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1.
FASEB J ; : fj201900413RRR, 2019 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31361524

RESUMO

Maslinic acid is a pentacyclic triterpenoid that is distributed in the peel of olives. Previous studies found that maslinic acid inhibited inflammatory response and antioxidant effects. We investigated whether maslinic acid ameliorates nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in mice with high-fat-diet (HFD)-induced obesity and evaluated the regulation of lipogenesis in hepatocytes. Male C57BL/6 mice fed a normal diet or HFD (60% fat, w/w) were tested for 16 wk. After the fourth week, mice were injected intraperitoneally with maslinic acid for 12 wk. In another experiment, HepG2 cells were treated with oleic acid to induce lipid accumulation or maslinic acid to evaluate lipogenesis. Maslinic acid significantly reduced body weight compared with HFD-fed mice. Maslinic acid reduced liver weight and liver lipid accumulation and improved hepatocyte steatosis. Furthermore, serum glucose, leptin, and free fatty acid concentrations significantly reduced, but the serum adiponectin concentration was higher, in the maslinic acid group than in the HFD group. In liver tissue, maslinic acid suppressed transcription factors involved in lipogenesis and increased adipose triglyceride lipase. In vitro, maslinic acid decreased lipogenesis by activating AMPK. These findings suggest that maslinic acid acts against hepatic steatosis by regulating enzyme activity involved in lipogenesis, lipolysis, and fatty acid oxidation in the liver.-Liou, C.-J., Dai, Y.-W., Wang, C.-L., Fang, L.-W., Huang, W.-C. Maslinic acid protects against obesity-induced nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in mice through regulation of the Sirt1/AMPK signaling pathway.

2.
BMC Pulm Med ; 19(1): 102, 2019 May 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31142295

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in Anhui Province of eastern China remain uncertain. The present study provides the first estimate of the prevalence and risk factors of COPD in Anhui. METHODS: A population-based survey was conducted in a representative sample of population aged 40 years or older in 2015. COPD was diagnosed based on 2017 Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) criteria. RESULTS: A total of 2770 participants had reliable post-bronchodilator results and were included in the final analysis. The overall prevalence of COPD was 9.8% (95% CI: 8.2, 11.7). Prevalence was higher in men (14.8, 95% CI: 12.6, 17.2) than it was in women (5.2, 95% CI: 3.1, 8.7). Among adults with COPD, 45.0% (95% CI: 39.1, 51.0) had moderate or severe disease (GOLD stage II-IV), 0.7% (95% CI: 0.2, 2.9) reported that they had a previous pulmonary function test, and only 0.4% (95% CI: 0.1, 2.6) knew their diagnosis of COPD. Risk factors for COPD included older age (OR 1.06, 95% CI: 1.04, 1.08), male sex (OR 2.01, 95% CI: 1.22, 3.33), current smoking status (OR 2.63, 95% CI: 1.86, 3.73), primary school or lower education (OR 1.61, 95% CI: 1.12, 2.31), family history of lung disease (OR 1.50, 95% CI: 1.17, 1.93), and indoor exposure to coal for cooking or heating (OR 1.55, 95% CI: 1.11, 2.15). In addition, people in north region has a significantly higher risk for developing COPD than people in south region of Anhui (OR 1.98, 95% CI:1.44, 2.71). CONCLUSIONS: COPD is prevalent in Anhui and the prevalence is highest in north region. Strategies aiming at prevention, early detection and treatment of COPD are urgently needed to reduce COPD-related burden.

