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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33388978

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To study the psychoacoustic and audiological characteristics of patients with chronic subjective tinnitus and provide basis for the personalized diagnosis and treatment of tinnitus through a single tinnitus multielement integration sound therapy (T-MIST) and analysis of efficacy preliminarily. METHODS: 145 patients with tinnitus were assessed by systematic medical history collection, professional examination of otolaryngology, audiology examination, full precision test (FPT), residual inhibition test (RIT), tinnitus handicap inventory (THI) and visual analog scale (VAS) annoyance. The correlation among factors was performed. RESULTS: The frequency of tinnitus was correlated with the frequency of maximum hearing loss (P < 0.05). The loudness of tinnitus was correlated with the loudness of maximum hearing loss (P < 0.05). In this study, T-MIST was used to treat tinnitus. After treatment, tinnitus alleviated VAS annoyance (P < 0.05). The results of RIT were correlated with the effect of T-MIST (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: There was a correlation between tinnitus and hearing loss. The RIT may indicate the effectiveness of acoustic therapy in patients. The FPT can find the hidden hearing loss without display on routine pure tone audiometry, so as to provide a clinical reference for the detection of early hearing loss in tinnitus patients.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33416951

RESUMO

As a reliable preoperative predictor for microvascular invasion (MVI) and disease-free survival (DFS) is lacking, we developed a radiomics nomogram of [18F]FDG PET/CT to predict MVI status and DFS in patients with very-early- and early-stage (BCLC 0, BCLC A) hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). METHODS: Patients (N = 80) with BCLC0-A HCC who underwent [18F]FDG PET/CT before surgery were enrolled in this retrospective study and were randomized to a training cohort and a validation cohort. Texture features from patients obtained using Lifex software in the training cohort were subjected to LASSO regression to select the most useful predictive features of MVI and DFS. Then, the radiomics nomogram was constructed using the radiomics signature and clinical features and further validated. RESULTS: To predict MVI, the [18F]FDG PET/CT radiomics signature consisted of five texture features from the PET and six texture features from CT. The signature was significantly associated with MVI status in the training cohort (P = 0.001). None of the clinical features was independent predictors for MVI status (P > 0.05). The area under the curve value of the M-PET/CT model was 0.891 (95% CI: 0.799-0.984) in the training cohort and showed good discrimination and calibration. To predict DFS, the [18F]FDG PET/CT radiomics nomogram (D-PET/CT model) and a clinicopathologic nomogram were built in the training cohort. The D-PET/CT model, which integrated the D-PET/CT radiomics signature with INR and TB, provided better predictive performance (C-index: 0.831, 95% CI: 0.761-0.900) and larger net benefits than the simple clinical model, as determined by decision curve analyses. CONCLUSION: The newly developed [18F]FDG PET/CT radiomics signature was an independent biomarker for the estimation of MVI and DFS in patients with very-early- and early-stage HCC. Moreover, PET/CT nomogram, which incorporated the radiomics signature of [18F]FDG PET/CT and clinical risk factors in patients with very-early- and early-stage HCC, performed better for individualized DFS estimation, which might enable a step forward in precise medicine.

3.
Brain Res Bull ; 169: 18-24, 2021 Jan 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33400956

RESUMO

Resveratrol, a naturally occurring stilbene found in red wine, is known to modulate the activity of several types of ion channels and membrane receptors, including Ca2+, K+, and Na+ ion channels. However, little is known about the effects of resveratrol on some important receptors, such as glycine receptors and GABAA receptors, in the central nervous system (CNS). In the present study, the effects of resveratrol on glycine receptor or GABAA receptor-mediated currents in cultured rat inferior colliculus (IC) and auditory cortex (AC) neurons were studied using whole-cell voltage-clamp recordings. Resveratrol itself did not evoke any currents in IC neurons but it reversibly decreased the amplitude of glycine-induced current (IGly) in a concentration-dependent manner. Resveratrol did not change the reversal potential of IGly but it shifted the concentration-response relationship to the right without changing the Hill coefficient and with decreasing the maximum response of IGly. Interestingly, resveratrol inhibited the amplitude of IGly but not that of GABA-induced current (IGABA) in AC neurons. More importantly, resveratrol inhibited GlyR-mediated but not GABAAR-mediated inhibitory postsynaptic currents in IC neurons using brain slice recordings. Together, these results demonstrate that resveratrol noncompetitively inhibits IGly in auditory neurons by decreasing the affinity of glycine to its receptor. These findings suggest that the native glycine receptors but not GABAA receptors in central neurons are targets of resveratrol during clinical administrations.

