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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34503922

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To explore the development of central nervous system (CNS) symptoms and clinical application in predicting the clinical outcomes of SARS-COV-2 patients. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was performed on the hospitalized patients with SARS-COV-2 recruited from four hospitals in Hubei Province, China from 18 January to 10 March 2020. The patients with CNS symptoms were determined. Data regarding clinical symptoms and laboratory tests were collected from medical records. RESULTS: Of 1268 patients studied, 162 (12.8%) had CNS symptoms, manifested as unconsciousness (71, 5.6%), coma (69, 5.4%), dysphoria (50, 3.9%), somnolence (34, 2.7%) and convulsion (3, 0.2%), which were observed at median of 14 (interquartile range 9-18) days after symptom onset and significantly associated with older age (OR = 5.71, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.78-11.73), male (OR = 1.73, 95% CI 1.22-2.47) and preexisting hypertension (OR = 1.78, 95% CI 1.23-2.57). The presence of CNS symptoms could be predicted by abnormal laboratory tests across various clinical stages, including by lymphocyte counts of <0.93 × 109/L, LDH≥435 U/L and IL-6≥28.83 pg/L at 0-10 days post disease; by lymphocyte count<0.86 × 109/L, IL-2R ≥ 949 U/L, LDH≥382 U/L and WBC≥8.06 × 109/L at 11-20 days post disease. More patients with CNS symptoms developed fatal outcome compared with patients without CNS symptoms (HR = 33.96, 95% CI 20.87-55.16). CONCLUSION: Neurological symptoms of COVID-19 were related to increased odds of developing poor prognosis and even fatal infection.

2.
EBioMedicine ; 72: 103591, 2021 Sep 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34563924

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) is an emerging infectious disease with high mortality, however with no effective therapy available. METHODS: The effect of favipiravir (FPV) in treating SFTS was evaluated by an integrated analysis on data collected from a single-arm study (n=428), a surveillance study (n=2350) and published data from a randomized controlled trial study (n=145). A 1:1 propensity score matching was performed to include 780 patients: 390 received FPV and 390 received supportive therapy only. Case fatality rates (CFRs), clinical progress, and adverse effects were compared. FINDINGS: FPV treatment had significantly reduced CFR from 20.0% to 9.0% (odds ratio 0.38, 95% confidence interval 0.23-0.65), however showing heterogeneity when patients were grouped by age, onset-to-admission interval, initial viral load and therapy duration. The effect of FPV was significant only among patients aged ≤70 years, with onset-to-admission interval ≤5 days, therapy duration ≥5 days or baseline viral load ≤1 × 106 copies/mL. Age-stratified analysis revealed no benefit in the aging group >70 years, regardless of their sex, onset-to-admission interval, therapy duration or baseline viral load. However, for both ≤60 and 60-70 years groups, therapy duration and baseline viral load differentially affected FPV therapy efficiency. Hyperuricemia and thrombocytopenia, as the major adverse response of FPV usage, were observed in >70 years patients. INTERPRETATION: FPV was safe in treating SFTS patients but showed no benefit for those aged >70 years. Instant FPV therapy could highly benefit SFTS patients aged 60-70 years. FUNDING: China Natural Science Foundation (No. 81825019, 82073617 and 81722041) and China Mega-project for Infectious Diseases (2018ZX10713002 and 2015ZX09102022).

3.
Sci Data ; 8(1): 204, 2021 08 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34354081

RESUMO

Mite-borne diseases, such as scrub typhus and hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome, present an increasing global public health concern. Most of the mite-borne diseases are caused by the blood-sucking mites. To present a comprehensive understanding of the distributions and diversity of blood-sucking mites in China, we derived information from peer-reviewed journal articles, thesis publications and books related to mites in both Chinese and English between 1978 and 2020. Geographic information of blood-sucking mites' occurrence and mite species were extracted and georeferenced at the county level. Standard operating procedures were applied to remove duplicates and ensure accuracy of the data. This dataset contains 6,443 records of mite species occurrences at the county level in China. This geographical dataset provides an overview of the species diversity and wide distributions of blood-sucking mites, and can potentially be used in distribution prediction of mite species and risk assessment of mite-borne diseases in China.

