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1.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(18): e20090, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32358395

RESUMO

In traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) clinics, the pharmacists responsible for dispensing the herbal medicine usually find the desired ingredients based on positions of the shelves (racks; frames; stands). Generally, these containers are arranged in an alphabetical order depending on the herbal medicine they contain. However, certain related ingredients tend to be used together in many prescriptions, even though the containers may be stored far away from each other. This can cause problems, especially when there are many patients and/or the limited number of pharmacists. If the dispensing time takes longer, it is likely to impact the satisfaction of the patients' experience. Moreover, the stamina of the pharmacists will be consumed quickly.In this study, we investigate on an association rule mining technology to improve efficiency in TCM dispensing based on the frequent pattern growth algorithm and try to identify which 2 or 3 herbal medicines will match together frequently in prescriptions. Furthermore, 3 experimental studies are conducted based on a dataset collected from a traditional Chinese medicine hospital. The dataset includes information for an entire year (2014), including 4 seasons and doctors. Afterward, a questionnaire on the usefulness of the extracted rules was administered to the pharmacists in the case hospital. The responses showed the mining results to be very valuable as a reference for the placement and ordering of the frames in the TCM pharmacies and drug stores.


Assuntos
Armazenamento de Medicamentos/métodos , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Eficiência Organizacional , Aprendizado de Máquina , Farmácias/organização & administração , Algoritmos , Humanos , Farmácias/normas
2.
Ann Hepatol ; 2020 Mar 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32331846

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES: N-acetyl-p-aminophenol (APAP)-induced liver injury is a major clinical challenge worldwide. The present study investigated the molecular role of microRNA (miR)-338-3p in the development of APAP-induced acute liver injury. MATERIALS AND METHODS: B6 mice were treated with an miR-338-3p agomir, antagomir, and intraperitoneally injected with APAP 24h later to induce acute liver injury. Histological analysis was performed to evaluate the degree of liver injury. The gene expression of miR-338-3p and its downstream regulators was measured by reverse transcription-quantitative PCR and western blot. The miR target was validated using a luciferase reporter assay. RESULTS: The results revealed that miR-338-3p was significantly upregulated following the intraperitoneal administration of APAP. Augmenting miR-338-3p alleviated acute liver injury caused by APAP overdose, while silencing of miR-338-3p exhibited a detrimental effect. Moreover, miR-338-3p inhibited the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines by preventing the aberrant activation of inflammatory signaling pathways, including the nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB)/mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway. Furthermore, calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IIα (CAMK IIα) was identified as a direct target of miR-338-3p. CONCLUSION: The present study demonstrated that miR-338-3p inhibited inflammation in APAP-induced acute liver injury.

3.
Insect Sci ; 2020 Feb 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32108430

RESUMO

Rice stripe virus (RSV) is the causative agent of rice stripe disease and is completely dependent on insect vectors for its plant-to-plant transmission. Laodelphax striatellus is the major insect vector for RSV. In this study, we explored the interactions between RSV infection and L. striatellus autophagy, a potential intrinsic antiviral mechanism in insects. We found that the L. striatellus autophagic activity did not affect RSV infection; however, the autophagy-related-8 (Atg8) gene significantly enhanced virus infection. During RSV initial infection within the L. striatellus midgut, silencing of Atg8 expression significantly decreased the phosphorylation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (p-JNK); however, when RSV infection is absent, silencing of Atg8 did not alter p-JNK level. These results indicated that Atg8 might activate the JNK machinery by allowing more virus infected into cells. We further revealed that Atg8-deficiency significantly decreased RSV accumulation on the surface of the insect midgut epithelial cells, suggesting a receptor trafficking function of the GABARAP family proteins. Using the RSV ovary entry as a model, in which vitellogenin receptor (VgR) mediates RSV cell entry, we clarified that Atg8-deficiency decreased the abundance of VgR localizing on the cytomembrane and disturbed the attachment of RSV in the germarium zones. Collectively, these results revealed an autophagy-independent function of L. striatellus Atg8 that enhances RSV initial infection by increasing virus attachment on the infection sites. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