4.
BMC Cancer ; 21(1): 45, 2021 Jan 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33422027

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lynch syndrome (LS) is the most common hereditary colorectal cancer (CRC) syndrome. Comparison of prognosis between LS and sporadic CRC (SCRC) were rare, with conflicting results. This study aimed to compare the long-term outcomes between patients with LS and SCRC. METHODS: Between June 2008 and September 2018, a total of 47 patients were diagnosed with LS by genetic testing at Fudan University Shanghai Cancer Center. A 1:2 propensity score matching was performed to obtain homogeneous cohorts from SCRC group. Thereafter, 94 SCRC patients were enrolled as control group. All of enrolled patients received curative surgeries and standardized postoperative monitoring. The long-term survival rates between the two groups were compared, and the prognostic factors were also analyzed. RESULTS: The 5-year overall survival rate of LS group was 97.6%, which was significantly higher than of 82.6% for SCRC group (χ2 = 4.745, p = 0.029). The 5-year recurrence free survival rate showed no significant differences between the two groups (78.0% for LS group vs. 70.6% for SCRC patients; χ2 = 1.260, p = 0.262). The 5-year tumor free survival rates in LS group was 62.1% for LS patients, which were significantly lower than of 70.6% for SCRC group (χ2 = 4.258, p = 0.039). Subgroup analysis of recurrent patients show that the LS group had longer overall survival than the SCRC group after combined chemotherapy. By multivariate analysis, we found that tumor recurrence of primary CRC [Risk ratio (95% (confidence interval): 48.917(9.866-242.539); p < 0.001] and late TNM staging [Risk ratio (95% (confidence interval): 2.968(1.478-5.964); p = 0.002] were independent risk factors for OS. CONCLUSION: LS patients have better long-term survival prognosis than SCRC patients, even though the two groups have statistically comparable recurrence free survival. Combined chemotherapy is an effective treatment for LS patients who developed primary CRC recurrence. Standardized postoperative monitoring for LS patients may enable detection of metachronous tumors at earlier stages, which was a guarantee of a favorable prognosis despite lower tumor free survival.

5.
Pest Manag Sci ; 77(1): 224-233, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32673424

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Parasitoid wasps are valuable natural enemies for controlling pests. To ensure successful parasitism, these wasps inject venoms along with their eggs that are deposited either into or on their hosts. Parasitoid venoms regulate host behaviors, development, metabolism and immune responses. Pteromalus puparum is a pupal endoparasitoid that parasitizes a number of butterflies, including the worldwide pest cabbage butterfly, Pieris rapae. Venom from P. puparum has a variety of effects on host hemocytes, including alteration of absolute and relative hemocyte counts, and inhibition of hemocyte spreading and encapsulation. In particular, P. puparum venom causes hemocyte cell death in vivo and in vitro. RESULTS: Using assay-guided chromatography, a cell death-inducing venom fraction was identified and defined as P. puparum endonuclease-like venom protein (PpENVP). It belongs to the DNA/RNA nonspecific endonuclease family, which contains two conserved endonuclease activation sites. We analyzed its expression profiles and demonstrated that PpENVP inhibits gene expression in transfected cells relying on two activation sites. However, RNA interference of PpENVP did not significantly reduce P. puparum venom cytotoxicity, suggesting that PpENVP may not be the sole cytotoxic factor present. CONCLUSION: Our results provide novel insight into the function of the P. puparum venom cocktail and identify a promising insecticide candidate endonuclease that targets insect hemocytes.