4.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 5026, 2021 08 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34408158

RESUMO

Nationwide prospective surveillance of all-age patients with acute respiratory infections was conducted in China between 2009‒2019. Here we report the etiological and epidemiological features of the 231,107 eligible patients enrolled in this analysis. Children <5 years old and school-age children have the highest viral positivity rate (46.9%) and bacterial positivity rate (30.9%). Influenza virus, respiratory syncytial virus and human rhinovirus are the three leading viral pathogens with proportions of 28.5%, 16.8% and 16.7%, and Streptococcus pneumoniae, Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Klebsiella pneumoniae are the three leading bacterial pathogens (29.9%, 18.6% and 15.8%). Negative interactions between viruses and positive interactions between viral and bacterial pathogens are common. A Join-Point analysis reveals the age-specific positivity rate and how this varied for individual pathogens. These data indicate that differential priorities for diagnosis, prevention and control should be highlighted in terms of acute respiratory tract infection patients' demography, geographic locations and season of illness in China.


Assuntos
Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Infecções Bacterianas/microbiologia , Infecções Respiratórias/microbiologia , Infecções Respiratórias/virologia , Viroses/virologia , Vírus/isolamento & purificação , Adolescente , Adulto , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Infecções Bacterianas/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Infecções Respiratórias/epidemiologia , Estações do Ano , Viroses/epidemiologia , Vírus/classificação , Vírus/genética , Adulto Jovem
5.
J Infect ; 83(4): 424-432, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34358582

RESUMO

Objectives To investigate the epidemiological features of diarrheagenic Escherichia coli (DEC) in patients with acute diarrhea in China. Methods An active sentinel surveillance was performed in all-age patients with acute diarrhea in China, 2009‒2018. DEC was isolated and identified by serological assay and PCR from stool samples. Results DEC was determined in 6.68% (6,119/91,651) of the patients, with higher positive rates among females than among males (6.97% vs. 6.46%) and among 18‒59 years patients (7.88%) than among other age groups. Five pathotypes were identified, the most prevalent was enteroaggregative E. coli (EAEC), followed by enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC), and enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC). Pediatric patients <5 years had higher positive rate of EAEC (2.07%), followed by EPEC (1.81%), and enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) (0.31%), while the 18‒59 years patients had higher infection of ETEC (2.36%). ETEC and EPEC were more frequently identified in urban than rural areas, with age and gender adjusted positive rate of 1.68% vs. 1.14% respectively, and 1.77% vs. 1.55%, while EIEC and EHEC were more frequently identified in rural areas. Conclusions These findings highlight the epidemiology features of DEC and underscores the need for conducting DEC surveillance.


Assuntos
Escherichia coli Enteropatogênica , Escherichia coli Enterotoxigênica , Infecções por Escherichia coli , Criança , Diarreia/epidemiologia , Escherichia coli Enteropatogênica/genética , Escherichia coli Enterotoxigênica/genética , Infecções por Escherichia coli/epidemiologia , Fezes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase
6.
Infect Dis Poverty ; 10(1): 66, 2021 May 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33964965

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The ongoing transmission of the Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) in the Middle East and its expansion to other regions are raising concerns of a potential pandemic. An in-depth analysis about both population and molecular epidemiology of this pathogen is needed. METHODS: MERS cases reported globally as of June 2020 were collected mainly from World Health Organization official reports, supplemented by other reliable sources. Determinants for case fatality and spatial diffusion of MERS were assessed with Logistic regressions and Cox proportional hazard models, respectively. Phylogenetic and phylogeographic analyses were performed to examine the evolution and migration history of MERS-CoV. RESULTS: A total of 2562 confirmed MERS cases with 150 case clusters were reported with a case fatality rate of 32.7% (95% CI: 30.9‒34.6%). Saudi Arabia accounted for 83.6% of the cases. Age of ≥ 65 years old, underlying conditions and ≥ 5 days delay in diagnosis were independent risk factors for death. However, a history of animal contact was associated with a higher risk (adjusted OR = 2.97, 95% CI: 1.10-7.98) among female cases < 65 years but with a lower risk (adjusted OR = 0.31, 95% CI: 0.18-0.51) among male cases ≥ 65 years old. Diffusion of the disease was fastest from its origin in Saudi Arabia to the east, and was primarily driven by the transportation network. The most recent sub-clade C5.1 (since 2013) was associated with non-synonymous mutations and a higher mortality rate. Phylogeographic analyses pointed to Riyadh of Saudi Arabia and Abu Dhabi of the United Arab Emirates as the hubs for both local and international spread of MERS-CoV. CONCLUSIONS: MERS-CoV remains primarily locally transmitted in the Middle East, with opportunistic exportation to other continents and a potential of causing transmission clusters of human cases. Animal contact is associated with a higher risk of death, but the association differs by age and sex. Transportation network is the leading driver for the spatial diffusion of the disease. These findings how this pathogen spread are helpful for targeting public health surveillance and interventions to control endemics and to prevent a potential pandemic.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Adulto , Idoso , Animais , Evolução Molecular , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio/isolamento & purificação , Epidemiologia Molecular , Mortalidade , Filogenia , Arábia Saudita/epidemiologia , Análise de Sobrevida , Zoonoses/epidemiologia , Zoonoses/virologia
7.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 452, 2021 May 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34011281