4.
Cancer Immunol Immunother ; 69(6): 1057-1069, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32100076

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Immunotherapy could trigger durable response in advanced gastric cancer, but it only benefits a minority of patients. We aimed to propose a robust molecular classification of gastric cancer microenvironment to identify ideal candidates for tailoring effective immunotherapy. METHODS: A training cohort of 375 gastric cancer samples with RNA sequencing data was analysed. We virtually microdissected tumour, stromal, and immune cell gene expression patterns employing a non-negative matrix factorization algorithm. These expression patterns were annotated using immune- and stromal-related gene signatures. Validation of immunogenomic classification was performed across six microarray datasets of 1406 samples. RESULTS: We found approximately half of gastric cancer samples to have higher immune cell infiltrates, PD-L1 expression, markers of cytolytic activity, and fewer copy number aberrations (all P < 0.05). We termed this group of tumours the Immune Class, which incorporated two components, namely Immune Activation and Immunosuppressive Subtype, according to immunosuppressive or activated microenvironment. Immune Activation Subtype was associated with improved survival in multivariate survival analysis and shared similar genomic characteristics with responders of anti-PD-1 therapy. Immunosuppressive Subtype featured high immune infiltration, stromal enrichment, and transforming growth factor (TGF)-ß signalling pathway activation and correlated with non-responsiveness signature of checkpoint blockade therapy, which might be suitable for anti-PD-L1 and anti-TGF-ß combined therapy. CONCLUSIONS: We proposed and independently validated three reproducible immune molecular subtypes of gastric cancer, which may provide implications for patient selection of immunotherapy.

5.
J Diabetes Res ; 2020: 2597953, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32051832

RESUMO

Aims: Population-based incidence data are paramount to assess the effects of prevention strategies for diabetes, yet the relevant studies in mainland China are scarce. This study is aimed at estimating the type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) incidence and time trends in Chinese adults. Material and Methods. Based on the Diabetes Surveillance System of Zhejiang Province, 879,769 newly diagnosed T2DM cases were identified from January 1, 2007, to December 31, 2017. Annual incidence, incidence rate ratios (IRRs), and average annual percentage change with their 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were reported. Results: The age-standardized overall incidence rate of T2DM was reported to be 281.73 (95% CI: 281.26-282.20) per 100,000 person-years, 293.19 (95% CI: 292.51-293.87) in males and 270.42 (95% CI: 269.76-271.09) in females. Compared with the ≥80 years age group, younger adults were at lower risk for T2DM (IRRs ranged from 0.035 to 0.986 and the 95% CIs did not include the null), except for the 70-79 years age group (IRR: 1.087, 95% CI: 1.077-1.097). Compared with females and rural areas, the risk for T2DM was higher in males (IRR: 1.083, 95% CI: 1.079-1.088) and urban areas (IRR: 1.005, 95% CI: 1.001-1.009), respectively. The standardized annual incidence rate increased from 164.85 in 2007 to 268.65 per 100,000 person-years in 2017, with an average annual increase of 4.01% and grew more rapidly in male, younger, and rural area populations. Conclusions: Our study suggested a significant increase in the incidence rate of T2DM among Chinese over the past decade, especially in adults characterized by male sex, younger age, and rural areas.

6.
Infect Immun ; 88(4)2020 Mar 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32014896

RESUMO

Rickettsiae are cytosolically replicating, obligately intracellular bacteria causing human infections worldwide with potentially fatal outcomes. We previously showed that Rickettsia australis activates ASC inflammasome in macrophages. In the present study, host susceptibility of ASC inflammasome-deficient mice to R. australis was significantly greater than that of C57BL/6 (B6) controls and was accompanied by increased rickettsial loads in various organs. Impaired host control of R. australis in vivo in ASC-/- mice was associated with dramatically reduced levels of interleukin 1ß (IL-1ß), IL-18, and gamma interferon (IFN-γ) in sera. The intracellular concentrations of R. australis in bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMMs) of TLR4-/- and ASC-/- mice were significantly greater than those in BMMs of B6 controls, highlighting the important role of inflammasome and these molecules in controlling rickettsiae in macrophages. Compared to B6 BMMs, TLR4-/- BMMs failed to secrete a significant level of IL-1ß and had reduced expression levels of pro-IL-1ß in response to infection with R. australis, suggesting that rickettsiae activate ASC inflammasome via a Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)-dependent mechanism. Further mechanistic studies suggest that the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) purified from R. australis together with ATP stimulation led to cleavage of pro-caspase-1 and pro-IL-1ß, resulting in TLR4-dependent secretion of IL-1ß. Taken together, these observations indicate that activation of ASC inflammasome, most likely driven by interaction of TLR4 with rickettsial LPS, contributes to host protective immunity against R. australis These findings provide key insights into defining the interactions of rickettsiae with the host innate immune system.

