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1.
J Am Chem Soc ; 2022 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35535993

RESUMO

Presynthesized CdSe/CdS core/shell quantum dots (QDs) are two-dimensionally (2D) and epitaxially fused in solution to form a CdS nanoplatelet with multiple epitaxially embedded CdSe QDs (CdSe@CdS coupled-dots@platelet). In addition to providing spatial confinement for the excitonic states of multiple CdSe QDs in a CdS nanoplatelet, the continuous and single-crystalline nanoplatelet with controlled thickness enables quantum coupling between the CdSe QDs, resulting in inhomogeneous-free optical properties for the colloidal CdSe@CdS coupled-dots@nanoplatelets with bright photoluminescence. The results here suggest that solution synthesis can offer a simple means to obtain semiconductor nanocrystals for realizing unique yet complex excitonic properties that are otherwise difficult to achieve.

2.
Stroke ; : 101161STROKEAHA121037756, 2022 May 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35543132

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Studies have demonstrated that remnant cholesterol is correlated with the risk of ischemic stroke. However, it is unknown whether visit-to-visit variability in remnant cholesterol concentration affects ischemic stroke. We sought to examine the role of remnant cholesterol variability in the subsequent development of ischemic stroke in the general population. METHODS: We performed a post hoc analysis including eligible participants from the Kailuan Study cohort who underwent 3 health examinations and were free of atrial fibrillation, myocardial infarction, stroke, cancer, or known lipid-medication use from 2006 to 2010. Participants were followed up until the end of 2017. Variability was quantified as variability independent of the mean, average real variability, and SD. Multivariate analysis was performed using the Fine and Gray competing risk model to estimate subhazard ratios assuming death as a competing risk. RESULTS: The final study cohort comprised 38 556 participants. After a median follow-up of 7.0 years, 1058 individuals were newly diagnosed with ischemic stroke. After adjusting for age (time scale), sex, smoking status, alcohol consumption, physical activity, hypertension, diabetes, family history of cardiovascular disease, body mass index, estimated glomerular filtration rate, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, and mean remnant cholesterol, the highest quartile (quartile 4) of variability independent of the mean of remnant cholesterol was associated with an increased ischemic stroke risk compared with the lowest quartile (quartile 1), (subhazard ratio, 1.27 [95% CI, 1.06-1.53]). For each 1-SD increase in variability independent of the mean of remnant cholesterol, the risk increased by 9% (subhazard ratio, 1.09 [95% CI, 1.03-1.16]). The association was also significant using average real variability and SD as indices of variability. CONCLUSIONS: Greater remnant cholesterol variability was associated with a higher risk of ischemic stroke in the general population.

3.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 47(9): 2500-2508, 2022 May.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35531697