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 has impacted populations around the world, with the fatality rate varying dramatically across countries. Selenium, as one of the important micronutrients implicated in viral infections, was suggested to play roles. METHODS: An ecological study was performed to assess the association between the COVID-19 related fatality and the selenium content both from crops and topsoil, in China. RESULTS: Totally, 14,045 COVID-19 cases were reported from 147 cities during 8 December 2019-13 December 2020 were included. Based on selenium content in crops, the case fatality rates (CFRs) gradually increased from 1.17% in non-selenium-deficient areas, to 1.28% in moderate-selenium-deficient areas, and further to 3.16% in severe-selenium-deficient areas (P = 0.002). Based on selenium content in topsoil, the CFRs gradually increased from 0.76% in non-selenium-deficient areas, to 1.70% in moderate-selenium-deficient areas, and further to 1.85% in severe-selenium-deficient areas (P < 0.001). The zero-inflated negative binomial regression model showed a significantly higher fatality risk in cities with severe-selenium-deficient selenium content in crops than non-selenium-deficient cities, with incidence rate ratio (IRR) of 3.88 (95% CIs: 1.21-12.52), which was further confirmed by regression fitting the association between CFR of COVID-19 and selenium content in topsoil, with the IRR of 2.38 (95% CIs: 1.14-4.98) for moderate-selenium-deficient cities and 3.06 (1.49-6.27) for severe-selenium-deficient cities. CONCLUSIONS: Regional selenium deficiency might be related to an increased CFR of COVID-19. Future studies are needed to explore the associations between selenium status and disease outcome at individual-level.


Assuntos
COVID-19/diagnóstico , Selênio/análise , COVID-19/mortalidade , COVID-19/virologia , China/epidemiologia , Produtos Agrícolas/química , Humanos , Micronutrientes/análise , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , Selênio/deficiência , Solo/química , Análise de Sobrevida
8.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 481, 2021 May 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34039295

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) epidemic has been largely controlled in China, to the point where case fatality rate (CFR) data can be comprehensively evaluated. METHODS: Data on confirmed patients, with a final outcome reported as of 29 March 2020, were obtained from official websites and other internet sources. The hospitalized CFR (HCFR) was estimated, epidemiological features described, and risk factors for a fatal outcome identified. RESULTS: The overall HCFR in China was estimated to be 4.6% (95% CI 4.5-4.8%, P < 0.001). It increased with age and was higher in males than females. Although the highest HCFR observed was in male patients ≥70 years old, the relative risks for death outcome by sex varied across age groups, and the greatest HCFR risk ratio for males vs. females was shown in the age group of 50-60 years, higher than age groups of 60-70 and ≥ 70 years. Differential age/sex HCFR patterns across geographical regions were found: the age effect on HCFR was greater in other provinces outside Hubei than in Wuhan. An effect of longer interval from symptom onset to admission was only observed outside Hubei, not in Wuhan. By performing multivariate analysis and survival analysis, the higher HCFR was associated with older age (both P < 0.001), and male sex (both P < 0.001). Only in regions outside Hubei, longer interval from symptom onset to admission, were associated with higher HCFR. CONCLUSIONS: This up-to-date and comprehensive picture of COVID-19 HCFR and its drivers will help healthcare givers target limited medical resources to patients with high risk of fatality.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/mortalidade , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Hospitalização , SARS-CoV-2 , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Tempo para o Tratamento
9.
Signal Transduct Target Ther ; 6(1): 145, 2021 Apr 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33859168