3.
BMB Rep ; 2019 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31072446

RESUMO

Ets-1 is a prototype of the ETS protein family. Members of the ETS protein family contain a unique ETS domain. Ets-1 is associated with cancer progression and metastasis in many types of cancer. Many studies have shown a link between elevated expression of Ets-1 in cancer biopsies and poor survival. CCR7 is a chemokine that binds to specific ligand CCL21/CCL19. CCR7 expression is associated with tumor metastasis and infiltration into lymph nodes. The objective of this study was to test whether Ets-1 could regulate CCR7 expression and enhance tumor metastasis. Our data showed that CCR7 expression was downregulated in Ets-1-deficient T cells upon T-cell stimulation. Overexpression of Ets-1 increased CCR7 expression in breast cancer cell lines. In contrast, knockdown of Ets-1 reduced CCR7 expression. Ets-1 could directly bind to CCR7 promoter and mediate CCR7 expression in luciferase reporter assays and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays. Transactivation activity of Ets-1 was independent of the Pointed domain of Ets-1. Ets-1 could also enhance NF-κB and CBP transactivation of CCR7 promoter. Our results also showed that Ets-1 could modulate cancer cell transmigration by altering CCR7 expression in transwell assay and wound healing assay. Taken together, our data suggest that Ets-1 can enhance CCR7 expression and contribute to tumor cell migration.

4.
Phytomedicine ; 61: 152852, 2019 Jan 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31035052

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A compound isolated from Sophora flavescens-sophoraflavanone G (SG)-showed anti-tumor and anti-inflammatory properties. We previously demonstrated that SG promoted apoptosis in human leukemia HL-60 cells. In the present study, we investigated the effects of SG on apoptosis in human breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cells, and explored the underlying molecular mechanisms. METHODS: MDA-MB-231 cells were treated with various SG concentrations, and cell viability was evaluated by MTT assay. Apoptotic signal proteins were detected by western blotting, and cell apoptosis was assessed using flow cytometry. RESULTS: Our results demonstrated that SG induced nuclear condensation, DNA fragmentation, reactive oxygen species production, and increased cell apoptosis in MDA-MB-231 cells. SG also suppressed migration and invasion, likely via blockage of the MAPK pathway. In the apoptotic signaling pathway, SG increased cleaved caspase-8, caspase-3, and caspase-9. SG treatment also decreased Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL expression, increased Bax expression, and prompted release of more cytochrome c from mitochondria to the cytoplasm in MDA-MB-231 cells. CONCLUSION: Overall, our findings suggest that SG might increase apoptosis, and decrease migration and invasion, in MDA-MB-231 cells through suppression of a MAPK-related pathway.

5.
Xi Bao Yu Fen Zi Mian Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 35(2): 140-145, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30975278

RESUMO

Objective To investigate the effect of hederagenin on the activity and apoptosis of cervical cancer cells and its mechanism. Methods Cervical cancer CaSki cells were cultured and treated with 0, 10, 20, 40, 80 µg/mL hederagenin. Cell viability was determined by MTT assay. The 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) was determined to be about 40 µg/mL. The cervical cancer cells were treated with 40 µg/mL hederagenin. The apoptosis of cervical cancer cells was measured by flow cytometry, and the levels of cleaved caspase-3 (c-caspase-3), c-caspase-9, and STAT3 and p-STAT3 proteins were determined by Western blot analysis. STAT3 signaling pathway inhibitor AG490 and hederagenin were used to treat cervical cancer cells, and then the activity and apoptotic level of cervical cancer cells were detected by the above methods. Results Compared with the control cells, the proliferation activity of the cervical cancer cells treated with 40 µg/mL hederagenin decreased, the apoptotic level increased, the levels of c-caspase-3 and c-caspase-9 increased, and the level of p-STAT3 protein decreased. Compared with the cells treated with hederagenin, the activity of cervical cancer cells treated with AG490 and hederagenin decreased further, the apoptotic rate increased, and the protein levels of c-caspase-3 and c-caspase-9 increased. Conclusion Hederagenin inhibits the proliferation and promotes the apoptosis of cervical cancer cells, which is related to the inhibition of STAT3 signaling pathway.