RESUMO

This study aimed to explore the effects of Gynostemma pentaphyllum saponins(GPs) on non-alcoholic fatty liver disease(NAFLD) induced by high-fat diet in rats and reveal the underlying mechanism. The NAFLD model rats were prepared with high-fat diet. Forty male Sprague Dawley(SD) rats were randomly assigned into the control group, model group, and low-, moderate-, and high-dose GPs(50, 100, and 150 mg·kg~(-1), respectively) groups. After intragastric administration for 8 continuous weeks, we determined the body weight, liver weight, the levels of total cholesterol(TC), triglyceride(TG), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol(LDL-c), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol(HDL-c), alanine aminotransferase(ALT), and aspartate aminotransferase(AST) in serum, and the levels of TC, TG, malondialdehyde(MDA), superoxide dismutase(SOD), catalase(CAT), and interleukin 6(IL-6) in the liver. Furthermore, we observed the pathological changes of liver tissue by oil red O staining and hematoxylin-eosin(HE) staining, sequenced the 16 S rRNA of the intestinal flora in rat feces, and determined the content of short-chain fatty acids in rat feces. The results showed that GPs inhibited the excessive weight gain of high-fat diet-induced NAFLD in rats, reduced the liver weight, lowered the TC, TG, LDL-c, AST, and ALT levels in serum(P<0.05), and rose the HDL-c level in serum(P<0.01). GPs relieved the liver damage caused by high-fat diet, mainly manifested by the lowered levels of TC, TG, MDA, and IL-6 in the liver(P<0.01) and elevated levels of CAT and SOD in the liver. Furthermore, GPs reversed the intestinal flora disorder caused by high-fat diet, restored the diversity of intestinal flora, increased the relative abundance of Bacteroides, and reduced the relative abundance of Firmicutes and the ratio of Firmicutes to Bacteroides. Moreover, GPs promoted the proliferation of beneficial bacteria such as Akkermansia, Bacteroides, and Parabacteroides, and inhibited the growth of harmful bacteria such as Desulfovibrio, Escherichia-Shigella, and Helicobacter. GPs increased the content of short-chain fatty acids(acetic acid, propionic acid, and butyric acid)(P<0.01). These findings indicate that GPs can alleviate the high-fat diet-induced NAFLD in rats via regulating the intestinal flora and short-chain fatty acid metabolism.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica , Saponinas , Alanina Transaminase/metabolismo , Animais , LDL-Colesterol/metabolismo , LDL-Colesterol/farmacologia , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Gynostemma , Interleucina-6/metabolismo , Fígado , Masculino , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/tratamento farmacológico , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Saponinas/farmacologia , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo
4.
Arthritis Res Ther ; 24(1): 102, 2022 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35526024

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Aortic valve involvement is not uncommon in patients with Takayasu arteritis (TAK) and leading to poor prognosis. The aim of our study was to explore the risk factors of aortic valve involvement and to evaluate the prognosis in TAK patients with aortic valve involvement. METHOD: In this retrospective study, 172 TAK patients were divided into groups with or without aortic valve involvement to identify the risk factors. Patients who underwent aortic valve surgical treatment were followed up to assess cumulative incidence of postoperative adverse events. RESULTS: A total of 92 TAK patients (53.49%) had aortic valvular lesion. The infiltration of inflammatory cells was found in surgical specimens of aortic valve. Numano type IIb, elevated high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) level, and dilation of ascending aorta and aortic root were statistically associated with aortic valvular lesion in TAK patients (OR [95%CI] 6.853 [1.685-27.875], p=0.007; 4.896 [1.646-14.561], p=0.004; 4.509 [1.517-13.403], p=0.007; 9.340 [2.188-39.875], p=0.003). The 1-, 5-, and 7-year cumulative incidence of postoperative adverse events were 14.7%, 14.7%, and 31.8%, respectively. Surgical methods (p=0.024, hazard ratio (HR) 0.082) and postoperatively anti-inflammatory therapy (p=0.036, HR 0.144) were identified as potential predictors of postoperative adverse events. CONCLUSIONS: Regularly echocardiogram screening is suggested in patients with Numano type IIb and aggressive treatment should be performed early in TAK patients. As for TAK patients with aortic valve surgery, aortic root replacement seems to be the preferred option and regular anti-inflammatory therapy may reduce the occurrence of adverse events of them.


Assuntos
Insuficiência da Valva Aórtica , Arterite de Takayasu , Valva Aórtica/diagnóstico por imagem , Valva Aórtica/cirurgia , Insuficiência da Valva Aórtica/diagnóstico , Insuficiência da Valva Aórtica/etiologia , Insuficiência da Valva Aórtica/cirurgia , Humanos , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Arterite de Takayasu/complicações , Arterite de Takayasu/diagnóstico , Arterite de Takayasu/cirurgia
5.
J Biomed Sci ; 29(1): 29, 2022 May 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35534851