RESUMO

Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) virus (SFTSV) is an emerging tick-borne virus with high fatality and an expanding endemic. Currently, effective anti-SFTSV intervention remains unavailable. Favipiravir (T-705) was recently reported to show in vitro and in animal model antiviral efficacy against SFTSV. Here, we conducted a single-blind, randomized controlled trial to assess the efficacy and safety of T-705 in treating SFTS (Chinese Clinical Trial Registry website, number ChiCTR1900023350). From May to August 2018, laboratory-confirmed SFTS patients were recruited from a designated hospital and randomly assigned to receive oral T-705 in combination with supportive care or supportive care only. Fatal outcome occurred in 9.5% (7/74) of T-705 treated patients and 18.3% (13/71) of controls (odds ratio, 0.466, 95% CI, 0.174-1.247). Cox regression showed a significant reduction in case fatality rate (CFR) with an adjusted hazard ratio of 0.366 (95% CI, 0.142-0.944). Among the low-viral load subgroup (RT-PCR cycle threshold ≥26), T-705 treatment significantly reduced CFR from 11.5 to 1.6% (P = 0.029), while no between-arm difference was observed in the high-viral load subgroup (RT-PCR cycle threshold <26). The T-705-treated group showed shorter viral clearance, lower incidence of hemorrhagic signs, and faster recovery of laboratory abnormities compared with the controls. The in vitro and animal experiments demonstrated that the antiviral efficacies of T-705 were proportionally induced by SFTSV mutation rates, particularly from two transition mutation types. The mutation analyses on T-705-treated serum samples disclosed a partially consistent mutagenesis pattern as those of the in vitro or animal experiments in reducing the SFTSV viral loads, further supporting the anti-SFTSV effect of T-705, especially for the low-viral loads.

10.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 2464, 2021 04 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33927201

RESUMO

National-based prospective surveillance of all-age patients with acute diarrhea was conducted in China between 2009‒2018. Here we report the etiological, epidemiological, and clinical features of the 152,792 eligible patients enrolled in this analysis. Rotavirus A and norovirus are the two leading viral pathogens detected in the patients, followed by adenovirus and astrovirus. Diarrheagenic Escherichia coli and nontyphoidal Salmonella are the two leading bacterial pathogens, followed by Shigella and Vibrio parahaemolyticus. Patients aged <5 years had higher overall positive rate of viral pathogens, while bacterial pathogens were more common in patients aged 18‒45 years. A joinpoint analysis revealed the age-specific positivity rate and how this varied for individual pathogens. Our findings fill crucial gaps of how the distributions of enteropathogens change across China in patients with diarrhea. This allows enhanced identification of the predominant diarrheal pathogen candidates for diagnosis in clinical practice and more targeted application of prevention and control measures.


Assuntos
Diarreia/epidemiologia , Diarreia/patologia , Gastroenterite/epidemiologia , Gastroenterite/patologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Infecções por Caliciviridae/epidemiologia , Infecções por Caliciviridae/patologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China/epidemiologia , Diarreia/microbiologia , Escherichia coli/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Escherichia coli/epidemiologia , Infecções por Escherichia coli/patologia , Gastroenterite/microbiologia , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Norovirus/isolamento & purificação , Rotavirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Rotavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Rotavirus/patologia , Salmonella/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Salmonella/epidemiologia , Infecções por Salmonella/patologia , Shigella/isolamento & purificação , Vibrioses/epidemiologia , Vibrioses/patologia , Vibrio parahaemolyticus/isolamento & purificação , Adulto Jovem
11.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 1075, 2021 02 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33597544

RESUMO

Understanding ecological niches of major tick species and prevalent tick-borne pathogens is crucial for efficient surveillance and control of tick-borne diseases. Here we provide an up-to-date review on the spatial distributions of ticks and tick-borne pathogens in China. We map at the county level 124 tick species, 103 tick-borne agents, and human cases infected with 29 species (subspecies) of tick-borne pathogens that were reported in China during 1950-2018. Haemaphysalis longicornis is found to harbor the highest variety of tick-borne agents, followed by Ixodes persulcatus, Dermacentor nutalli and Rhipicephalus microplus. Using a machine learning algorithm, we assess ecoclimatic and socioenvironmental drivers for the distributions of 19 predominant vector ticks and two tick-borne pathogens associated with the highest disease burden. The model-predicted suitable habitats for the 19 tick species are 14‒476% larger in size than the geographic areas where these species were detected, indicating severe under-detection. Tick species harboring pathogens of imminent threats to public health should be prioritized for more active field surveillance.