Assuntos
Apoptose , Ácido Oleanólico/análogos & derivados , Fator de Transcrição STAT3 , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Humanos , Ácido Oleanólico/farmacologia , Ácido Oleanólico/uso terapêutico , Fator de Transcrição STAT3/metabolismo , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/fisiopatologia
6.
Cells ; 8(3)2019 03 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30841634

RESUMO

A compound isolated from Glycyrrhiza uralensis, licochalcone A (LA) exhibits anti-inflammatory and anti-tumor properties in various cell lines. LA has been found to promote autophagy and suppress specificity protein 1, inducing apoptosis in breast cancer cells. However, the regulation of breast cancer cell invasion and migration by LA is elusive. Thus, the present study investigated whether LA induces apoptosis and cellular motility in MDA-MB-231 breast cells, and investigated the underlying molecular mechanisms. MDA-MB-231 cells treated with LA and cell viability measured by cell counting kit-8 assay. Apoptotic signal proteins checked by flow cytometry, fluorescent staining, and Western blot. LA effectively suppressed cell migration, and modulated E-cadherin and vimentin expression by blocking MAPK and AKT signaling. LA inhibited cell proliferation and cell cycle, modulated mitochondrial membrane potential and DNA damage, and reduced oxidative stress in MDA-MB-231 cells. LA also activated cleaved-caspase 3 and 9, significantly decreased Bcl-2 expression, ultimately causing the release of cytochrome c from the mitochondria into the cytoplasm. Overall, our findings suggest that LA decreases cell proliferation and increases reactive oxygen species production for induced apoptosis, and regulates E-cadherin and vimentin by reducing MAPK and AKT signaling, resulting in suppressed MDA-MB-231 cell migration and invasion.

7.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 281, 2019 Mar 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30849990

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Few studies in China have examined personal ultraviolet radiation (UVR) exposure using polysulfone dosimetry. METHODS: In this study, 93 mother and adolescent child pairs (N = 186) from two locations in China, one rural (higher latitude) and one urban (lower latitude), completed 3 days of personal UVR dosimetry and a sun/clothing diary, as part of a larger pilot study. RESULTS: The average daily ambient UVR in each location as measured by dosimetry was 20.24 Minimal Erythemal Doses (MED) in the rural location and 20.53 MED in the urban location. Rural mothers had more average daily time outdoors than urban mothers (5.5 h, compared with 1.5 h, in urban mothers) and a much higher daily average personal UVR exposure (4.50 MED, compared with 0.78 MED in urban mothers). Amongst adolescents, rural males had the highest average daily personal UVR exposure, followed by rural females, urban females and urban males (average 2.16, 1.05, 0.81, and 0.48 MED, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Although based on small numbers, our findings show the importance of geographic location, age, work/school responsibilities, and sex of the adolescents in determining personal UVR exposure in China. These results suggest that latitude of residence may not be a good proxy for personal UVR exposure in all circumstances.


Assuntos
Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Exposição à Radiação/estatística & dados numéricos , Raios Ultravioleta , Adolescente , Criança , China , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Mães , Projetos Piloto , Radiometria , População Rural
8.
Molecules ; 23(12)2018 Dec 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30551590

RESUMO

Bulnesia sarmientoi (BS) has long been used as an analgesic, wound-healing and anti-inflammatory medicinal plant. The aqueous extract of its bark has been demonstrated to have anti-cancer activity. This study investigated the anti-proliferative and anti-metastatic effects of BS supercritical fluid extract (BSE) on the A549 and H661 lung cancer cell lines. The cytotoxicity on cancer cells was assessed by an MTT assay. After 72 h treatment of A549 and H661 cells, the IC50 values were 18.1 and 24.7 µg/mL, respectively. The cytotoxicity on MRC-5 normal cells was relatively lower (IC50 = 61.1 µg/mL). BSE arrested lung cancer cells at the S and G2/M growth phase. Necrosis of A549 and H661 cells was detected by flow cytometry with Annexin V-FITC/PI double staining. Moreover, the cytotoxic effect of BSE on cancer cells was significantly reverted by Nec-1 pretreatment, and BSE induced TNF-α and RIP-1 expression in the absence of caspase-8 activity. These evidences further support that BSE exhibited necroptotic effects on lung cancer cells. By wound healing and Boyden chamber assays, the inhibitory effects of BSE on the migration and invasion of lung cancer cells were elucidated. Furthermore, the chemical composition of BSE was examined by gas chromatography-mass analysis where ten constituents of BSE were identified. α-Guaiene, (-)-guaiol and ß-caryophyllene are responsible for most of the cytotoxic activity of BSE against these two cancer cell lines. Since BSE possesses significant cytotoxicity and anti-metastatic activity on A549 and H661 cells, it may serve as a potential target for the treatment of lung cancer.