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) with sustained androgen receptor (AR) signaling remains a critical clinical challenge, despite androgen depletion therapy. The Jumonji C-containing histone lysine demethylase family 4 (KDM4) members, KDM4A‒KDM4C, serve as critical coactivators of AR to promote tumor growth in prostate cancer and are candidate therapeutic targets to overcome AR mutations/alterations-mediated resistance in CRPC. METHODS: In this study, using a structure-based approach, we identified a natural product, myricetin, able to block the demethylation of histone 3 lysine 9 trimethylation by KDM4 members and evaluated its effects on CRPC. A structure-based screening was employed to search for a natural product that inhibited KDM4B. Inhibition kinetics of myricetin was determined. The cytotoxic effect of myricetin on various prostate cancer cells was evaluated. The combined effect of myricetin with enzalutamide, a second-generation AR inhibitor toward C4-2B, a CRPC cell line, was assessed. To improve bioavailability, myricetin encapsulated by poly lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA), the US food and drug administration (FDA)-approved material as drug carriers, was synthesized and its antitumor activity alone or with enzalutamide was evaluated using in vivo C4-2B xenografts. RESULTS: Myricetin was identified as a potent α-ketoglutarate-type inhibitor that blocks the demethylation activity by KDM4s and significantly reduced the proliferation of both androgen-dependent (LNCaP) and androgen-independent CRPC (CWR22Rv1 and C4-2B). A synergistic cytotoxic effect toward C4-2B was detected for the combination of myricetin and enzalutamide. PLGA-myricetin, enzalutamide, and the combined treatment showed significantly greater antitumor activity than that of the control group in the C4-2B xenograft model. Tumor growth was significantly lower for the combination treatment than for enzalutamide or myricetin treatment alone. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that myricetin is a pan-KDM4 inhibitor and exhibited potent cell cytotoxicity toward CRPC cells. Importantly, the combination of PLGA-encapsulated myricetin with enzalutamide is potentially effective for CRPC.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos , Produtos Biológicos , Flavonoides , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração , Androgênios/farmacologia , Androgênios/uso terapêutico , Animais , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Produtos Biológicos/farmacologia , Produtos Biológicos/uso terapêutico , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Glicolatos , Glicóis/farmacologia , Glicóis/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Histona Desmetilases com o Domínio Jumonji/genética , Histona Desmetilases com o Domínio Jumonji/farmacologia , Masculino , Nitrilas/farmacologia , Nitrilas/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/genética , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/metabolismo , Receptores Androgênicos/genética , Receptores Androgênicos/metabolismo , Receptores Androgênicos/uso terapêutico
6.
Eur J Radiol ; 151: 110285, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35398744

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To test whether left atrial (LA) strain and strain rate add incremental value in the diagnosis of heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) in dialysis patients over clinical and conventional parameters only. BACKGROUND: HFpEF frequently occurs in dialysis patients, however, the diagnosis of HFpEF is difficult. Although HFpEF is always companied with LA dysfunction, the performance of novel LA parameters, LA strain, and strain rate, in the diagnosis of HFpEF among dialysis patients remains unknown. METHODS: In the study, 153 dialysis patients (57 without HFpEF and 96 with HFpEF) and 52 healthy controls underwent cardiovascular magnetic imaging (CMR). Three components of LA strain and strain rate, including reservoir, contractile, and booster pump, were assessed via the CMR feature tracking module. Extra diagnostic value was examined by Harrell's C-statistic. RESULTS: Compared with healthy controls and dialysis patients without HFpEF, dialysis patients with HFpEF had significantly impaired LA reservoir (εs) and contractile (εe) strain and strain rate (SRs, SRe), all p < 0.0001. Among these parameters, εs, εe, and SRe showed relatively high accuracy in diagnosing HFpEF among dialysis patients (areas under the curve: 0.84, 0.91, and 0.90, respectively). Reduction of εs, εe, and SRs provided incremental diagnostic value over conventional clinical and echocardiogram parameters. Combined with εs, εe or SRs, the diagnostic performance was further improved (Harrell's C-statistic: 0.83 vs. 0.96, 0.97, and 0.97, respectively, all p < 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: CMR-derived εs, εe, and SRs might add incremental diagnostic value over conventional indexes in diagnosing HFpEF among dialysis patients.