Assuntos
Borboletas , Vespas , Animais , Morte Celular , Endonucleases , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita , Pupa
6.
NeuroRehabilitation ; 2020 Dec 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33361618

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The treatment for patients suffering from motor dysfunction following stroke using continuous repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) has the potential to be beneficial for recovery. However, the impact of explicit results on the coupling of various rTMS protocols on motor treatment in patients following acute cerebral infarction remain unexplored. OBJECTIVE: The current study aims to design a sham-controlled randomized report to explore the capability of consecutive suppressive-facilitatory rTMS method to increase the motor results following acute stroke. METHODS: A hundred ischemic stroke patients suffering from motor disorder were randomly assigned to obtain 4 week sessions of (1)10 Hz over the ipsilesional primary motor cortex (M1) and next 1 Hz over the contralesional M1; (2) contralesional sham stimulation and next ipsilesional real 10 Hz; (3) contralesional real 1 Hz rTMS and next ipsilesional sham stimulation; or (4) bilateral sham-control procedures. At 24 hours before and after the intervention, we obtained cortical excitability data from study subjects. At baseline, after treatment and 3 months follow up, we additionally evaluated patients with the clinical assessments. RESULTS: At post-intervention, group A showed greater motor improvements in FMA, FMA-UL, NIHSS, ADL and mRS values than group B, group C and group D, that were continued for at least 3 months after the completion of the treatment time. Specifically, it is shown in the cortical excitability study that the motor-evoked potential (MEP) amplitude and resting motor threshold (rMT) more significantly improved in group A than other groups. The improvement in motor function and change in motor cortex excitability exhibit a significant correlation in the affected hemisphere. The combined 1 Hz and 10 Hz stimulation treatment showed a synergistic effect. CONCLUSIONS: Facilitatory rTMS and coupling inhibitory produced extra satisfactory results in facilitating the motor's recovery in the subacute and acute phase following stroke compared to that acquired from alone single-course modulation.

8.
Front Physiol ; 11: 575655, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33178044

RESUMO

Neuropeptides are a group of signal molecules that regulate many physiological and behavioral processes by binding to corresponding receptors, most of which are G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). Using bioinformatic methods, we screened genomic and transcriptomic data of the ectoparasitoid wasp, Habrobracon hebetor, and annotated 34 neuropeptide candidate precursor genes and 44 neuropeptide receptor candidate genes. The candidate neuropeptide genes were found to encode all known insect neuropeptides except allatotropin, neuropeptide F, pigment dispersing factor, and CCHamides. When compared with the endoparasitic wasp Pteromalus puparum and the ectoparasitic wasp Nasonia vitripennis, trissin and FMRFamide were found only in H. hebetor. A similar result held for the neuropeptide receptor genes, for the receptors were found in H. hebetor except the receptors of CCHamides and neuroparsin. Furthermore, we compared and analyzed the differences in neuropeptides in eight Braconidae wasps and identified natalisin in H. hebetor, Diachasma alloeum, Fopius arisanus and Microplitis demolitor, but not in the other wasps. We also analyzed the transcriptome data and qRT-PCR data from different developmental stages and tissues to reveal the expression patterns of the neuropeptides and their receptors. In this study, we revealed composition of neuropeptides and neuropeptide receptors in H. hebetor, which may contribute to future neurobiological studies.