7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32109631

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Portal vein thrombosis (PVT) is a common and serious complication in patients with cirrhosis. However, little is known about PVT in patients with cirrhosis and acute decompensation (AD). We investigated the prevalence and clinical significance of PVT in nonmalignant patients with cirrhosis and AD. METHODS: We performed a retrospective study of 2 cohorts of patients with acute exacerbation of chronic liver disease who participated in the CATCH-LIFE study, established by the Chinese Chronic Liver Failure Consortium, from January 2015 through December 2016 (n = 2600 patients) and July 2018 through January 2019 (n = 1370 patients). We analyzed data on the prevalence, clinical manifestations, and risk factors of PVT from 2826 patients with cirrhosis, with and without AD. RESULTS: The prevalence of PVT in patients with cirrhosis and AD was 9.36%, which was significantly higher than in patients with cirrhosis without AD (5.24%) (P = .04). Among patients with cirrhosis and AD, 63.37% developed PVT recently (the first detected PVT with no indication of chronic PVT). Compared with patients without PVT, a significantly higher proportion of patients with PVT had variceal bleeding (47.33% vs 19.63%; P < .001) and patients with PVT had a significantly higher median serum level of D-dimer (2.07 vs 1.25; P < .001). Splenectomy and endoscopic sclerotherapy were independent risk factors for PVT in patients with cirrhosis and AD. The 1-year mortality rate did not differ significantly between patients with vs without PVT. CONCLUSIONS: In an analysis of data from 2826 patients with cirrhosis, a significantly higher proportion of those with AD had PVT than those without AD. PVT was associated with increased variceal bleeding, which would increase the risk for AD. Strategies are needed to prevent PVT in patients with cirrhosis, through regular screening, to reduce portal hypertension. ClinicalTrials.gov no: NCT02457637 and NCT03641872.

8.
Am J Pathol ; 190(2): 306-322, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31955791

RESUMO

Mediterranean spotted fever is a reemerging acute tick-borne infection produced by the α-proteobacterium, Rickettsia conorii. Rickettsia conorii infects vascular endothelial cells producing disseminated plasma leakage, manifesting as nonspecific fever, headache, and maculopapular rash. Because there are no available tests of early infection, Mediterranean spotted fever is often undiagnosed and untreated, resulting in significant mortality. To address this critical need, we have applied a quantitative proteomics pipeline for analyzing the secretome of primary human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Of the 104 proteins whose abundance changed significantly in the R. conorii-infected human umbilical vein endothelial cells' secretome, 46 proteins were up-regulated: 45 were host secreted proteins (including cytokines), and 1 was a rickettsial protein, the putative N-acetylmuramoyl-l-alanine amidase RC0497. Proteins with sequence highly homologous to RC0497 were found to be shared by many species of the spotted fever group rickettsiae, but not typhus group rickettsiae. Quantitative targeted proteomics studies of plasma from a mouse model of sublethal and lethal R. conorii identified RC0497 in the blood, and its circulating levels were proportionally associated with infection outcome. Finally, the presence of RC0497 in the serum samples from a cohort of humans presenting with acute rickettsioses was confirmed. The detection of RC0497 has the potential to be a sensitive and specific marker for acute rickettsial spotted rickettsioses.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/sangue , Febre Botonosa/diagnóstico , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana/metabolismo , N-Acetil-Muramil-L-Alanina Amidase/sangue , Proteoma/análise , Infecções por Rickettsia/complicações , Rickettsia/patogenicidade , Animais , Febre Botonosa/epidemiologia , Febre Botonosa/microbiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana/microbiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C3H , Proteômica , Rickettsia/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Rickettsia/microbiologia , Infecções por Rickettsia/transmissão , Texas/epidemiologia
9.
Oncogene ; 39(1): 50-63, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31462705