7.
Free Radic Biol Med ; 185: 67-75, 2022 Apr 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35489563

RESUMO

Previous studies have shown that endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress contributes to inflammation in several manners. However, whether cell death inducing DFF45-like effector b (Cideb), a lipid droplet (LD) associated protein that plays an important role in hepatic lipid metabolism, participates in this process has not been reported. In the present study, we demonstrated that deficiency of cideb alone did not trigger violent inflammation in the liver. However, the expression of cideb was suppressed by Chop (C/EBP homologous protein) under ER stress, which inhibited the transport of lipoproteins in the liver and led to the exacerbation of hepatic steatosis and oxidative stress, and ultimately exacerbated inflammation. Our results might provide a novel mechanism explaining inflammation triggered by ER stress.

8.
J Chem Phys ; 156(12): 124304, 2022 Mar 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35364863

RESUMO

Isotope substitution is an important experimental technique that offers deep insight into reaction mechanisms, as the measured kinetic isotope effects (KIEs) can be directly compared with theory. For multiple proton transfer processes, there are two types of mechanisms: stepwise transfer and concerted transfer. The Bell-Limbach model provides a simple theory to determine whether the proton transfer mechanism is stepwise or concerted from KIEs. Recent scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) experiments have studied the proton switching process in water tetramers on NaCl(001). Theoretical studies predict that this process occurs via a concerted mechanism; however, the experimental KIEs resemble the Bell-Limbach model for stepwise tunneling, raising questions on the underlying mechanism or the validity of the model. We study this system using ab initio instanton theory, and in addition to thermal rates, we also considered microcanonical rates, as well as tunneling splittings. The instanton theory predicts a concerted mechanism, and the KIEs for tunneling rates (both thermal and microcanonical) upon deuteration are consistent with the Bell-Limbach model for concerted tunneling but could not explain the experiments. For tunneling splittings, partial and full deuteration change the size of it in a similar fashion to how they change the rates. We further examined the Bell-Limbach model in another system, porphycene, which has both stepwise and concerted tunneling pathways. The KIEs predicted by instanton theory are again consistent with the Bell-Limbach model. This study highlights differences between KIEs in stepwise and concerted tunneling and the discrepancy between theory and recent STM experiments. New theory/experiments are desired to settle this problem.

9.
Appl Bionics Biomech ; 2022: 2873759, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35419088

RESUMO

Sports games and taekwondo have hitherto been core facets in colleges and university physical education curricula. This owes to the significant benefits derived from the duo, especially with the increase in sedentary lifestyles, resulting in dreaded repercussions when strenuous exercise is not brought into play. Taekwondo is a type of martial art known to have originated from Korea but has now gained popularity internationally. Some of the known benefits of taekwondo are reducing stress and improving cardiovascular system (CVS) physiology. On the other hand, sports games also help immensely in the physiological and mental health of college and university students. For instance, outdoor games are essential in the pulmonary system as indoor games are for mental health. The purpose of this study is to investigate the role of sports games and taekwondo teaching in colleges and universities. The prospective study was conducted on a sample of 195 students. Both qualitative and quantitative data were collected by random means. The data collected was then analyzed to find the type of distribution. The results indicated a normal distribution with a resultant bell curve. The central tendency and dispersion were calculated. A high level of decision-making, confidence, and fitness was noted in students practicing these activities in their colleges and universities vis-à-vis those who do not. Sports and taekwondo increase the level of training, which enhances the skeletal system to take up and utilize lipids. This process reduces the level of plasma lipids, thus preventing chronic health conditions like obesity and diabetes. In conclusion, sports and taekwondo are essential in maintaining a healthy standard and should always be incorporated into the college and university curriculum.