9.
Nat Sci Sleep ; 12: 1033-1042, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33239930

RESUMO

Background: Patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) is an "on-demand" system which allows patients to self-administer intravenous medications in small bolus doses. Based on the principles of PCA, we developed Patient-Controlled Sleep (PCSL) for chronic intractable insomnia where the traditional analgesics in PCA were replaced with dexmedetomidine (Dex), an alpha-2 agonist widely used for premedication, sedation, anxiolysis and analgesia. The purpose of this study was to assess the feasibility of the new method for the treatment of chronic intractable insomnia. Patients and Methods: Patients with chronic intractable insomnia undergoing PCSL (n=20) were evaluated with the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), Symptom Checklist 90 (SCL-90), Hamilton Anxiety Scale (HAMA) and Hamilton Depression Scale (HAMD) before and after the treatment. The patient characteristics, overall outcomes and related side effects were also assessed. Results: Fifteen patients completed the treatment protocol. The duration of PCSL varied from a few days to four months, and the dosage of Dex gradually decreased without eliciting signs or symptoms of tolerance or physical dependence. The sleep quality improvement occurred immediately after the therapy in 12/15 patients, and of which, 7/12 patients achieved continuously improved sleep quality in follow-up. Conclusion: PCSL with Dex might be a potential treatment for patients with chronic intractable insomnia. However, it is an off-label use, and the potential side effects of dexmedetomidine with long-term use needs further evaluation.

10.
World Neurosurg ; 2020 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33217590

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Thrombectomy increases the survival rate of acute ischemic stroke patients corresponding to large vessel occlusion. This study aimed to determine clinical predictors for good outcomes in patients subjected to tissue window guided thrombectomy. METHODS: This study was performed at the stroke center of the First Affiliated Hospital of SooChow University. Baseline characteristics and outcomes were retrospectively collected, 90 days after endovascular thrombectomy. Collection was done within 6-24 hours after a patient was last seen in good condition. Binary logistic regression was used to establish the clinical predictors for functional independence. Receiver operator characteristic curve analysis was performed to determine cutoff values for outcome predictors. P value <0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. RESULTS: Forty-seven patients were enrolled in this study. Among them, 13 (27.7%) had last presenting stroke, 24 (51.1%) had wake-up stroke, and 10 (21.3%) had daytime unknown stroke onset. The median initial National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score, infarct core volume, and ischemic penumbra volume were 15 (interquartile range [IQR] 11-18), 20 (IQR 8-36) mL, and 115 (IQR 81-176) mL, respectively. Multivariate regression analysis showed that patients with a lower initial NIHSS score, smaller ischemic penumbra, and no hemorrhagic transformation were more likely to have good outcomes. As shown by the receiver operator characteristic curves, the optimal thresholds of initial NIHSS score, ischemic penumbra, and infarct core were 14.5 (AUC: 0.867; P < 0.001), 109 mL (AUC: 0.841; P < 0.001), and 12.5 mL (AUC: 0.681; P = 0.036), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: A lower initial NIHSS score, smaller ischemic penumbra, and lack of hemorrhagic transformation are significant independent predictors for good outcomes after a tissue-window based thrombectomy.

11.
BMC Neurol ; 20(1): 426, 2020 Nov 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33234113

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A reliable scoring tool to detect the risk of intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) after intravenous thrombolysis for ischemic stroke is warranted. The present study was designed to develop and validate a new nomogram for individualized prediction of the probability of hemorrhagic transformation (HT) in patients treated with intravenous (IV) recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA). METHODS: We enrolled patients who suffered from acute ischemic stroke (AIS) with IV rt-PA treatment in our emergency green channel between August 2016 and July 2018. The main outcome was defined as any type of intracerebral hemorrhage according to the European Cooperative Acute Stroke Study II (ECASS II). All patients were randomly divided into two cohorts: the primary cohort and the validation cohort. On the basis of multivariate logistic model, the predictive nomogram was generated. The performance of the nomogram was evaluated by Harrell's concordance index (C-index) and calibration plot. RESULTS: A total of 194 patients with complete data were enrolled, of whom 131 comprised the primary cohort and 63 comprised the validation cohort, with HT rate 12.2, 9.5% respectively. The score of chronic disease scale (CDS), the global burden of cerebral small vascular disease (CSVD), National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score ≥ 13, and onset-to-treatment time (OTT) ≥ 180 were detected important determinants of ICH and included to construct the nomogram. The nomogram derived from the primary cohort for HT had C- Statistics of 0.9562 and the calibration plot revealed generally fit in predicting the risk of HT. Furthermore, we made a comparison between our new nomogram and several other risk-assessed scales for HT with receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis, and the results showed the nomogram model gave an area under curve of 0.9562 (95%CI, 0.9221-0.9904, P < 0.01) greater than HAT (Hemorrhage After Thrombolysis), SEDAN (blood Sugar, Early infarct and hyper Dense cerebral artery sign on non-contrast computed tomography, Age, and NIHSS) and SPAN-100 (Stroke Prognostication using Age and NIHSS) scores. CONCLUSIONS: This proposed nomogram based on the score of CDS, the global burden of CSVD, NIHSS score ≥ 13, and OTT ≥ 180 gives rise to a more accurate and more comprehensive prediction for HT in patients with ischemic stroke receiving IV rt-PA treatment.