RESUMO

Resistance of breast cancer to human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) inhibitors involves reprogramming of the kinome through HER2/HER3 signaling via the activation of multiple tyrosine kinases and transcriptional upregulation. The heterogeneity of induced kinases prevents kinase targeting by a single kinase inhibitor and presents a major challenge to the treatment of therapeutically recalcitrant HER2-positive breast cancers (HER2+ BCs). As a result, there is a critical need for effective treatment that attacks the aberrant kinome activation associated with resistance to HER2-targeted therapy. Here, we describe a novel treatment strategy that targets cyclin-dependent kinase 7 (CDK7) in HER2 inhibitor-resistant (HER2iR) breast cancer. We show that both HER2 inhibitor-sensitive (HER2iS) and HER2iR breast cancer cell lines exhibit high sensitivity to THZ1, a newly identified covalent inhibitor of the transcription regulatory kinase CDK7. CDK7 promotes cell cycle progression through inhibition of transcription, rather than via direct phosphorylation of classical CDK targets. The transcriptional kinase activity of CDK7 is regulated by HER2, and by the receptor tyrosine kinases activated in response to HER2 inhibition, as well as by the downstream SHP2 and PI3K/AKT pathways. A low dose of THZ1 displayed potent synergy with the HER2 inhibitor lapatinib in HER2iR BC cells in vitro. Dual HER2 and CDK7 inhibition induced tumor regression in two HER2iR BC xenograft models in vivo. Our data support the utilization of CDK7 inhibition as an additional therapeutic avenue that blocks the activation of genes engaged by multiple HER2iR kinases.

10.
Hypertension ; 75(1): 79-90, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31735087

RESUMO

Transcribed ultraconserved regions (T-UCRs) are a novel class of long noncoding RNAs transcribed from UCRs, which exhibit 100% DNA sequence conservation among humans, mice, and rats. However, whether T-UCRs regulate cardiac hypertrophy remains unclear. We aimed to explore the effects of T-UCRs on cardiac hypertrophy. First, we performed long noncoding RNA microarray analysis on hearts of mice subjected to sham surgery or aortic banding and found that the T-UCR uc.323 was decreased significantly in mice with aortic banding-induced cardiac hypertrophy. In vitro loss- and gain-of-function experiments demonstrated that uc.323 protected cardiomyocytes against hypertrophy induced by phenylephrine. Additionally, we discovered that mammalian target of rapamycin 1 contributed to phenylephrine-induced uc.323 downregulation and uc.323-mediated cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. We further mapped the possible target genes of uc.323 through global microarray mRNA expression analysis after uc.323 knockdown and found that uc.323 regulated the expression of cardiac hypertrophy-related genes such as CPT1b (Carnitine Palmitoyl transferase 1b). Then, chromatin immunoprecipitation proved that EZH2 (enhancer of zeste homolog 2) bound to the promoter of CPT1b via H3K27me3 (trimethylation of lysine 27 of histone H3) to induce CPT1b downregulation. And overexpression of CPT1b could block uc.323-mediated cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. Finally, we found that uc.323 deficiency induced cardiac hypertrophy. Our results reveal that uc.323 is a conserved T-UCR that inhibits cardiac hypertrophy, potentially by regulating the transcription of CPT1b via interaction with EZH2.

11.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 250: 112493, 2020 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31863859