10.
J Phys Chem Lett ; 13(14): 3173-3181, 2022 Apr 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35362977

RESUMO

It is commonly believed that it is unfavorable for adsorbed H atoms on carbonaceous surfaces to form H2 without the help of incident H atoms. Using ring-polymer instanton theory to describe multidimensional tunnelling effects, combined with ab initio electronic structure calculations, we find that these quantum-mechanical simulations reveal a qualitatively different picture. Recombination of adsorbed H atoms, which was believed to be irrelevant at low temperature due to high barriers, is enabled by deep tunnelling, with reaction rates enhanced by tens of orders of magnitude. Furthermore, we identify a new path for H recombination that proceeds via multidimensional tunnelling but would have been predicted to be unfeasible by a simple one-dimensional description of the reaction. The results suggest that hydrogen molecule formation at low temperatures are rather fast processes that should not be ignored in experimental settings and natural environments with graphene, graphite, and other planar carbon segments.

11.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 17: 1593-1608, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35411142

RESUMO

Background: Dendritic cell (DC) targeted antigen delivery is a promising strategy to enhance vaccine efficacy and delivery of therapeutics. Self-assembling peptide-based nanoparticles and virus-like particles (VLPs) have attracted extensive interest as non-replicating vectors for nanovaccine design, based on their unique properties, including molecular specificity, biodegradability and biocompatibility. DCs are specialized antigen-presenting cells involved in antigen capture, processing, and presentation to initiate adaptive immune responses. Using DC-specific ligands for targeted delivery of antigens to DCs may be utilized as a promising strategy to drive efficient and strong immune responses. Methods: In this study, several candidates for DC-binding peptides (DCbps) were individually integrated into C-terminal of porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) Cap, a viral protein that could self-assemble into icosahedral VLPs with 60 subunits. The immunostimulatory adjuvant activity of DC-targeted VLPs was further evaluated in a vaccine model of PCV2 Cap. Results: With transmission electron microscopy (TEM), E. coli expressed Cap-DCbp fusion proteins were observed self-assembled into highly ordered VLPs. Further, in dynamic light scattering (DLS) analysis, chimeric VLPs exhibited similar particle size uniformity and narrow size distribution as compared to wild type Cap VLPs. With a distinctly higher targeting efficiency, DCbp3 integrated Cap VLPs (Cap-DCbp3) displayed enhanced antigen uptake and increased elicitation of antigen presentation-related factors in BM-DCs. Mice subcutaneously immunized with Cap-DCbp3 VLPs exhibited significantly higher levels of Cap-specific antibodies, neutralizing antibodies and intracellular cytokines than those with other DCbp integrated or wild type Cap VLPs without any DCbp. Interestingly, Cap-DCbp3 VLPs vaccine induces robust cellular immune response profile, including the efficient production of IFN-γ, IL-2 and IL-10. Meanwhile, the improved proliferation index in lymphocytes with Cap-DCbp3 was also detected as compared to other VLPs. Conclusion: This study described the potential of DC-binding peptides for further improved antigen delivery and vaccine efficacy, explainning nanovaccine optimization in relation to a range of emerging and circulating infectious pathogens.


Assuntos
Proteínas do Capsídeo , Circovirus , Animais , Antivirais/metabolismo , Proteínas do Capsídeo/química , Circovirus/genética , Células Dendríticas/metabolismo , Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Camundongos , Peptídeos/metabolismo , Suínos
12.
Neoplasia ; 28: 100791, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35405500