12.
Vascular ; : 1708538120965300, 2020 Nov 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33226306

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Cerebral hyperperfusion syndrome is a fatal complication that can occur after stent angioplasty in patients with severe carotid artery stenosis. Staged angioplasty can prevent cerebral hyperperfusion syndrome. Conventional staged angioplasty consists of small balloon angioplasty in the first stage and carotid artery stenting in the second stage two to four weeks later. Sometimes, antegrade flow during stage 1 could hardly be maintained and stent will be needed. Solitaire stents were used in some patients in our center. This study aimed to examine the safety and effectiveness of Solitaire stents in staged angioplasty. METHODS: A retrospective analysis was performed on patients with severe carotid artery stenosis and preoperative computed tomography perfusion indicating risk of cerebral hyperperfusion syndrome from 2011 to 2018. Small balloon angioplasty (<3 mm in diameter) only was performed in stage 1 (group 1). If antegrade flow during stage 1 is compromised, then a solitaire stent is deployed (group 2). After two to four weeks, cerebral angiography was undertaken in both groups to determine whether to perform stage 2. If the residual stenosis was more than 50%, carotid artery stenting was deployed. Angiographic results, clinical results, and follow-up results were collected and analyzed. RESULTS: Twenty-five patients were included in the study (group 1, n = 19; group 2, n = 6). After stage 1, no patient in group 2 and two patients in group 1 developed new symptomatic cerebral infarction (0.0% vs. 10.5%, p = 1.000). One patient in group 2 and three patients in group 1 (16.7% vs. 15.8%, p = 1.000) developed symptomatic cerebral hyperperfusion syndrome. One patient in group 2 (n = 4) and three patients in group 1 (n = 12) (25% vs. 25%, p = 1.000) developed hyperperfusion phenomenon. Two patients in group 2 and five patients in group 1 (33.3% vs. 26.3%, p = 1.000) developed symptomatic cerebral hyperperfusion syndrome or hyperperfusion phenomenon. One patient in group 1 developed symptomatic cerebral hyperperfusion syndrome and hyperperfusion phenomenon. After stage 2, no new cerebral infarction occurred in both groups. No patient in group 2 (n = 3) and one patient in group 1 (n = 17) developed symptomatic cerebral hyperperfusion syndrome (0.0% vs. 5.9%, p = 1.000). In the combined analysis of both stages, two patients (10.5%) developed new symptomatic cerebral infarction and four patients (21.1%) developed symptomatic cerebral hyperperfusion syndrome in group 1, no patient (0.0%) developed symptomatic cerebral infarction and one patient (16.7%) developed symptomatic cerebral hyperperfusion syndrome in group 2. There was no significant difference in symptomatic cerebral infarction and symptomatic cerebral hyperperfusion syndrome between the two groups (p = 1.000; p = 1.000). Three patients in group 2 and 17 patients in group 1 (50% vs. 89.5%, p = 0.070) underwent stage 2 angioplasty. No cerebral hemorrhage or cerebral infarction occurred in the Solitaire group during the one-year follow-up period. CONCLUSIONS: Solitaire stents deployment may reduce ischemic events in staged angioplasty for severe carotid stenosis.