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Lindernia crustacea (L.) F.Muell. (Scrophulariaceae) was selected for phytochemical investigation owing to its traditional use against human herpes virus infection and its anti-Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) effect. AIMS OF THE STUDY: The present study focused on the phytochemical investigation of L. crustacea including the isolation and structure determination of its biologically active compounds. Compounds with anti-EBV effects were also investigated. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The EtOH extract of L. crustacea was subsequently partitioned using different solvents. The EtOAc fraction was subjected to several chromatographic methods to obtain pure compounds. The structures of all isolates were established by spectroscopic analysis and compared with previously reported physical data. The anti-EBV effect was evaluated in an EBV-containing Burkitt's lymphoma cell line (P3HR1) to study the expression of EBV lytic proteins. RESULTS: Thirty-three compounds, including one diterpene (1), four anthraquinones (2-5), two ionones (6 and 7), fourteen phenylpropanoid glycosides (8-21), five flavonoids (22-26), one lignan glycoside (27), one phenethyl alcohol glycoside (28), one phenylpropene glycoside (29), one glucosyl glycerol derivative (30), one furanone (31), and two cinnamic acid derivatives (32 and 33), were isolated from the ethanolic extract of the plant. All isolated compounds were obtained for the first time from Lindernia sp. The evaluation of the anti-EBV activity of L. crustacea crude extract, partitioned fractions, and constituents was performed for the first time. Phytol (1), aloe-emodin (2), byzantionoside B (7), a mixture of trans-martynoside (8) and cis-martynoside (9), a mixture of trans-isomartynoside (10) and cis-isomartynoside (11), luteolin-7-O-ß-D-glucopyranoside (24), and apigenin-7-O-[ß-D-apiofuranosyl (1→6)-ß-D-glucopyranoside] (25) exhibited significant inhibitory effects on the EBV lytic cycle at 20 µg/mL in the immunoblot analysis. On the other hand, (6R,7E,9R)-3-oxo-α-ionol-ß-D-glucopyranoside (6) and a mixture of trans-dolichandroside A (12) and cis-dolichandroside A (13) showed moderate anti-EBV activity at 20 µg/mL. CONCLUSIONS: L. crustacea and its active isolates could be developed as potential candidates against EBV. Our findings provide scientific evidence for the traditional use of L. crustacea for its antiviral effects.

12.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(24)2019 Dec 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31842358

RESUMO

Protoflavones, a rare group of natural flavonoids with a non-aromatic B-ring, are best known for their antitumor properties. The protoflavone B-ring is a versatile moiety that might be explored for various pharmacological purposes, but the common cytotoxicity of these compounds is a limitation to such efforts. Protoapigenone was previously found to be active against the lytic cycle of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). Further, the 5-hydroxyflavone moiety is a known pharmacophore against HIV-integrase. The aim of this work was to prepare a series of less cytotoxic protoflavone analogs and study their antiviral activity against HIV and EBV. Twenty-seven compounds, including 18 new derivatives, were prepared from apigenin through oxidative de-aromatization and subsequent continuous-flow hydrogenation, deuteration, and/or 4'-oxime formation. One compound was active against HIV at the micromolar range, and three compounds showed significant activity against the EBV lytic cycle at the medium-low nanomolar range. Among these derivatives, protoapigenone 1'-O-isopropyl ether (6) was identified as a promising lead that had a 73-times selectivity of antiviral over cytotoxic activity, which exceeds the selectivity of protoapigenone by 2.4-times. Our results open new opportunities for designing novel potent and safe anti-EBV agents that are based on the natural protoflavone moiety.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Cicloexanonas/farmacologia , Flavonas/farmacologia , Herpesvirus Humano 4/efeitos dos fármacos , Antineoplásicos/química , Cicloexanonas/química , Éteres/química , Flavonas/química , Herpesvirus Humano 4/fisiologia , Humanos , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Estrutura Molecular , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Fenômenos Fisiológicos Virais , Replicação Viral/efeitos dos fármacos
13.
Org Biomol Chem ; 17(48): 10172-10177, 2019 12 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31755519

RESUMO

In this paper, regiospecific, double intraannular C-N bond cleavages of N-alkyl 4-oxopiperidinium salts are presented. The reaction sequence involves a charge-transfer complex, in situ formed between sulfonyl chloride and N-methylmorpholine, which induces S-Cl bond homolysis of sulfonyl chloride, yielding a reactive sulfonyl radical that further induces the double C-N bond cleavages of N-alkyl 4-oxopiperidinium salt. The secondary amine thus produced was trapped by sulfonyl chloride to yield the desired sulfonamide product. The key feature of this protocol is that two intraannular C-N bonds of the 4-oxopiperidine ring are cleaved in one step under metal- and oxidant-free conditions.