Assuntos
Infestações por Carrapato/epidemiologia , Doenças Transmitidas por Carrapatos/epidemiologia , Carrapatos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais , China/epidemiologia , Análise por Conglomerados , Geografia , Incidência , Especificidade da Espécie , Infestações por Carrapato/parasitologia , Doenças Transmitidas por Carrapatos/parasitologia , Carrapatos/classificação , Carrapatos/fisiologia
12.
Lancet Infect Dis ; 21(5): 617-628, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33476567

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Wuhan was the first epicentre of COVID-19 in the world, accounting for 80% of cases in China during the first wave. We aimed to assess household transmissibility of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and risk factors associated with infectivity and susceptibility to infection in Wuhan. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study included the households of all laboratory-confirmed or clinically confirmed COVID-19 cases and laboratory-confirmed asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infections identified by the Wuhan Center for Disease Control and Prevention between Dec 2, 2019, and April 18, 2020. We defined households as groups of family members and close relatives who did not necessarily live at the same address and considered households that shared common contacts as epidemiologically linked. We used a statistical transmission model to estimate household secondary attack rates and to quantify risk factors associated with infectivity and susceptibility to infection, accounting for individual-level exposure history. We assessed how intervention policies affected the household reproductive number, defined as the mean number of household contacts a case can infect. FINDINGS: 27 101 households with 29 578 primary cases and 57 581 household contacts were identified. The secondary attack rate estimated with the transmission model was 15·6% (95% CI 15·2-16·0), assuming a mean incubation period of 5 days and a maximum infectious period of 22 days. Individuals aged 60 years or older were at a higher risk of infection with SARS-CoV-2 than all other age groups. Infants aged 0-1 years were significantly more likely to be infected than children aged 2-5 years (odds ratio [OR] 2·20, 95% CI 1·40-3·44) and children aged 6-12 years (1·53, 1·01-2·34). Given the same exposure time, children and adolescents younger than 20 years of age were more likely to infect others than were adults aged 60 years or older (1·58, 1·28-1·95). Asymptomatic individuals were much less likely to infect others than were symptomatic cases (0·21, 0·14-0·31). Symptomatic cases were more likely to infect others before symptom onset than after (1·42, 1·30-1·55). After mass isolation of cases, quarantine of household contacts, and restriction of movement policies were implemented, household reproductive numbers declined by 52% among primary cases (from 0·25 [95% CI 0·24-0·26] to 0·12 [0·10-0·13]) and by 63% among secondary cases (from 0·17 [0·16-0·18] to 0·063 [0·057-0·070]). INTERPRETATION: Within households, children and adolescents were less susceptible to SARS-CoV-2 infection but were more infectious than older individuals. Presymptomatic cases were more infectious and individuals with asymptomatic infection less infectious than symptomatic cases. These findings have implications for devising interventions for blocking household transmission of SARS-CoV-2, such as timely vaccination of eligible children once resources become available. FUNDING: National Natural Science Foundation of China, Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities, US National Institutes of Health, and US National Science Foundation.


Assuntos
COVID-19/transmissão , SARS-CoV-2 , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , COVID-19/etiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China/epidemiologia , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Características da Família , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
14.
J Travel Med ; 27(8)2020 12 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33283238

