. Simultaneously, by combination of enzymatic oxidation of glucose with glucose oxidase and Pd-CD catalytic reaction, a colorimetric sensing platform was also constructed for glucose detection with high selectivity and sensitivity (limit of detection as low as 0.2 µM). Additionally, the proposed method exhibited capability for determination of glucose in real samples (fruit juice) with satisfactory recovery (98.5-103%), indicating potential application prospects in biochemical analysis.

20.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 11(23): 11659-11672, 2019 Dec 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31822637

RESUMO

Nickel (Ni), an environmental hazard, widely causes allergic contact hypersensitivity worldwide. Despite that Ni-stimulated pro-inflammatory response is vital in allergy, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain largely unclear. Here, we demonstrated that NiCl2 activated nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB), mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3) signaling pathways in primary bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs), leading to the altered transcription levels of interleukin-1ß (IL-1ß), -6, -8, -18, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interferon ß (INF-ß). We also found that nickel chloride (NiCl2) activated Nod-like receptor 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome pathway, resulting in the proteolytic cleavage and release of IL-1ß. NiCl2 induced the accumulation of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (mtROS) and the release of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), thus activating NLRP3 inflammasome pathway. Additionally, NiCl2-induced apoptosis was dependent on the generation of mtROS, and caspase-1 activation might also partly contribute to the apoptotic process. Altogether, abovementioned results indicate that NiCl2 induces inflammatory activation in BMDMs via NF-κB, MAPKs, IRF3 signaling pathways as well as NLRP3 inflammasome pathway, which provides a mechanism to improve the efficiency of treatment against Ni-induced allergic reactions.

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