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1.
J Biophotonics ; 2020 Feb 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32057188

RESUMO

Compression optical coherence elastography typically requires a mechanical actuator to impart a controlled uniform strain to the sample. However, for handheld scanning, this adds complexity to the design of the probe and the actuator stroke limits the amount of strain that can be applied. In this work, we present a new volumetric imaging approach that utilises bidirectional manual compression via the natural motion of the user's hand to induce strain to the sample, realising compact, actuator-free, handheld compression optical coherence elastography. In this way, we are able to demonstrate rapid acquisition of three-dimensional quantitative micro-elastography (QME) datasets of a tissue volume (6 × 6 × 1 mm) in 3.4 seconds. We characterise the elasticity sensitivity of this freehand manual compression approach using a homogeneous silicone phantom and demonstrate comparable performance to a bench-top mounted, actuator-based approach. In addition, we demonstrate handheld volumetric manual compression-based QME on a tissue-mimicking phantom with an embedded stiff inclusion and on freshly excised human breast specimens from both mastectomy and wide local excision surgeries. Tissue results are co-registered with post-operative histology, verifying the capability of our approach to measure the elasticity of tissue and to distinguish stiff tumor from surrounding soft benign tissue. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

2.
Plant Biotechnol J ; 2020 Feb 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32058661

RESUMO

Genetically modified crops expressing insecticidal Cry proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) have been grown commercially since 1996 and have successfully controlled target pests, reduced insecticide usage and increased yields. A major concern is that Bt crops may trigger outbreaks of non-target herbivores against which they are not effective, by reducing bio-control services provided by natural enemies, as seen with broad-spectrum insecticides.

3.
Neuroreport ; 31(3): 256-264, 2020 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32032283

RESUMO

Cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (CIR) injury could lead to the function of brain cell disorder and cerebral infarction. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been reported to participate in the progression and protection of CIR injury. Thus, our study aimed to investigate the functional effects of microRNA-338-5p (miR-338-5p) on proliferation, apoptosis, and inflammatory response of CIR injury. According to the results, miR-338-5p was downregulated in the brain of the mice caused by CIR injury, and overexpression of miR-338-5p reduced the neurological deficit and infarct volume of the brain in the mice caused by CIR injury. Meanwhile, miR-338-5p overexpression promoted the proliferation, while suppressed the apoptosis and the inflammatory response of Neuro-2a cells exposed to hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R). Interestingly, miR-338-5p directly targeted connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) and overexpression of CTGF reversed the functional effects of miR-338-5p on proliferation, apoptosis, and inflammatory response in Neuro-2a cells caused by H/R. More importantly, miR-338-5p affected the adenosine 5¢-monophosphate (AMP)-activated protein kinase (AMPK)/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway by regulating CTGF expression in Neuro-2a cells exposed to H/R. Taken together, we concluded that MiR-338-5p promoted the proliferation, while suppressed the apoptosis and the inflammatory response of cells exposed to H/R by targeting CTGF through the AMPK/mTOR signaling pathway.

4.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; : 104653, 2020 Feb 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32033900

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In this study, we developed novel logistic regression models for the diagnostic and prognostic assessment of ischemic stroke. METHODS: A total of 288 ischemic stroke patients and 300 controls admitted to The First Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University were included in the testing group. Two validation groups from The Affiliated Kunshan Hospital of Jiangsu University and The Second Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University were included to assess our novel assessment models. RESULTS: Results from the testing group indicated that the diagnostic assessment model for ischemic stroke prediction was: Logit(P) = 437.116 - 87.329 (Hypertension) - 89.700 (Smoking history) - 87.427 (Family history of ischemic stroke) - .090 (high-density lipoprotein cholesterol [HDL-C]) - 1.984 (low-density lipoprotein cholesterol [LDL-C]) - 17.005 (Lp(a)) - 15.486 (Apo A/Apo B), and the final prognostic assessment model of ischemic stroke was: Logit(P) = 458.437-92.343 (Hypertension) - 89.763 (Smoking history) + .251 (NLR) - .088 (HDL-C) - 1.994 (LDL-C) - 2.883 (hs-CRP) - .058 (IL-6) - 6.356 (TNF-α) - 16.485 (Lp(a)) - 17.658 (Apo A/Apo B). In the validation groups, our novel diagnostic assessment model showed good identification (with 87.5% sensitivity and 84.2% specificity in The Affiliated Kunshan Hospital of Jiangsu University, with 85.5% sensitivity and 89.0% specificity in The Second Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University). Moreover, our novel prognostic assessment model has a high value in identifying poor prognosis patients in the validation groups from The Affiliated Kunshan Hospital of Jiangsu University (χ2 = 8.461, P = .004), and The Second Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University (χ2 = 7.844, P = .005). CONCLUSIONS: The diagnostic and prognostic assessment models we have established are of great value in the diagnosis and prognostic evaluation of ischemic stroke.