RESUMO

With over 60,000 cases diagnosed annually in the US, ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) is the most prevalent form of early-stage breast cancer. Because many DCIS cases never progress to invasive ductal carcinomas (IDC), overtreatment remains a significant problem. Up to 20% patients experience disease recurrence, indicating that standard treatments do not effectively treat DCIS for a subset of patients. By understanding the mechanisms of DCIS progression, we can develop new treatment strategies better tailored to patients. The chemokine CCL2 and its receptor CCR2 are known to regulate macrophage recruitment during inflammation and cancer progression. Recent studies indicate that increased CCL2/CCR2 signaling in breast epithelial cells enhance formation of IDC. Here, we characterized the molecular mechanisms important for CCL2/CCR2-mediated DCIS progression. Phospho-protein array profiling revealed that CCL2 stimulated phosphorylation of MET receptor tyrosine kinases in breast cancer cells. Co-immunoprecipitation and proximity ligation assays demonstrated that CCL2-induced MET activity depended on interactions with CCR2 and SRC. Extracellular flux analysis and biochemical assays revealed that CCL2/CCR2 signaling in breast cancer cells enhanced glycolytic enzyme expression and activity. CRISPR knockout and pharmacologic inhibition of MET revealed that CCL2/CCR2-induced breast cancer cell proliferation, survival, migration and glycolysis through MET-dependent mechanisms. In animals, MET inhibitors blocked CCR2-mediated DCIS progression and metabolism. CCR2 and MET were significantly co-expressed in patient DCIS and IDC tissues. In summary, MET receptor activity is an important mechanism for CCL2/CCR2-mediated progression and metabolism of early-stage breast cancer, with important clinical implications.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Carcinoma Ductal de Mama , Carcinoma Intraductal não Infiltrante , Quimiocina CCL2 , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-met , Receptores CCR2 , Animais , Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Carcinoma Ductal de Mama/metabolismo , Carcinoma Ductal de Mama/patologia , Carcinoma Intraductal não Infiltrante/metabolismo , Carcinoma Intraductal não Infiltrante/patologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Quimiocina CCL2/genética , Quimiocina CCL2/metabolismo , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/metabolismo , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/patologia , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-met/metabolismo , Receptores CCR2/metabolismo
13.
Cancer Sci ; 2022 Apr 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35441763

RESUMO

Our previous works have indicated that extracellular ATP is an important prometastasis factor. However, the molecular mechanism involved needs to be further studied. We demonstrated that extracellular ATP treatment could upregulate the expression of connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) in both triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) cells and endothelial cells (ECs). Extracellular ATP stimulated the migration of TNBC cells and ECs, and angiogenesis of ECs via the P2Y2--YAP-CTGF axis. Furthermore, we demonstrated that adenosine triphosphate (ATP) stimulated TNBC cell adhesion to ECs and transmigration through the EC layer via CTGF by upregulation of integrin ß1 on TNBC cells and VCAM-1 on ECs. Both apyrase (ATP-diphosphohydrolase) and CTGF shRNA treatments could inhibit the metastasis of inoculated tumors to lung and liver in a mouse model, and these treated tumors had fewer blood vessels. Collectively, our data indicated that extracellular ATP promotes tumor angiogenesis and the interactions between TNBC cells and ECs through upregulation of CTGF, thereby stimulating TNBC metastasis. The pleiotropic effects of ATP in angiogenesis and cell adhesion suggest that extracellular ATP or CTGF could be an effective target for TNBC therapy.

14.
Transl Oncol ; 20: 101412, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35395603

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To compare the consistency of one-dimensional Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (1D-RECIST), two-dimensional WHO criteria (2D-WHO), and three-dimensional (3D) measurement for therapeutic response assessment of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Retrospective data of 288 newly diagnosed NPC patients were reviewed. Tumor size was assessed on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) according to the 1D-RECIST, 2D-WHO, and 3D measurement criteria. Agreement between tumor responses was assessed using unweighted k statistics. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was used to determine the optimal cut-off point of the PTV. The Kaplan-Meier method and Cox regression were used for the survival analysis. RESULTS: The optimal cut-off point of the PTV for progression-free survival (PFS) was 29.6%. Agreement with PTV measurement was better for 1D measurement than for 2D and 3D measurements (kappa values of 0.646, 0.537, and 0.577 for 1D, 2D, and 3D measurements, respectively; P < 0.05). The area under the curve of the 1D measurement (AUC=0.596) was similar to that of the PTV measurement (AUC=0.621). Compared with 2D and 3D measurements, 1D measurement is superior for predicting prognosis in NPC (C-index of 0.672, 0.663, and 0.646 were for 1D, 2D, and 3D measurements, respectively; P < 0.005). Survival analysis showed that patients with non-responders had worse prognosis (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The 1D measurement more closely agreed with the PTV measurement than the 2D and 3D measurements for predicting therapeutic responses in NPC. Therefore, we recommend using the less time-consuming 1D-RECIST criteria in routine clinical practice.