Assuntos
Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Cromatografia com Fluido Supercrítico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Zygophyllaceae/química , Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Movimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Cisplatino/farmacologia , Humanos , Necrose , Invasividade Neoplásica , Metástase Neoplásica , Extratos Vegetais/química , Cicatrização/efeitos dos fármacos
9.
BMJ Open ; 8(7): e022394, 2018 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30061446

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the feasibility of long-term prospective follow-up and ascertainment of cancer in offspring and mothers from the 1993-1995 Chinese Community Intervention Program that provided folic acid supplements before and during early pregnancy to reduce neural tube defects. DESIGN: Feasibility pilot study for a prospective cohort study. SETTING: Families residing during 2012-2013 in one rural and one urban county from 21 counties in 3 provinces in China included in the Community Intervention Program campaign. PARTICIPANTS: The feasibility study targeted 560 families, including 280 from the rural and 280 from the urban county included in the large original study; about half of mothers in each group had taken and half had not taken folic acid supplements. INTERVENTION: The planned new study is observational. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: Primary: incidence of paediatric cancers in offspring; secondary: other chronic diseases in offspring and chronic diseases in mothers RESULTS: Only 3.4% of pilot study families could not be found, 3.9% had moved out of the study area and 8.8% refused to participate. Interviews were completed by 82% of mothers, 79% of fathers and 83% of offspring in the 560 families. Almost all mothers and offspring who were interviewed also participated in anthropometric measurements. We found notable urban-rural differences in sociodemographic and lifestyle characteristics of the parents, but fewer differences among the offspring. In eight catchment area hospitals, we identified a broad range of paediatric cancers diagnosed during 1994-2013, although paediatric brain tumours, lymphomas and rarer cancers were likely under-represented. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, 20 years after the original Community Intervention Program, the pilot study achieved high levels of follow-up and family member interview participation, and identified substantial numbers of paediatric malignancies during 1994-2013 in catchment area hospitals. Next steps and strategies for overcoming limitations are described.

10.
Nutr Today ; 53(3): 104-114, 2018 May-Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29930434

RESUMO

This article reports the study design, methodological issues and early results of a pilot study testing methods for collecting nutrition, physical activity, and ultraviolet (UV) radiation exposure data in a groundbreaking study in China. Epidemiological studies suggest that exposures across the entire life course, including in utero, early childhood, and adolescence, may be important in the etiology of adult cancers and other chronic diseases. The Chinese Children and Families Cohort Study intends to follow-up subjects from the 1993 to 1995 Community Intervention Program of folic acid supplementation for the prevention of neural tube defects. This cohort is unique in that only folic acid exposure during pregnancy varies between groups as other supplements were not available, and there were nutrient deficiencies in the populations. Prior to launching a large-scale follow-up effort, a pilot study was conducted to assess the feasibility of recontacting original study participants to collect extensive diet, physical activity, and UV radiation exposure data in this population. The pilot study included 92 mothers and 184 adolescent children aged 14 to 17 years from 1 urban and 1 rural Community Intervention Program site. Subjects completed a Food Frequency Questionnaire, a 3-day food record, a physical activity questionnaire, a 3-day sun exposure diary together with 3 days of personal UV dosimetry, and 7 days of pedometry measurements and provided blood, saliva, and toenail samples. Grip strength and body composition measurements were taken, and ambient solar UV radiation was monitored in both study sites. While most of the assessments were successful, future studies would likely require different dietary intake instruments. The purpose of this report is to describe the study design and methodological issues emerging from this pilot work relevant for the follow-up of this large birth cohort.