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The frequent movement of population between countries brings an increasing number of travel-related infections. This study aims to define the spectrum and dynamics of imported infections observed from international travel in the Chinese mainland. METHODS: Sick travellers were screened by inbound sentinel surveillance and post-travel clinic visits from 2014 to 18. The infections were classified as respiratory, gastrointestinal, vector-borne, blood/sexually transmitted and mucocutaneous. The analysed variables included the place of origin of the travellers (Chinese or foreign) and the time when travel-related infection was present (at the time of return, during travel and post-travel visits to the clinic). RESULTS: In total, 58 677 cases were identified amongst 1 409 265 253 travellers, with an incidence of 41.64/million, comprising during-travel incidence of 27.44/million and a post-travel incidence of 14.20/million. Respiratory infections constituted the highest proportion of illnesses during travel (81.19%, 31 393 of 38 667), which mainly came from Asian countries and tourists; with influenza virus and rhinovirus infections being mainly diagnosed. Vector-borne diseases constituted the highest proportion of post-travel illnesses (98.14%, 19 638 of 20 010), which were mainly diagnosed from African countries and labourers; with malaria and dengue fever being mainly diagnosed. The differential infection spectrum varied in terms of the traveller's demography, travel destination and travel purpose. As such, a higher proportion of foreign travellers had blood/sexually transmitted diseases (89.85%, 2832 of 3152), while Chinese citizens had a higher prevalence of vector-borne diseases (85.98%, 19 247 of 22 387) and gastrointestinal diseases (79.36%, 1115 of 1405). The highest incidence rate was observed amongst travellers arriving from Africa, while the lowest was observed amongst travellers arriving from Europe. CONCLUSIONS: The findings might help in preparing recommendations for travellers and also aid in primary care or other clinics that prepare travellers before trips abroad. The findings will also help to identify locations and the associated types of infections that might require attention.


Assuntos
Doenças Transmissíveis Importadas , Prevenção Primária , Doença Relacionada a Viagens , Viagem , Doenças Transmitidas por Vetores , Viroses , Adulto , China/epidemiologia , Doenças Transmissíveis Importadas/classificação , Doenças Transmissíveis Importadas/diagnóstico , Doenças Transmissíveis Importadas/epidemiologia , Doenças Transmissíveis Importadas/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Determinação de Necessidades de Cuidados de Saúde , Prevenção Primária/métodos , Prevenção Primária/organização & administração , Viagem/classificação , Viagem/estatística & dados numéricos , Doenças Transmitidas por Vetores/diagnóstico , Doenças Transmitidas por Vetores/epidemiologia , Doenças Transmitidas por Vetores/prevenção & controle , Viroses/diagnóstico , Viroses/epidemiologia , Viroses/prevenção & controle
15.
Euro Surveill ; 25(40)2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33034281

RESUMO

BackgroundThe natural history of disease in patients infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) remained obscure during the early pandemic.AimOur objective was to estimate epidemiological parameters of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) and assess the relative infectivity of the incubation period.MethodsWe estimated the distributions of four epidemiological parameters of SARS-CoV-2 transmission using a large database of COVID-19 cases and potential transmission pairs of cases, and assessed their heterogeneity by demographics, epidemic phase and geographical region. We further calculated the time of peak infectivity and quantified the proportion of secondary infections during the incubation period.ResultsThe median incubation period was 7.2 (95% confidence interval (CI): 6.9‒7.5) days. The median serial and generation intervals were similar, 4.7 (95% CI: 4.2‒5.3) and 4.6 (95% CI: 4.2‒5.1) days, respectively. Paediatric cases < 18 years had a longer incubation period than adult age groups (p = 0.007). The median incubation period increased from 4.4 days before 25 January to 11.5 days after 31 January (p < 0.001), whereas the median serial (generation) interval contracted from 5.9 (4.8) days before 25 January to 3.4 (3.7) days after. The median time from symptom onset to discharge was also shortened from 18.3 before 22 January to 14.1 days after. Peak infectivity occurred 1 day before symptom onset on average, and the incubation period accounted for 70% of transmission.ConclusionThe high infectivity during the incubation period led to short generation and serial intervals, necessitating aggressive control measures such as early case finding and quarantine of close contacts.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Coronavirus/patogenicidade , Período de Incubação de Doenças Infecciosas , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Adolescente , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Estudos Epidemiológicos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , SARS-CoV-2 , Adulto Jovem
16.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2020 Oct 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33068430