5.
Sci Total Environ ; 711: 134827, 2020 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32000325

RESUMO

Immobilization of U(VI) by naturally ubiquitous ferrous ions (Fe(II)) has been considered as an efficient and ecofriendly method to retard the migration of aqueous U(VI) at many nuclear sites and surface environments. In this study, we conducted Fe-U coprecipitation experiments to investigate the mechanism and stability of uranium (U) precipitation induced by a small quantity of Fe(II) under oxygen-rich conditions. The experimental results suggest that the sedimentation rates of U(VI) by Fe(II) under neutral oxygen-rich conditions are more than 96%, which are about 36% higher than those without Fe(II) and 16% higher than those under oxygen-free conditions. The Fe-U coprecipitates were observed to remain stable under slightly acidic to neutral and oxygen-rich conditions. Fe(II) primarily settles down as low-crystalline iron oxide hydroxide. U(VI) mainly precipitates as three forms: 16-20% of U forms uranyl hydroxide and metaschoepite, which is absorbed on the surface of the solids; 52-56% of U is absorbed as discrete uranyl phases at the internal pores of iron oxide hydroxide; and 27-29% of U is probably incorporated into the FeO(OH) structure as U(V) and U(VI). The U(V) generated via one-electron reduction is somewhat resistant to the oxidation of O2 and the acid dissolution. In addition, nearly 70% of U and only about 15% of Fe could be extracted in 24 h by a hydrochloric acid solution with the H+ concentration ([H+]) of 0.01 M, revealing that U(VI) immobilization by low concentration of Fe(II) combined with O2 has potential applications in the separation and recycling of aqueous uranium.

6.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 2020 Jan 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31933454

RESUMO

Cystic echinococcosis (CE) is an important health problem in northwest non-Qinghai Tibetan Plateau regions of China. Understanding CE risk factors may help in formulating effective prevention and control measures. In the current study, negative binomial regression was used to analyze CE-related factors using prevalence data from 147 counties (cities, districts, and banners) in northwest non-Qinghai Tibetan Plateau regions of China gathered from a national survey conducted in 2012, county economic data, and livestock production data for 2012. The negative binomial regression models indicated Echinococcus granulosus infection rate in livestock (odds ratio [OR]: 1.0471, 95% CI: 1.0128-1.0825, P = 0.0067), the mean number of dogs per family (OR: 3.0589, 95% CI: 1.5116-6.1900, P = 0.0019), the mean number of sheep per family (OR: 1.0431, 95% CI: 1.0027-1.0852, P = 0.0365), and the source of drinking water (OR: 0.9808, 95% CI: 0.9627-0.9992, P = 0.0413) were correlated with human CE prevalence, whereas altitude, surface temperature, economy, and mean number of cattle per family had a negative association. We found that the positive rate of dog stool coproantigen of Echinococcus was associated with human CE prevalence using the univariate analysis but not after controlling for covariates including the number of dogs per family. This might be partially due to the deworming campaigns that were carried out in most of the researched areas. Therefore, the positive rate of dog stool coproantigen of Echinococcus could not reflect the dog infection rate under natural conditions. These findings indicate that dogs and livestock play the most important role in CE transmission. Further studies should be carried out at the township or village level.