15.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 761, 2022 04 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35428217

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Air pollution has fast become an issue with great environmental and human health problems that can be attributed to rapid global industrialization and urbanization that has strong negative impacts on human health. Children are particularly vulnerable. While studies on the effects and toxicology of particulate matter pollutants that are 2.5 microns or smaller in size (PM2.5) are abundant, understanding the factors that influence human behaviors against or the avoidance of exposure/contact to air polluted with high levels of PM2.5 is lacking. In this study, this gap was narrowed by used the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) to investigate the effects of Attitudes (AT), Subjective Norms (SN), and Perceived Behavioral Controls (PBC) on the Behavioral Intentions (BI) of parents with young children with different levels of education against or avoiding contact/exposure to air polluted with high levels of PM2.5. METHODS: The TPB model was used to predict the BI of parents with young children with different levels of education that live in Hong Kong using the results collected from 410 online questionnaires. Aspects of the BI influencing parents with young children that earned undergraduate group and post-graduate group were analysed using Smart Partial Least Squares 2.0 software. RESULTS: Our results revealed there were substantial differences in the AT of parents with young children that earned undergraduate and post-graduate degrees with respect to exposure to air with PM2.5 pollution. CONCLUSIONS: In this study we assessed the factors that influence the air pollution prevention and avoidance behaviors of parents of the undergraduate and post-graduate groups that were exposed to air polluted with PM2.5. Our results show the AT, SN, PBC, and BI used in the air pollution protection model for the parents of both groups are connected by separate pathways. The undergraduate group has a higher PBC compared to the post-graduate group because the SN associated with their social ecosystems contribute to their BI. Using path analysis, we revealed that the undergraduate and post-graduate groups had different BI paths. The BI path of the undergraduate group is purer and simpler when compared with the path of the post-graduate group.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Poluição do Ar/prevenção & controle , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Ecossistema , Hong Kong , Humanos , Intenção , Pais , Material Particulado/análise
16.
Front Microbiol ; 13: 860749, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35432222

RESUMO

Anaerobic digestion is an effective and sustainable technology for resource utilization of organic wastes. Recently, adding conductive materials in anaerobic digestion to promote direct interspecies electron transfer (DIET) has become a hot topic, which enhances the syntrophic conversion of various organics to methane. This review comprehensively summarizes the recent findings of DIET mechanisms with different mediating ways. Meanwhile, the influence of DIET on anaerobic digestion performance and the underlying mechanisms of how DIET mediated by conductive materials influences the lag phase, methane production, and system stability are systematically explored. Furthermore, current challenges such as the unclear biological mechanisms, influences of non-DIET mechanisms, limitations of organic matters syntrophically oxidized by way of DIET, and problems in practical application of DIET mediated by conductive materials are discussed in detail. Finally, the future research directions for practical application of DIET are outlined.

17.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 43(4): 1756-1765, 2022 Apr 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35393799