11.
Lancet Respir Med ; 6(6): 421-430, 2018 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29650407

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Because of the rapid change in economic development and lifestyle in China, and the ageing population, concerns have grown that chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) could become epidemic. An up-to-date nationwide estimation of COPD prevalence in China is needed. METHODS: We did a cross-sectional survey of a nationally representative sample of individuals from mainland China aged 40 years or older. The primary outcome was COPD, defined according to the 2017 Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) lung function criteria. FINDINGS: Between Dec 29, 2014, and Dec 31, 2015, 66 752 adults were recruited to the study population. The estimated standardised prevalence of COPD was 13·6% (95% CI 12·0-15·2). The prevalence of COPD differed significantly between men and women (19·0%, 95% CI 16·9-21·2 vs 8·1%, 6·8-9·3; p<0·0001), mainly because of a significant difference in smoking status between men and women (current smokers 58·2% vs 4·0%). The prevalence of COPD differed by geographic region, with the highest prevalence in southwest China (20·2%, 95% CI 14·7-25·8) and the lowest in central China (10·2%, 8·2-12·2). Among adults with COPD, 56·4% (95% CI 53·7-59·2) had mild disease (GOLD stage I), 36·3% (34·3-38·3) had moderate disease (GOLD stage II), 6·5% (5·5-7·4) had severe disease (GOLD stage III), and 0·9% (0·6-1·1) had very severe disease (GOLD stage IV). INTERPRETATION: In a large, nationally representative sample of adults aged 40 years or older, the estimated overall prevalence of COPD in China in 2014-15 was 13·6%, indicating that this disease has become a major public-health problem. Strategies aimed at prevention and treatment of COPD are needed urgently. FUNDING: Chinese Central Government, the Ministry of Science and Technology of The People's Republic of China, and the National Natural Science Foundation of China.

12.
Environ Res ; 164: 585-596, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29626820

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Particulate matter (PM) has been recognized as one of the key risk factors of lung cancer. However, spatial and temporal patterns of this association remain unclear. Spatiotemporal analyses incorporate the spatial and temporal structure of the data within random effects models, generating more accurate evaluations of PM-lung cancer associations at a scale that can better inform lung cancer prevention programs. METHODS: We conducted a critical review of spatial and temporal analyses of PM and lung cancer. The databases of PubMed, Web of Science and Scopus were searched for potential articles published until September 30, 2017. We included studies that applied spatial and temporal analyses to evaluate the associations of PM2.5 (inhalable particles with diameters that are 2.5 µm and smaller) and PM10 (inhalable particles with diameters that are 10 µm and smaller) with lung cancer. RESULTS: We identified 17 articles eligible for the review. Of these, 11 focused on PM2.5, five on PM10, and one on both. These studies suggested a significant positive association between PM2.5 exposure and the risk of lung cancer. Relative risks of lung cancer mortality ranged from 1.08 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.07-1.09) to 1.60 (95%CI: 1.09-2.33) for 10 µg/m3 increase in PM2.5 exposure. The association between PM10 and lung cancer had been less well researched and the results were not consistent. In terms of the analysis methods, 16 papers undertook spatial analysis and one paper employed temporal analysis. No paper included spatial and temporal analyses simultaneously and considered spatiotemporal uncertainty into model predictions. Among the 16 papers with spatial analyses, thirteen studies presented maps, while only five and 11 studies utilized spatial exploration and modeling methods, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Advanced spatial and temporal epidemiological methods were seldom applied to PM-lung cancer associations. Further research is urgently needed to develop and employ robust and comprehensive spatiotemporal analysis methods for the evaluation of PM-lung cancer associations and the support of lung cancer prevention strategies.