14.
Theranostics ; 9(24): 7268-7281, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31695767

RESUMO

Rationale: An imbalance between protein synthesis and degradation is one of the mechanisms of cardiac hypertrophy. Increased transcription in cardiomyocytes can lead to excessive protein synthesis and cardiac hypertrophy. Maf1 is an RNA polymerase III (RNA pol III) inhibitor that plays a pivotal role in regulating transcription. However, whether Maf1 regulates of cardiac hypertrophy remains unclear. Methods: Cardiac hypertrophy was induced in vivo by thoracic aortic banding (AB) surgery. Both the in vivo and in vitro gain- and loss-of-function experiments by Maf1 knockout (KO) mice and adenoviral transfection were used to verify the role of Maf1 in cardiac hypertrophy. RNA pol III and ERK1/2 inhibitor were utilized to identify the effects of RNA pol III and ERK1/2. The possible interaction between Maf1 and ERK1/2 was clarified by immunoprecipitation (IP) analysis. Results: Four weeks after surgery, Maf1 KO mice exhibited significantly exacerbated AB-induced cardiac hypertrophy characterized by increased heart size, cardiomyocyte surface area, and atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) expression and by exacerbated pulmonary edema. Also, the deficiency of Maf1 causes more severe cardiac dilation and dysfunction than wild type (WT) mice after pressure overload. In contrast, compared with adenoviral-GFP injected mice, mice injected with adenoviral-Maf1 showed significantly ameliorated AB-induced cardiac hypertrophy. In vitro study has demonstrated that Maf1 could significantly block phenylephrine (PE)-induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy by inhibiting RNA pol III transcription. However, application of an RNA pol III inhibitor markedly improved Maf1 knockdown-promoted cardiac hypertrophy. Moreover, ERK1/2 was identified as a regulator of RNA pol III, and ERK1/2 inhibition by U0126 significantly repressed Maf1 knockdown-promoted cardiac hypertrophy accompanied by suppressed RNA pol III transcription. Additionally, IP analysis demonstrated that Maf1 could directly bind ERK1/2, suggesting Maf1 could interact with ERK1/2 and then inhibit RNA pol III transcription so as to attenuate the development of cardiac hypertrophy. Conclusions: Maf1 ameliorates PE- and AB-induced cardiac hypertrophy by inhibiting RNA pol III transcription via ERK1/2 signaling suppression.

15.
J Formos Med Assoc ; 118(12): 1574-1575, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31570185
16.
J Nat Prod ; 82(10): 2790-2799, 2019 Oct 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31584818

RESUMO

Eleven new secondary metabolites [kuroshines H-J (1-3), 27-methyl glycinate zoanthenamine (4), 27-hydroxyzoanthenamine (5), 27-methyl glycinate kuroshine A (6), 27-hydroxykuroshine A (7), 3ß-hydroxy-28-deoxyzoanthenamine (8), 14α-hydroxy-28-deoxyzoanthenamine (9), 27-hydroxy-28-deoxyzoanthenamine (10), and kuroshine K (11)], along with seven known compounds (12-18), were isolated from the zoantharian Zoanthus vietnamensis. The structures of all isolated components were elucidated by spectroscopic data (IR, MS, NMR, and UV), especially 2D NMR analyses. The relative configurations of 1 and 2 were confirmed by using single-crystal X-ray crystallography. Compounds 1-3 were found to have an unprecedented ether linkage between C-15 and C-28, while the unusual substituent methyl glycinate, attached at C-27 in compounds 4 and 6, was found for the first time in zoanthamine-type alkaloids. The anti-lymphangiogenic activities of 17 isolated compounds were evaluated. Compounds 4, 5, and 10 exerted promising anti-lymphangiogenic functions by reducing cell growth and tube formation of human lymphatic endothelial cells (LECs). In addition, the structure-activity relationships of the isolated alkaloids against lymphangiogenesis of LECs are discussed.