RESUMO

Based on the basic information of the Second National Pollution Source Census and the VOCs source profiles of industrial industries, we established the speciated emission inventory of major industrial sources in Chongqing in 2017, estimated their ozone formation potential (OFP), and identified the key control species of industrial VOCs and their sources. The results showed that the total VOCs emission from industrial sources and their OFPs were 144.12 kt and 477.34 kt, respectively. Automobile manufacturing, equipment manufacturing, plastic manufacturing, and chemical raw materials and chemical products were all industries that contributed significantly to VOCs emissions and OFP, with VOCs emissions of 37.18, 33.09, 19.47, and 18.14 kt and OFP of 191.43, 153.69, 27.21, and 57.51 kt, respectively. Aromatics were the components with the largest contribution to VOCs emissions and OFP, accounting for 62.55% of the total VOCs emissions and 82.15% of the total OFP, mainly from metal surface coating and petrochemical industries. The major reactive species of industrial source VOCs were m/p-xylene, toluene, ethylbenzene, o-xylene, and propylene, with OFP of 130.47, 103.37, 46.37, 42.83, and 28.26 kt, respectively, cumulatively accounting for 71.11% of the total OFP. In terms of spatial distribution, the emission intensity of VOCs and O3 pollution degree in all districts and counties of Chongqing were relatively consistent; the high value points of VOCs emissions and OFP were mainly distributed in the main urban area and the western area, and the sources of VOCs emission in the main urban area and western area were mainly in metal surface coating and the petrochemical industry, respectively.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Ozônio , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , China , Monitoramento Ambiental , Indústrias , Ozônio/análise , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise
18.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 13: 857985, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35370968

RESUMO

Background: Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is associated with an increased risk of incident cardiovascular diseases (CVD), but the association between the new-onset MetS at different ages and the CVD risk remain unclear. Methods: This was a prospective study comprising a total of 72,986 participants without MetS and CVD who participated in the Kailuan study baseline survey (July 2006 to October 2007). All participants received the biennial follow-up visit until December 31, 2019. In addition, 26,411 patients with new-onset MetS were identified from follow-up, and one control participant was randomly selected for each of them as a match for age ( ± 1 year) and sex. In the end, a total of 25,125 case-control pairs were involved. Moreover, the Cox proportional hazard model was established to calculate the hazard ratios (HR) for incident CVD across the onset age groups. Results: According to the median follow-up for 8.47 years, 2,319 cases of incident CVD occurred. As MetS onset age increased, CVD hazards gradually decreased after adjusting for potential confounders. Compared with non-MetS controls, the HR and the 95% confidence interval (CI) for CVD were 1.84 (1.31-2.57) in the MetS onset age <45 years group, 1.67 (1.42-1.95) for the 45-54 years group, 1.36 (1.18-1.58) for the 55-64 years group, and 1.28 (1.10-1.50) for the ≥65 years group, respectively (p for interaction = 0.03). Conclusions: The relative risks of CVD differed across MetS onset age groups, and the associations was more intense in the MetS onset group at a younger age.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Síndrome Metabólica , Adulto , Idoso , Doenças Cardiovasculares/complicações , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Síndrome Metabólica/complicações , Síndrome Metabólica/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Prospectivos
19.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun ; 608: 108-115, 2022 06 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35397422

RESUMO

T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) is an aggressive cancer with poor clinical outcome. Poricoic acid A (PAA) is the main chemical constituent on the surface layer of the mushroom Poria cocos, and exerts protective effects against various diseases. In the study, its effects on T-ALL progression were investigated both in vitro and in vivo. Our results showed that PAA strongly reduced the cell viability of T-ALL cell lines, and induced cell G2 cycle arrest and apoptosis in vitro. Mitochondrial dysfunction was also elevated by PAA, along with enhanced cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Importantly, PAA-suppressed cell viability and -triggered apoptosis were ROS-dependent. Additionally, autophagy was significantly induced by PAA in T-ALL cells through regulating AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK)/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and LC3 signaling pathways. PAA treatments also provoked ferroptosis in T-ALL cells with reduced glutathione (GSH) levels and elevated malonaldehyde (MDA) contents. Suppressing autophagy and ferroptosis almost abrogated the capacity of PAA to restrain T-ALL proliferation and growth. The effects of PAA to suppress T-ALL tumor growth were also confirmed in vivo with undetectable toxicity. Therefore, the present study highlighted the potential of PAA for T-ALL treatment mainly through inducing autophagic cell death and ferroptosis.


Assuntos
Morte Celular Autofágica , Ferroptose , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células T Precursoras , Apoptose , Autofagia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Humanos , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células T Precursoras/tratamento farmacológico , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Linfócitos T/metabolismo , Triterpenos
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