13.
Cancer Med ; 7(5): 2089-2100, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29573569

RESUMO

Variations in cervical cancer screening rates in China have rarely been studied in depth. This study aimed to investigate cervical cancer screening rates in relation to both individual-level and geographical measures of socioeconomic status (SES). Data were obtained from women aged 21 years or older by face-to-face interviews between August 2013 and July 2014 as part of the Chinese Chronic Diseases and Risk Factors Surveillance. The geographical variables were obtained from the 2010 Chinese population census. The cervical cancer screening rates and 95% confidence interval (CI) were estimated and mapped. Multilevel logistic regression models were fitted. Overall, only 21.4% (95% CI: 19.6-23.1%) of 91,816 women aged ≥21 years reported having ever been screened for cervical cancer and significant geographical variations at both province and county levels were identified (P < 0.01). The cervical cancer screening rates were the lowest among the poor [13.9% (95% CI: 12.1-15.7%)], uninsured [14.4% (95% CI: 10.3-18.4%)], less-educated [16.0% (95% CI: 14.3-17.6%)], and agricultural employment [18.1% (95% CI: 15.8-20.4%)] women along with those residing in areas of low economic status [15.0% (95% CI: 11.8-18.2%)], of low urbanization [15.6% (95% CI: 13.4-17.7%)], and of low education status [16.0% (95% CI: 14.0-18.1%)]. The multilevel analysis also indicated that women with lower individual-level measures of SES residing in areas with low geographical measures of SES were significantly less likely to receive cervical cancer screening (P < 0.0001). Despite the launch of an organized cancer screening program in China, cervical cancer screening rates remain alarmingly low and significant variations based on geographical regions and measures of SES still exist. It is therefore essential to adopt strategies to better direct limited available public resources to priority groups.

14.
Eur J Mass Spectrom (Chichester) ; 24(3): 251-260, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29232977

RESUMO

A series of N-(1,3-diphenylallyl)benzenamine derivatives (M) were investigated by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry in the positive-ion mode. Both the anomalous [M-H]+ and the regular [M+H]+ were observed in the ESI mass spectra. The occurrence of [M-H]+ has been supported by accurate mass spectrometry, liquid chromatography mass spectrometry, and tandem mass spectrometry analysis. Calculation results indicated that formation of [M-H]+ is attributed to the ion-molecule reaction of M with the protonated ESI solvent molecule (e.g. CH3OH2+) via hydride abstraction from a tertiary Csp3-H. The competing ionization processes leading to [M-H]+ or [M+H]+ were significantly affected by the concentration of formic acid in the electrospray ionization solvent and the proton affinity of the N atom.

15.
Chin Med ; 12: 9, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28400856

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Glossogyne tenuifolia (GT) (Hsiang-ju) is a Chinese herbal medicine previously exhibited an anti-inflammatory activity. This study aimed to investigate the effect of GT ethanol extract (GTE) on T cell-mediated adaptive immunity. METHODS: Human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and Jurkat T cells were activated by phytohemagglutinin in the presence of various doses (3.13-50 µg/mL) of GTE. The effect of GTE on T cell activation was examined by a proliferation assay of activated PBMCs and the level of the activation marker CD69 on the surface of activated Jurkat T cells. Apoptosis was determined by propidium iodide staining in hypotonic solution. Signaling pathway molecules were assessed by western blotting. RESULTS: Glossogyne tenuifolia ethanol extract was demonstrated to inhibit T cell activation, not only in the proliferation of human PBMCs at the concentrations of 12.5, 25 and 50 µg/mL (P = 0.0118, 0.0030 and 0.0021) but also in the CD69 expression in Jurkat cells, which was not due to the cytotoxicity of GTE. The presence of GTE did not change the activity of nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells or extracellular signal-regulated kinase upon T cell activation. In addition, GTE significantly reduced activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) (P = 0.0167) and p38 (P = 0.0278). Furthermore, decreased JNK activation mediated the preventive effect of GTE on T cell activation-induced cell death (AICD). CONCLUSION: Glossogyne tenuifolia ethanol extract inhibited T cell activation of Jurkat cells and freshly prepared human PBMCs due to suppression of JNK activity. Furthermore, GTE inhibited AICD by blocking prolonged JNK phosphorylation in activated T cells. Taken together, the anti-inflammatory effects exerted by GTE were mediated via suppression of JNK phosphorylation in T cell activation.