17.
Br J Nutr ; 122(12): 1359-1367, 2019 Dec 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31554524

RESUMO

Subcutaneous adipose tissue (scAT) and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) play a significant role in obesity-associated systemic low-grade inflammation. High-fat diet (HFD) is known to induce inflammatory changes in both scAT and PBMC. However, the time course of the effect of HFD on these systems is still unknown. The aim of the present study was to determine the time course of the effect of HFD on PBMC and scAT. New Zealand white rabbits were fed HFD for 5 or 10 weeks (i.e. HFD-5 and HFD-10) or regular chow (i.e. control (CNT)-5 and CNT-10). Thereafter, metabolic and inflammatory parameters of PBMC and scAT were quantified. HFD induced hyperfattyacidaemia in HFD-5 and HFD-10 groups, with the development of insulin resistance in HFD-10, while no changes were observed in scAT lipid metabolism and inflammatory status. HFD activated the inflammatory pathways in PBMC of HFD-5 group and induced modified autophagy in that of HFD-10. The rate of fat oxidation in PBMC was directly associated with the expression of inflammatory markers and tended to inversely associate with autophagosome formation markers in PBMC. HFD affected systemic substrate metabolism, and the metabolic, inflammatory and autophagy pathways in PBMC in the absence of metabolic and inflammatory changes in scAT. Dietary approaches or interventions to avert HFD-induced changes in PBMC could be essential to prevent metabolic and inflammatory complications of obesity and promote healthier living.

18.
Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi ; 27(4): 1316-1320, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31418399

RESUMO

Abstract  Chimeric antigen receptor-T cell(CAR-T) is a kind of genetically engineered T cells that can express tumor antigen-specific receptors on its surface, and the modified T cells can be used for cancer therapy through targeting malignant tumor cells with its specific receptor and killing tumor cells with its cytotoxicity. CAR-T has been successfully applied to treat various hematological malignancies, such as ALL, CLL, NHL and MM. It is a feasible treatment for relapsed and refractory multiple myeloma (RRMM). The achievements of CAR-T in clinical trials have been widely reported, which is expected to be a therapy to prolong patients survival. In this review, the clinical application of CAR-T in the treatment of RRMM from the following aspects:different types of CAR-T and its curative efficacy, adverse effects, opportunities and challenges are summarized beriefly.


Assuntos
Mieloma Múltiplo , Humanos , Imunoterapia Adotiva , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos T , Receptores de Antígenos Quiméricos , Linfócitos T
19.
Mar Drugs ; 17(9)2019 Aug 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31443597

RESUMO

Cancer remains one of the most lethal diseases worldwide. There is an urgent need for new drugs with novel modes of action and thus considerable research has been conducted for new anticancer drugs from natural sources, especially plants, microbes and marine organisms. Marine populations represent reservoirs of novel bioactive metabolites with diverse groups of chemical structures. This review highlights the impact of marine organisms, with particular emphasis on marine plants, algae, bacteria, actinomycetes, fungi, sponges and soft corals. Anti-cancer effects of marine natural products in in vitro and in vivo studies were first introduced; their activity in the prevention of tumor formation and the related compound-induced apoptosis and cytotoxicities were tackled. The possible molecular mechanisms behind the biological effects are also presented. The review highlights the diversity of marine organisms, novel chemical structures, and chemical property space. Finally, therapeutic strategies and the present use of marine-derived components, its future direction and limitations are discussed.

20.
Sci Adv ; 5(8): eaav9801, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31457079

RESUMO

A parasite-infected host may promote performance of associated insect vectors; but possible parasite effects on nonvector insects have been largely unexplored. Here, we show that Begomovirus, the largest genus of plant viruses and transmitted exclusively by whitefly, reprogram plant immunity to promote the fitness of the vector and suppress performance of nonvector insects (i.e., cotton bollworm and aphid). Infected plants accumulated begomoviral ßC1 proteins in the phloem where they were bound to the plant transcription factor WRKY20. This viral hijacking of WRKY20 spatiotemporally redeployed plant chemical immunity within the leaf and had the asymmetrical benefiting effects on the begomoviruses and its whitefly vectors while negatively affecting two nonvector competitors. This type of interaction between a parasite and two types of herbivores, i.e., vectors and nonvectors, occurs widely in various natural and agricultural ecosystems; thus, our results have broad implications for the ecological significance of parasite-vector-host tripartite interactions.

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