7.
Pest Manag Sci ; 2020 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31960570

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pteromalus puparum (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) is an endoparasitoid wasp that parasitizes many butterfly species, including a Brassicaceae pest, Pieris rapae (Lepidoptera: Pieridae), the small white cabbage butterfly. P. puparum females inject venom along with their eggs into hosts to ensure successful parasitism. The venom regulates host development and behavior, suppresses host immunity, and influences host metabolism. It has been shown that the venom contains α-amylases, a group of hydrolytic enzymes that act in insect sugar metabolism. So far, three α-amylases have been identified in P. puparum (Pteromalus puparum α-amylases, PpAmys) and the function of PpAmy1 has been reported. However, the functions of PpAmy2 and PpAmy3 remain unknown. RESULTS: We studied the functions of an α-amylase highly expressed in muscle-rich tissues (PpAmy2) and an α-amylase highly expressed in venom apparatus (PpAmy3) using RNAi and GC-TOF-MS techniques. Knockdown of PpAmy3 by RNAi reduced the body length and weight of 1-day old larval offspring while there was no significant effect when PpAmy2 was knocked down. Compared to the control injected with siGFP, many metabolites in P. puparum changed when PpAmy2 was knocked down, while the injection of PpAmy3 recombinant protein into host induced metabolite changes in the P. rapae hemolymph. CONCLUSION: Our study demonstrated that PpAmy2 acts in metabolism in the muscles of the parasitoid while PpAmy3 could influence the host metabolism and may support the development of parasitic wasp offspring. © 2020 Society of Chemical Industry.

8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31965492

RESUMO

The original publication of this paper contains a mistake.

9.
Neuron ; 105(2): 355-369.e6, 2020 Jan 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31812514

RESUMO

In the mammalian visual system, information from the retina streams into parallel bottom-up pathways. It remains unclear how these pathways interact to contribute to contextual modulation of visual cortical processing. By optogenetic inactivation and activation of mouse lateral posterior nucleus (LP) of thalamus, a homolog of pulvinar, or its projection to primary visual cortex (V1), we found that LP contributes to surround suppression of layer (L) 2/3 responses in V1 by driving L1 inhibitory neurons. This results in subtractive suppression of visual responses and an overall enhancement of orientation, direction, spatial, and size selectivity. Neurons in V1-projecting LP regions receive bottom-up input from the superior colliculus (SC) and respond preferably to non-patterned visual noise. The noise-dependent LP activity allows V1 to "cancel" noise effects and maintain its orientation selectivity under varying noise background. Thus, the retina-SC-LP-V1 pathway forms a differential circuit with the canonical retino-geniculate pathway to achieve context-dependent sharpening of visual representations.

10.
Arch Insect Biochem Physiol ; 103(2): e21629, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31599031

RESUMO

Parasitoids serve as effective biocontrol agents for agricultural pests. However, they face constant challenges from host immune defense and numerous pathogens and must develop potent immune defense against these threats. Despite the recent advances in innate immunity, little is known about the immunological mechanisms of parasitoids. Here, we identified and characterized potential immune-related genes of the endoparasitoid, Pteromalus puparum, which act in regulating populations of some members of the Pieridae. We identified 216 immune-related genes based on interrogating the P. puparum genome and transcriptome databases. We categorized the cognate gene products into recognition molecules, signal moieties and effector proteins operating in four pathways, Toll, IMD, JAK/STAT, and JNK. Comparative analyses of immune-related genes from seven insect species indicate that recognition molecules and effector proteins are more expanded and diversified than signaling genes in these signal pathways. There are common 1:1 orthologs between the endoparasitoid P. puparum and its relative, the ectoparasitoid Nasonia vitripennis. The developmental expression profiles of immune genes randomly selected from the transcriptome analysis were verified by a quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Our work provides comprehensive analyses of P. puparum immune genes, some of which may be exploited in advancing parasitoid-based biocontrol technologies.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Transporte/genética , Imunidade Inata/genética , Proteínas de Insetos/genética , Transdução de Sinais/imunologia , Vespas/genética , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Proteínas de Transporte/química , Proteínas de Transporte/metabolismo , Embrião não Mamífero/química , Embrião não Mamífero/metabolismo , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Proteínas de Insetos/química , Proteínas de Insetos/metabolismo , Larva/genética , Larva/metabolismo , Masculino , Filogenia , Pupa/genética , Pupa/metabolismo , Alinhamento de Sequência , Vespas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Vespas/metabolismo , Vespas/fisiologia
11.
Arch Insect Biochem Physiol ; 103(2): e21628, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31599036