13.
Nature ; 587(7833): 246-251, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33177663

RESUMO

New genome assemblies have been arriving at a rapidly increasing pace, thanks to decreases in sequencing costs and improvements in third-generation sequencing technologies1-3. For example, the number of vertebrate genome assemblies currently in the NCBI (National Center for Biotechnology Information) database4 increased by more than 50% to 1,485 assemblies in the year from July 2018 to July 2019. In addition to this influx of assemblies from different species, new human de novo assemblies5 are being produced, which enable the analysis of not only small polymorphisms, but also complex, large-scale structural differences between human individuals and haplotypes. This coming era and its unprecedented amount of data offer the opportunity to uncover many insights into genome evolution but also present challenges in how to adapt current analysis methods to meet the increased scale. Cactus6, a reference-free multiple genome alignment program, has been shown to be highly accurate, but the existing implementation scales poorly with increasing numbers of genomes, and struggles in regions of highly duplicated sequences. Here we describe progressive extensions to Cactus to create Progressive Cactus, which enables the reference-free alignment of tens to thousands of large vertebrate genomes while maintaining high alignment quality. We describe results from an alignment of more than 600 amniote genomes, which is to our knowledge the largest multiple vertebrate genome alignment created so far.

14.
Nature ; 587(7833): 252-257, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33177665

RESUMO

Whole-genome sequencing projects are increasingly populating the tree of life and characterizing biodiversity1-4. Sparse taxon sampling has previously been proposed to confound phylogenetic inference5, and captures only a fraction of the genomic diversity. Here we report a substantial step towards the dense representation of avian phylogenetic and molecular diversity, by analysing 363 genomes from 92.4% of bird families-including 267 newly sequenced genomes produced for phase II of the Bird 10,000 Genomes (B10K) Project. We use this comparative genome dataset in combination with a pipeline that leverages a reference-free whole-genome alignment to identify orthologous regions in greater numbers than has previously been possible and to recognize genomic novelties in particular bird lineages. The densely sampled alignment provides a single-base-pair map of selection, has more than doubled the fraction of bases that are confidently predicted to be under conservation and reveals extensive patterns of weak selection in predominantly non-coding DNA. Our results demonstrate that increasing the diversity of genomes used in comparative studies can reveal more shared and lineage-specific variation, and improve the investigation of genomic characteristics. We anticipate that this genomic resource will offer new perspectives on evolutionary processes in cross-species comparative analyses and assist in efforts to conserve species.

15.
Eur J Anaesthesiol ; 2020 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33186308

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Peripheral local anaesthetic blockade has an important role in multimodal postoperative analgesia after video-assisted thoracic surgery. Intercostal nerve block has an opioid-sparing effect after thoracoscopic surgery, but there is little information about an intra-operative opioid-sparing effect. OBJECTIVE: This prospective randomised trial was designed to evaluate the feasibility of a modified intercostal nerve block and its potential opioid-sparing effect during single-port thoracoscopic lobectomy. DESIGN: This was a randomised controlled study. SETTING: The First Affiliated Hospital of Anhui Medical University, Hefei, China, from January 2020 to April 2020. PATIENTS: Fifty patients scheduled for single-port thoracoscopic lobectomy were enrolled. INTERVENTION: Patients were randomised to receive the intercostal nerve block using 10 ml 0.35% ropivacaine (group MINB) or conventional general anaesthesia (group CGA). Following a bolus of 0.5 to 1.0 µg kg remifentanil, it was then infused at 0.2 to 0.5 µg kg min during surgery to keep mean arterial pressure or heart rate values around 20% below baseline values. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The primary outcome was intra-operative remifentanil consumption. RESULTS: Median [IQR] remifentanil consumption was reduced in the MINB group [0 µg (0 to 0 µg)] compared with the CGA group [1650.0 µg (870.0 to 1892.5 µg)]. The median difference was 1650.0 µg (95%CI 1200.0 to 1770.0 µg; P = 0.00). The total number of analgesic demands during the first 24 and 48 h in the MINB group was significantly less than in the CGA group (difference = 1; 95% CI 1 to 3; P = 0.00 and difference = 4; 95% CI 3 to 5; P = 0.00; respectively). The difference in time to first demand for analgesia was significant [difference = 728 min (95% CI 344 to 1381 min), P = 0.00] and also in the number of patients requiring additional tramadol (P = 0.03). CONCLUSION: We have shown intra-operative opioid-sparing with a modified intercostal nerve block during single-port thoracoscopic lobectomy, with opioid-sparing extending 48 h after surgery. However, the opioid-sparing effect was not associated with a reduction in opioid side effects. TRIAL REGISTRATION: http://www.chictr.org.cn, ChiCTR2000029337.