16.
Front Immunol ; 8: 134, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28243240

RESUMO

Phloretin (PT), isolated from the apple tree, was previously demonstrated to have antioxidative and anti-inflammatory effects in macrophages and anti-adiposity effects in adipocytes. Inflammatory immune cells generate high levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) for stimulated severe airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) and airway inflammation. In this study, we investigated whether PT could reduce oxidative stress, airway inflammation, and eosinophil infiltration in asthmatic mice, and ameliorate oxidative and inflammatory responses in tracheal epithelial cells. BALB/c mice were sensitized with ovalbumin (OVA) to induce asthma symptoms. Mice were randomly assigned to the five experimental groups: normal controls; OVA-induced asthmatic mice; and OVA-induced mice injected intraperitoneally with one of the three PT doses (5, 10, or 20 mg/kg). In addition, we treated inflammatory human tracheal epithelial cells (BEAS-2B cells) with PT to assess oxidative responses and the levels of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines. We found that PT significantly reduced goblet cell hyperplasia and eosinophil infiltration, which decreased AHR, inflammation, and oxidative responses in the lungs of OVA-sensitized mice. PT also decreased malondialdehyde levels in the lung and reduced Th2 cytokine production in bronchoalveolar lavage fluids. Furthermore, PT reduced ROS, proinflammatory cytokines, and eotaxin production in BEAS-2B cells. PT also suppressed monocyte cell adherence to inflammatory BEAS-2B cells. These findings suggested that PT alleviated pathological changes, inflammation, and oxidative stress by inhibiting Th2 cytokine production in asthmatic mice. PT showed therapeutic potential for ameliorating asthma symptoms in the future.

17.
Nat Commun ; 7: 13911, 2016 12 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27996005

RESUMO

Twinned growth behaviour in the rapidly emerging area of two-dimensional nanomaterials still remains unexplored although it could be exploited to fabricate heterostructure and superlattice materials. Here we demonstrate how one can utilize the twinned growth relationship between two two-dimensional materials to construct vertically stacked heterostructures. As a demonstration, we achieve 100% overlap of the two transition metal dichalcogenide layers constituting a ReS2/WS2 vertical heterostructure. Moreover, the crystal size of the stacked structure is an order of magnitude larger than previous reports. Such twinned transition metal dichalcogenides vertical heterostructures exhibit great potential for use in optical, electronic and catalytic applications. The simplicity of the twinned growth can be utilized to expand the fabrication of other heterostructures or two-dimensional material superlattice and this strategy can be considered as an enabling technology for research in the emerging field of two-dimensional van der Waals heterostructures.