RESUMO

The multifunctional insect cuticle serves as the exoskeleton, determines body shape, restricts water loss, provides attachment sites for muscles and internal organs and is a formidable barrier to invaders. It is morphologically divided into three layers, including envelope, epicuticle, and procuticle and is composed of chitin and cuticular proteins (CPs). Annotation of CPs and their cognate genes may help understand the structure and functions of insect cuticles. In this paper, we interrogated the genome of Pteromalus puparum, an endoparasitoid wasp that parasitizes Pieris rapae and Papilio xuthus pupae, and identified 82 genes encoding CPs belonging to six CP families, including 62 in the CPR family, 8 in CPAP3, 5 in CPF/CPFL, 2 low complexity proteins, 2 in TWDL, and 3 in Apidermin. We used six RNA-seq libraries to determine CP gene expression profiles through development and compared the cuticle hydrophobicity between the P. puparum and the ectoparasitoid Nasonia vitripennis based on GRAVY values of CPR sequences. In the Nasonia-Pteromalus comparison, we found in both N. vitripennis and P. puparum, the peak of their CPR hydrophobicity displayed at their pupal stage, whereas their adult stage showed the lowest level. Except at the adult stage, the CPR hydrophobicity in N. vitripennis is always higher than P. puparum. Finally, we identified three novel Apidermin genes, a family found solely in Hymenoptera and revealed a new sequence feature of this family. This new information contributes to a broader understanding of insect CPs generally.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Insetos/genética , Vespas/genética , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Embrião não Mamífero/química , Embrião não Mamífero/metabolismo , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Proteínas de Insetos/química , Proteínas de Insetos/metabolismo , Larva/genética , Larva/metabolismo , Masculino , Filogenia , Pupa/genética , Pupa/metabolismo , Transcriptoma , Vespas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Vespas/metabolismo
12.
Arch Insect Biochem Physiol ; 103(2): e21632, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31621105

RESUMO

Biogenic amines (BAs), such as octopamine, tyramine, dopamine, serotonin, and acetylcholine regulate various behaviors and physiological functions in insects. Here, we identified seven genes encoding BA biosynthetic enzymes and 16 genes encoding BA G protein-coupled receptors in the genome of the endoparasitoid wasp, Pteromalus puparum. We compared the genes with their orthologs in its host Pieris rapae and the related ectoparasitic wasp Nasonia vitripennis. All the genes show high (>90%) identity to orthologs in N. vitripennis. P. puparum and N. vitripennis have the smallest number of BA receptor genes among the insect species we investigated. We then analyzed the expression profiles of the genes, finding those acting in BA biosynthesis were highly expressed in adults and larvae and those encoding BA receptors are highly expressed in adults than immatures. Octα1R and 5-HT7 genes were highly expressed in salivary glands, and a high messenger RNA level of 5-HT1A was found in venom apparatuses. We infer that BA signaling is a fundamental component of the organismal organization, homeostasis and operation in parasitoids, some of the smallest insects.


Assuntos
Aminas Biogênicas/metabolismo , Borboletas/genética , Proteínas de Insetos/genética , Vespas/genética , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Borboletas/química , Borboletas/metabolismo , Borboletas/parasitologia , Embrião não Mamífero/química , Embrião não Mamífero/metabolismo , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita , Proteínas de Insetos/química , Proteínas de Insetos/metabolismo , Larva/genética , Larva/metabolismo , Masculino , Filogenia , Pupa/genética , Pupa/metabolismo , Alinhamento de Sequência , Vespas/enzimologia , Vespas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Vespas/metabolismo
13.
Arch Insect Biochem Physiol ; 103(2): e21625, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31565815