16.
Int J Soc Psychiatry ; : 20764020975792, 2020 Nov 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33231134

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although knowledge is a crucial component in contact theory delineating how prejudice changes toward out-groups with stigmatized conditions, little is known about the mediating role of knowledge on contact, stigmatizing attitudes, and behaviors toward mental illness. AIM: This study aimed to examine the mechanism underlie contact and stigma change by knowledge. METHODS: A total of 366 participants including family members (FM), mental health providers (MHP), and community residents (CR) recruited across communities in Hong Kong and completed measures of contact level, contact quantity, contact quality, mental health related knowledge, prejudice, and discriminatory behaviors. Structural equation modeling was adopted to test the association among the key variables. RESULTS: Higher level of contact was significantly correlated with better knowledge, less prejudice, and less discriminatory behaviors. Knowledge was directly and negatively correlated with prejudicial attitudes but was not significantly related to discriminatory behaviors. Furthermore, lower levels of prejudice were associated with less discriminatory behaviors. CONCLUSION: Enhancement of contact may increase understanding toward people with mental illness (PMI) and diminish stigmatizing attitudes and behaviors. Although prejudicial attitudes may be reduced by broadening mental health knowledge, increasing knowledge only might not ameliorate discriminatory behaviors. Future research should test mediators on contact and stigma by using longitudinal data.

17.
Front Pharmacol ; 11: 566611, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33101025

RESUMO

Background: Recently, progression of chronic renal failure (CRF) has been closely associated with gut microbiota dysbiosis and intestinal metabolite-derived microinflammation. In China, total flavones of Abelmoschus manihot (TFA), a component of Abelmoschus manihot, has been widely used to delay CRF progression in clinics for the past two decades. However, the overall therapeutic mechanisms remain obscure. In this study, we designed experiments to investigate the renoprotective effects of TFA in CRF progression and its underlying mechanisms involved in gut microbiota and microinflammation, compared with febuxostat (FEB), a potent non-purine selective inhibitor of xanthine oxidase. Methods: In vivo, the CRF rat models were induced by uninephrectomy, potassium oxonate, and proinflammatory diet, and received either TFA suspension, FEB, or vehicle after modeling for 28 days. In vitro, the RAW 264.7 cells were exposed to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) with or without TFA or FEB. Changes in parameters related to renal injury, gut microbiota dysbiosis, gut-derived metabolites, and microinflammation were analyzed in vivo. Changes in macrophage polarization and autophagy and its related signaling were analyzed both in vivo and in vitro. Results: For the modified CRF model rats, the administration of TFA and FEB improved renal injury, including renal dysfunction and renal tubulointerstitial lesions; remodeled gut microbiota dysbiosis, including decreased Bacteroidales and Lactobacillales and increased Erysipelotrichales; regulated gut-derived metabolites, including d-amino acid oxidase, serine racemase, d-serine, and l-serine; inhibited microinflammation, including interleukin 1ß (IL1ß), tumor necrosis factor-α, and nuclear factor-κB; and modulated macrophage polarization, including markers of M1/M2 macrophages. More importantly, TFA and FEB reversed the expression of beclin1 (BECN1) and phosphorylation of p62 protein and light chain 3 (LC3) conversion in the kidneys by activating the adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase-sirtuin 1 (AMPK-SIRT1) signaling. Further, TFA and FEB have similar effects on macrophage polarization and autophagy and its related signaling in vitro. Conclusion: In this study, we demonstrated that TFA, similar to FEB, exerts its renoprotective effects partially by therapeutically remodeling gut microbiota dysbiosis and inhibiting intestinal metabolite-derived microinflammation. This is achieved by adjusting autophagy-mediated macrophage polarization through AMPK-SIRT1 signaling. These findings provide more accurate information on the role of TFA in delaying CRF progression.