18.
Sci Rep ; 6: 34526, 2016 10 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27721453

RESUMO

This study investigates the improvement of the prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) in China during 2004-2011. A clinic-based prospective study was conducted among HIV-positive pregnant women and their children in eight counties across China. Associated factors of mother-to-child transmission were analyzed using regression analysis. A total of 1,387 HIV+ pregnant women and 1,377 HIV-exposed infants were enrolled. The proportion of pregnant women who received HIV testing increased significantly from 45.1% to 98.9% during 2004-2011. Among whom, the proportion that received antiretroviral (ARV) prophylaxis increased from 61% to 96%, and the corresponding coverage in children increased from 85% to 97% during the same period. In contrast, single-dose nevirapine treatment during delivery declined substantially from 97.9% to 12.7%. Vertical transmission of HIV declined from 11.1% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 5.7-23.3%) in 2004 to 1.2% (95% CI: 0.1-5.8%) in 2011. Women who had a vaginal delivery (compared to emergency caesarian section (odds ratio [OR] = 0.46; 0.23-0.96)) and mothers on multi-ARVs (OR = 0.11; 0.04-0.29) were less likely to transmit HIV to their newborns. Increasing HIV screening enabled timely HIV care and prophylaxis to reduce vertical transmission of HIV. Early and consistent treatment with multi-ARVs during pregnancy is vital for PMTCT.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV/administração & dosagem , Infecções por HIV , HIV-1 , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Nevirapina/administração & dosagem , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez , Adulto , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Infecções por HIV/terapia , Humanos , Masculino , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/tratamento farmacológico , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Estudos Prospectivos
19.
Onco Targets Ther ; 9: 4453-64, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27499639

RESUMO

Lapatinib is an oral-form dual tyrosine kinase inhibitor of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR or ErbB/Her) superfamily members with anticancer activity. In this study, we examined the effects and mechanism of action of lapatinib on several human leukemia cells lines, including acute myeloid leukemia (AML), chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), and acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) cells. We found that lapatinib inhibited the growth of human AML U937, HL-60, NB4, CML KU812, MEG-01, and ALL Jurkat T cells. Among these leukemia cell lines, lapatinib induced apoptosis in HL-60, NB4, and Jurkat cells, but induced nonapoptotic cell death in U937, K562, and MEG-01 cells. Moreover, lapatinib treatment caused autophagic cell death as shown by positive acridine orange staining, the massive formation of vacuoles as seen by electronic microscopy, and the upregulation of LC3-II, ATG5, and ATG7 in AML U937 cells. Furthermore, autophagy inhibitor 3-methyladenine and knockdown of ATG5, ATG7, and Beclin-1 using short hairpin RNA (shRNA) partially rescued lapatinib-induced cell death. In addition, the induction of phagocytosis and ROS production as well as the upregulation of surface markers CD14 and CD68 was detected in lapatinib-treated U937 cells, suggesting the induction of macrophagic differentiation in AML U937 cells by lapatinib. We also noted the synergistic effects of the use of lapatinib and cytotoxic drugs in U937 leukemia cells. These results indicate that lapatinib may have potential for development as a novel antileukemia agent.

20.
Molecules ; 21(8)2016 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27527140

RESUMO

Type II endometrial carcinoma typically exhibits aggressive metastasis and results in a poor prognosis. Siegesbeckia orientalis Linne is a traditional Chinese medicinal herb with several medicinal benefits, including the cytotoxicity against various cancers. This study investigates the inhibitory effects of S. orientalis ethanol extract (SOE) on the migration and invasion of endometrial cancer cells, which were stimulated by transforming growth factor ß (TGFß). The inhibitory effects were evaluated by determining wound healing and performing the Boyden chamber assay. This study reveals that SOE can inhibit TGFß1-induced cell wound healing, cell migration, and cell invasion in a dose-dependent manner in RL95-2 and HEC-1A endometrial cancer cells. SOE also reversed the TGFß1-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition, including the loss of the cell-cell junction and the lamellipodia-like structures. Western blot analysis revealed that SOE inhibited the phosphorylation of ERK1/2, JNK1/2, and Akt, as well as the expression of MMP-9, MMP-2, and u-PA in RL95-2 cells dose-dependently. The results of this investigation suggest that SOE is a potential anti-metastatic agent against human endometrial tumors.


Assuntos
Asteraceae/química , Neoplasias do Endométrio/metabolismo , Etanol/farmacologia , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases/efeitos dos fármacos , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta1/efeitos adversos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Movimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Ensaios de Seleção de Medicamentos Antitumorais , Neoplasias do Endométrio/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias do Endométrio/patologia , Etanol/química , Feminino , Humanos , Invasividade Neoplásica , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia
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