RESUMO

In insects, neuropeptides constitute a group of signaling molecules that act in regulation of multiple physiological and behavioral processes by binding to their corresponding receptors. On the basis of the bioinformatic approaches, we screened the genomic and transcriptomic data of the parasitoid wasp, Pteromalus puparum, and annotated 36 neuropeptide precursor genes and 33 neuropeptide receptor genes. Compared to the number of precursor genes in Bombyx mori (Lepidoptera), Chilo suppressalis (Lepidoptera), Drosophila melanogaster (Diptera), Nilaparvata lugens (Hemiptera), Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera), and Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera), P. puparum (Hymenoptera) has the lowest number of neuropeptide precursor genes. This lower number may relate to its parasitic life cycle. Transcriptomic data of embryos, larvae, pupae, adults, venom glands, salivary glands, ovaries, and the remaining carcass revealed stage-, sex-, and tissue-specific expression patterns of the neuropeptides, and their receptors. These data provided basic information about the identity and expression profiles of neuropeptides and their receptors that are required to functionally address their biological significance in an endoparasitoid wasp.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Insetos/genética , Neuropeptídeos/genética , Receptores de Neuropeptídeos/genética , Vespas/genética , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Embrião não Mamífero/química , Embrião não Mamífero/metabolismo , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Proteínas de Insetos/química , Proteínas de Insetos/metabolismo , Larva/genética , Larva/metabolismo , Masculino , Neuropeptídeos/química , Neuropeptídeos/metabolismo , Filogenia , Pupa/genética , Pupa/metabolismo , Receptores de Neuropeptídeos/química , Receptores de Neuropeptídeos/metabolismo , Alinhamento de Sequência , Vespas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Vespas/metabolismo
14.
Curr Biol ; 30(1): 108-114.e5, 2020 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31839456

RESUMO

As the only endemic neotropical parrot to have recently lived in the northern hemisphere, the Carolina parakeet (Conuropsis carolinensis) was an iconic North American bird. The last surviving specimen died in the Cincinnati Zoo in 1918 [1]. The cause of its extinction remains contentious: besides excessive mortality associated to habitat destruction and active hunting, their survival could have been negatively affected by its range having become increasingly patchy [2] or by the exposure to poultry pathogens [3, 4]. In addition, the Carolina parakeet showed a predilection for cockleburs, an herbaceous plant that contains a powerful toxin, carboxyatractyloside, or CAT [5], which did not seem to affect them but made the birds notoriously toxic to most predators [3]. To explore the demographic history of this bird, we generated the complete genomic sequence of a preserved specimen held in a private collection in Espinelves (Girona, Spain), as well as of a close extant relative, Aratinga solstitialis. We identified two non-synonymous genetic changes in two highly conserved proteins known to interact with CAT that could underlie a specific dietary adaptation to this toxin. Our genomic analyses did not reveal evidence of a dramatic past demographic decline in the Carolina parakeet; also, its genome did not exhibit the long runs of homozygosity that are signals of recent inbreeding and are typically found in endangered species. As such, our results suggest its extinction was an abrupt process and thus likely solely attributable to human causes.

15.
Arch Insect Biochem Physiol ; 103(2): e21635, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31625210

RESUMO

Among insects, lifespans vary over a broad range, from the short-lived mayflies to the 17-year periodical cicadas. Generally, lifespans are determined by a phase in life, the reproductive lifespan, which varies among species. Numerous pathways, such as the insulin/insulin-like growth factor signaling pathway, the target of rapamycin pathway and the mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinases pathways, influence aging and lifespan. Components of these pathways were identified as lifespan-related genes, including genes mediating growth, metabolism, development, resistance, and other processes. Many age-related genes have been discovered in fruit flies, honeybees, and ants among other insect species. Studies of insect aging and longevity can help understand insect biology and develop new pest management technologies. In this paper, we interrogated the new Pteromalus puparum genome, from which we predicted 133 putative lifespan-related genes based on their homology with known lifespan-related genes of Drosophila melanogaster. These genes function in five signaling pathways and three physiological processes. The conserved domain structures of these genes were predicted and their expression patterns were analyzed. Amino acid sequence alignments and domain structure analysis indicate that most components remain conserved across at least six insect orders. The data in this paper will facilitate future work on parasitoid lifespans, which may have economic value in biocontrol programs.