18.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 16423, 2020 10 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33009432

RESUMO

The potential risks of Bt rice on non-target arthropods (NTAs) should be evaluated and defined before commercial production. Recently, effects of Bt rice on NTAs under abiotic and biotic stress conditions attracted much attention. Here we reported the effects of Bt rice T1C-19 (Cry1C rice) on the non-target herbivore, Nilaparvata lugens (rice brown planthopper, BPH) with or without RDV (rice dwarf virus) infection conditions. BPH showed no feeding and oviposition preference between Bt rice T1C-19 and its non-Bt parental rice Minghui 63 (MH63), as well as between RDV-infected and RDV-free rice plants. Meanwhile, rice type, RDV infection status, and their interaction had little impacts on the survival, development and fecundity of BPH. By comparison with non-Bt control, Bt rice T1C-19 with or without RDV infection had no significant effects on the life-table parameters of BPH including rm, R0, T, DT and λ. Thus, it could be concluded that Bt rice T1C-19 doesn't affect the ecological fitness of BPH either under RDV stress or not.

19.
Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces ; 197: 111374, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33032177

RESUMO

Biomimetic instructive tissue engineering scaffolds are critical for achieving successful tissue regeneration. In the present study, we developed a novel scaffold via ornamenting poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) electrospun fibers with a chondrocyte-derived extracellular matrix (ECM)-coating, which was applied for chondrogenesis of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). PCL fibrous films with different fiber diameters (1282±121 nm, 549±61 nm and 285±38 nm) were first prepared via electrospinning. Rabbit articular chondrocytes (rACs) were cultured on PCL fibrous scaffolds, followed by a decellularization treatment to generate decellularized ECM (dECM)-coated PCL scaffolds (dECM/PCL). Rabbit bone marrow-derived MSCs (rMSCs) were then seeded onto these scaffolds and adhesion, proliferation and chondrogenic differentiation were evaluated. dECM/PCL scaffolds displayed distinct surface microstructural features with varying fiber diameters and fibrous mesh-like ECM with more developed collagen fibers was observed on nanofibers. On dECM/PCL scaffolds, rMSCs tended to spread more at 24 h post-seeding and proliferated better within 7 d compared to those on uncoated PCL scaffolds. Based on analysis of gene expression, rMSCs underwent the best chondrogenic differentiation on dECM/PCL scaffolds of 549-nm fibers. Collectively, such dECM/PCL composite scaffolds are very promising for cartilage tissue regeneration.

20.
Pest Manag Sci ; 2020 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33063928

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Adult parasitic wasps take sugars to meet their energy needs and display different lifespans and fertility in response to different sugar sources. Pteromalus puparum is an endoparasitoid with a wide range of hosts, including many lepidopteran pests. As a potential natural enemy resource, the availability of sugar sources has profound effects for wasp applications and host populations dynamics. RESULTS: We assessed the effect of feeding sucrose and honey on the lifespan of P. puparum in the range 0-40% (w/v). The results indicated a statistically significant positive effect of sucrose and honey solutions on the lifespan of P. puparum female adults. Correlation analyses confirmed a strong positive correlation between high concentrations of sugar and extended lifespan. The optimum concentration of sucrose solution for wasps was 20%, while 10% for honey. Then, we examined the expression patterns of 15 lifespan-related genes. The results showed that the relative expression levels of 14 genes were significantly correlated with the mean lifespan of sucrose-fed wasps, and six genes correlated with the mean lifespan of honey-fed wasps. In addition, the models for lifespan prediction were constructed. CONCLUSION: We elaborated the quantitative effects of two sugar sources (sucrose and honey) on P. puparum lifespan, investigated the expression patterns of lifespan-related genes when fed different sugar sources, and developed round lifespan prediction models accordingly. This study provides a novel tool for studying the longevity regulating mechanisms of parasitic wasps, and may be instructive for mass-production of parasitoids as biological control agents.

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