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The growing epidemics of severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS), an emerging tick-borne disease in East Asia, and its high case fatality rate have raised serious public health concerns. METHODS: Surveillance data on laboratory-confirmed SFTS cases in China were collected. The spatiotemporal dynamics and epidemiological features were explored. The socioeconomic and environmental drivers were identified for SFTS diffusion using survival analysis and for SFTS persistence using a two-stage generalized boosted regression tree model. RESULTS: During 2010‒2018, a total of 7,721 laboratory-confirmed SFTS cases were reported in China, with an overall CFR of 10.5%. The average annual incidence increased >20 times and endemic areas expanded from 27 to 1,574 townships, whereas the CFR declined from 19% to 10% during this period. Four geographical clusters, the Changbai Mountain area, the Jiaodong Peninsula, the Taishan Mountain area and the Huaiyangshan Mountain area, were identified. Diffusion and persistence of the disease were both driven by elevation, high coverages of woods, crops and shrub, and the vicinity of habitats of migratory birds, but had different meteorological drivers. Residents ≥60 years old in rural areas with crop fields and tea farms were at increased risk to SFTS. CONCLUSIONS: Surveillance of SFTS and intervention programs need to be targeted at areas with ecologically suitability for vector ticks and in the vicinity of migratory birds to curb the growing epidemic.

17.
Infect Genet Evol ; 85: 104454, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32634600

RESUMO

Beilong virus (BeiV), a member of the newly recognized genus Jeilongvirus of family Paramyxoviridae, has been reported with limited geographic and host scopes, only in Hongkong, China and from two rat species. Here, by next-generation sequencing (NGS) on dominant wild small animal species in 4 provinces in China, we obtained a complete sequence of BeiV strain from Rattus norvegicus in Guangdong, neighboring HongKong, China. We then made an expanded epidemiological investigation in 11 provinces to obtain the geographic distribution and genetic features of this virus. Altogether 7168 samples from 2005 animals (1903 rodents, 100 shrews, 2 mustelidaes) that belonged to 33 species of Cricetidae, Muridae, Sciuridae and Dipodidae family of Rodentia, 3 species of Soricidae family of Soricomorpha, 2 species of Mustelidae family of Carnivora were examined by RT-PCR and sequencing. A positive rate of 3.7% (266/7168) was obtained that was detected from 22 animal species, including 5 species of Cricetidae family, 12 species of Muridae family, 2 species of Sciuridae family and 3 species of Soricidae family. Phylogenetic analyses based on 154 partial Large gene sequences grouped the current BeiV into two lineages, that were related to their geographic regions and animal hosts. Our study showed the wide distribution of BeiV in common species of wild rodents and shrews in China, highlighting the necessity of epidemiological study in wider regions.

18.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2020 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32668459

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: For pediatric pneumonia, the meteorological and air pollution indicators had been frequently investigated for their association with viral circulation, however, not for their impact on disease severity. METHODS: We performed a 10-year prospective observational study in one hospital in Chongqing, China to recruit children with pneumonia. Eight commonly seen respiratory viruses were tested. Autoregressive distributed lag (ADL) and Random forest (RF) models were performed to fit monthly detection rates of each virus at population level and predict the possibility of severe pneumonia at individual level, respectively. RESULTS: Between 2009‒2018, 6 611 pediatric pneumonia patients were included, and 4 846 (73.3%) tested positive for at least one respiratory virus. The median age of the patients was 9 (IQR: 4‒20) months. ADL models demonstrated a decent fitting of detection rates of four viruses (R2 >0.7 for RSV, HRV, PIV, and HMPV). Based on the RF models, the AUC for host-related factors alone is 0.88 (95% CI: 0.87‒0.89), 0.86 (95% CI: 0.85‒0.88) for meteorological and air pollution indicators alone, and 0.62 (95% CI: 0.60‒0.63) for viral infections alone. The final model indicated that nine weather and air pollution indicators were important determinants of severe pneumonia, with relative contribution of 62.53%, significantly higher than respiratory viral infections (7.36%). CONCLUSIONS: Meteorological and air pollution predictors contributed more to severe pneumonia in children than respiratory viruses. These meteorological data could help predict times when children would be at increased risk for severe pneumonia, and interventions such as reducing outdoor activities, may be warranted.