Assuntos
Genoma de Inseto , Longevidade/genética , Transdução de Sinais , Transcriptoma , Vespas/fisiologia , Animais , Vespas/genética
16.
Arch Insect Biochem Physiol ; 103(2): e21634, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31587360

RESUMO

Pteromalus puparum is a gregarious pupal endoparasitoid with a wide host range. It deposits eggs into pierid and papilionid butterfly pupae. Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) are a family of multifunctional detoxification enzymes that act in xenobiotic metabolism in insects. Insect genome projects have facilitated identification and characterization of GST family members. We identified 20 putative GSTs in the P. puparum genome, including 19 cytosolic and one microsomal. Phylogenetic analysis showed that P. puparum GSTs are clustered into Hymenoptera-specific branches. Transcriptomic data of embryos, larvae, female pupae, male pupae, female adults, male adults, venom glands, carcass, salivary glands, and ovaries revealed stage-, sex-, and tissue-specific expression patterns of GSTs in P. puparum. This is the most comprehensive study of genome-wide identification, characterization, and expression profiling of GST family in hymenopterans. Our results provide valuable information for understanding the metabolic adaptation of this wasp.


Assuntos
Glutationa Transferase/genética , Proteínas de Insetos/genética , Vespas/genética , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Embrião não Mamífero/química , Embrião não Mamífero/metabolismo , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Glutationa Transferase/química , Glutationa Transferase/metabolismo , Proteínas de Insetos/química , Proteínas de Insetos/metabolismo , Larva/genética , Larva/metabolismo , Masculino , Filogenia , Pupa/genética , Pupa/metabolismo , Alinhamento de Sequência , Vespas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Vespas/metabolismo
17.
Arch Insect Biochem Physiol ; 103(2): e21633, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31587364

RESUMO

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a form of endogenous small noncoding RNAs that regulate protein-coding gene expression at the posttranscriptional level. So far, knowledge of miRNAs in parasitoids remains rudimentary. We investigated miRNAs in Pteromalus puparum, a pupal endoparasitoid wasp with genome and transcriptome sequences completed. In this study, we constructed eight small RNA libraries from selected developmental stages and genders: male embryos, male larvae, male pupae, male adults, mixed-sex embryos, mixed-sex larvae, mixed-sex pupae, and female adults. We identified 254 mature miRNAs with 5p/3p arm features originated from 75 known and 119 novel miRNA genes in P. puparum, 88 of which reside in 26 clusters. The miRNAs in more than half of the clusters exhibit a consistent expression pattern, indicating they were co-transcribed from a long transcript. Comparing miRNA expression in the eight libraries, we found that 84 mature miRNAs were differentially expressed between embryos and larvae, 20 between larvae and pupae, and 26 between pupae and adults. We found some miRNAs were differentially expressed between sexes in embryos (10), larvae (29), pupae (8), and adults (14). Target predictions resulted in 211,571 miRNA-mRNA interactions for 254 different mature miRNAs. These miRNAs may be involved in sexual and developmental regulation of gene expression.


Assuntos
MicroRNAs/genética , Transcriptoma/genética , Vespas/genética , Animais , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Larva/metabolismo , Masculino , MicroRNAs/química , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Pupa/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Pupa/metabolismo , Vespas/química , Vespas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Vespas/metabolismo
18.
Environ Pollut ; 256: 113369, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31662254