19.
Lancet Infect Dis ; 20(10): 1141-1150, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32562601

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: As of June 8, 2020, the global reported number of COVID-19 cases had reached more than 7 million with over 400 000 deaths. The household transmissibility of the causative pathogen, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), remains unclear. We aimed to estimate the secondary attack rate of SARS-CoV-2 among household and non-household close contacts in Guangzhou, China, using a statistical transmission model. METHODS: In this retrospective cohort study, we used a comprehensive contact tracing dataset from the Guangzhou Center for Disease Control and Prevention to estimate the secondary attack rate of COVID-19 (defined as the probability that an infected individual will transmit the disease to a susceptible individual) among household and non-household contacts, using a statistical transmission model. We considered two alternative definitions of household contacts in the analysis: individuals who were either family members or close relatives, such as parents and parents-in-law, regardless of residential address, and individuals living at the same address regardless of relationship. We assessed the demographic determinants of transmissibility and the infectivity of COVID-19 cases during their incubation period. FINDINGS: Between Jan 7, 2020, and Feb 18, 2020, we traced 195 unrelated close contact groups (215 primary cases, 134 secondary or tertiary cases, and 1964 uninfected close contacts). By identifying households from these groups, assuming a mean incubation period of 5 days, a maximum infectious period of 13 days, and no case isolation, the estimated secondary attack rate among household contacts was 12·4% (95% CI 9·8-15·4) when household contacts were defined on the basis of close relatives and 17·1% (13·3-21·8) when household contacts were defined on the basis of residential address. Compared with the oldest age group (≥60 years), the risk of household infection was lower in the youngest age group (<20 years; odds ratio [OR] 0·23 [95% CI 0·11-0·46]) and among adults aged 20-59 years (OR 0·64 [95% CI 0·43-0·97]). Our results suggest greater infectivity during the incubation period than during the symptomatic period, although differences were not statistically significant (OR 0·61 [95% CI 0·27-1·38]). The estimated local reproductive number (R) based on observed contact frequencies of primary cases was 0·5 (95% CI 0·41-0·62) in Guangzhou. The projected local R, had there been no isolation of cases or quarantine of their contacts, was 0·6 (95% CI 0·49-0·74) when household was defined on the basis of close relatives. INTERPRETATION: SARS-CoV-2 is more transmissible in households than SARS-CoV and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus. Older individuals (aged ≥60 years) are the most susceptible to household transmission of SARS-CoV-2. In addition to case finding and isolation, timely tracing and quarantine of close contacts should be implemented to prevent onward transmission during the viral incubation period. FUNDING: US National Institutes of Health, Science and Technology Plan Project of Guangzhou, Project for Key Medicine Discipline Construction of Guangzhou Municipality, Key Research and Development Program of China.


Assuntos
Busca de Comunicante , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Características da Família , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Adulto , Infecções Assintomáticas/epidemiologia , Número Básico de Reprodução , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , China/epidemiologia , Busca de Comunicante/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Teóricos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Quarentena , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , SARS-CoV-2 , Adulto Jovem
20.
medRxiv ; 2020 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32511590

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: As of April 2, 2020, the global reported number of COVID-19 cases has crossed over 1 million with more than 55,000 deaths. The household transmissibility of SARS-CoV-2, the causative pathogen, remains elusive. METHODS: Based on a comprehensive contact-tracing dataset from Guangzhou, we estimated both the population-level effective reproductive number and individual-level secondary attack rate (SAR) in the household setting. We assessed age effects on transmissibility and the infectivity of COVID-19 cases during their incubation period. RESULTS: A total of 195 unrelated clusters with 212 primary cases, 137 nonprimary (secondary or tertiary) cases and 1938 uninfected close contacts were traced. We estimated the household SAR to be 13.8% (95% CI: 11.1-17.0%) if household contacts are defined as all close relatives and 19.3% (95% CI: 15.5-23.9%) if household contacts only include those at the same residential address as the cases, assuming a mean incubation period of 4 days and a maximum infectious period of 13 days. The odds of infection among children (<20 years old) was only 0.26 (95% CI: 0.13-0.54) times of that among the elderly (≥60 years old). There was no gender difference in the risk of infection. COVID-19 cases were at least as infectious during their incubation period as during their illness. On average, a COVID-19 case infected 0.48 (95% CI: 0.39-0.58) close contacts. Had isolation not been implemented, this number increases to 0.62 (95% CI: 0.51-0.75). The effective reproductive number in Guangzhou dropped from above 1 to below 0.5 in about 1 week. CONCLUSION: SARS-CoV-2 is more transmissible in households than SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV, and the elderly ≥60 years old are the most vulnerable to household transmission. Case finding and isolation alone may be inadequate to contain the pandemic and need to be used in conjunction with heightened restriction of human movement as implemented in Guangzhou.

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