RESUMO

Soil contains large amounts of humic acid (HA), iron ions and manganese ions, all of which affect U(VI) migration in the soil. HA interacts with iron and manganese ions to form HA salts (called HA-Fe and HA-Mn in this paper); however, the effects of HA-Fe and HA-Mn on the migration of U(VI) is not fully understood. In this study, HA-Fe and HA-Mn were compounded by HA interactions with ferric chloride hexahydrate and manganese chloride tetrahydrate, respectively. The influence of HA, HA-Fe and HA-Mn on U(VI) immobilization and migration was investigated by bath adsorption experiments and adsorption-desorption experiments using soil columns. The results showed that the presence of HA, HA-Fe and HA-Mn retarded the migration of U(VI) in soil. Supported by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and BCR sequential extraction analyses, a plausible explanation for the retardation was that HA-Fe and HA-Mn could reduce hexavalent uranium to stable tetravalent uranium and increase the specific gravity of Fe/Mn oxide-bound uranium and organic/sulfide-bound uranium, which made it difficult for them to longitudinally migrate in soil. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), and surface area and pore size analyses indicated that the complex formed between the hydroxyl, amino and carboxyl groups of HA-Fe and U(VI) increased the crystallinity of HA-Fe. The reaction between U(VI) and the hydroxyl, amino, aldehyde, keto and chlorine-containing groups of HA-Mn had no effect on the crystallinity of HA-Mn. Notably, the column desorption experiment found that the U(VI) immobilized in the soil remigrated under the effect of rain leaching, and acid rain promoted uranium remigration better than neutral rain. The findings provide some guidance for the decommissioning disposal of uranium contaminated site and it's risk assessments.

19.
Waste Manag ; 102: 847-855, 2020 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31835062

RESUMO

A combined process was investigated to recover valuable metals from LiNixCoyMnzO2 cathode materials of spent lithium-ion batteries. In this approach, the cathode materials were first roasted with graphite which recycled from anode materials, and then conducted to a reductant-free sulfuric acid leaching for efficient recovery of valuable metals. The reduction roasting was meticulously investigated to control the composition of roasted products, and the physicochemical changes of the cathode materials in the reduction thermal treatment was studied by XRD, TGA, XPS, SEM and EDS analyses. The experimental results show that under the optimum processing conditions of 600 °C, 3 h, and mass ratio of cathode materials to anode graphite of 6:1, the mixed electrode materials can be transformed into the desired phase of CoO, NiO, MnO and Li2CO3 primarily. Being different from obtaining Co and Ni metallic phase in reduction roasting, producing CoO and NiO benefit to a lower energy consumption, no H2 emission in the leaching process, and more facile conditions for complete leaching. More than 99% of Ni, Co and Li were extracted, and more than 97% of Mn was leached without adding reductant under the optimum conditions: 1.05 times of theoretical H2SO4 consumption, and L/S = 6 ml·g-1 at 85 °C for 1 h. This promising process can not only make efficient use of waste anode graphite, save energy consumption, but also avoid generation of massive H2 in the subsequent facile leaching of valuable metals.


Assuntos
Fontes de Energia Elétrica , Lítio , Eletrodos , Metais , Reciclagem
20.
Mol Ecol Resour ; 2019 Dec 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31821695

RESUMO

The superb fairy-wren, Malurus cyaneus, is one of the most iconic Australian passerine species. This species belongs to an endemic Australasian clade, Meliphagides, which diversified early in the evolution of the oscine passerines. Today, the oscine passerines comprise almost half of all avian species diversity. Despite the rapid increase of available bird genome assemblies, this part of the avian tree has not yet been represented by a high-quality reference. To rectify that, we present the first high-quality genome assembly of a Meliphagides representative: the superb fairy-wren. We combined Illumina shotgun and mate-pair sequences, PacBio long-reads, and a genetic linkage map from an intensively sampled pedigree of a wild population to generate this genome assembly. Of the final assembled 1.07-Gb genome, 975 Mb (90.4%) was anchored onto 25 pseudochromosomes resulting in a final superscaffold N50 of 68.11 Mb. This high-quality bird genome assembly is one of only a handful which is also accompanied by a genetic map and recombination landscape. In comparison to other pedigree-based bird genetic maps, we find that the fairy-wren genetic map more closely resembles those of Taeniopygia guttata and Parus major maps, unlike the Ficedula albicollis map which more closely resembles that of Gallus gallus. Lastly, we also provide a predictive gene and repeat annotation of the genome assembly. This new high-quality, annotated genome assembly will be an invaluable resource not only regarding the superb fairy-wren species and relatives but also broadly across the avian tree by providing a novel reference point for comparative genomic analyses.

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