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1.
Genes (Basel) ; 11(2)2020 Feb 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32098172

RESUMO

Ubiquitination is one of several post-transcriptional modifications of histone 2B (H2B) which affect the chromatin structure and, hence, influence gene transcription. This study focuses on Alternaria alternata, a fungal pathogen responsible for leaf spot in many plant species. The experiments show that the product of AaBRE1, a gene which encodes H2B monoubiquitination E3 ligase, regulates hyphal growth, conidial formation and pathogenicity. Knockout of AaBRE1 by the homologous recombination strategy leads to the loss of H2B monoubiquitination (H2Bub1), as well as a remarkable decrease in the enrichment of trimethylated lysine 4 on histone 3 (H3K4me3). RNA sequencing assays elucidated that the transcription of genes encoding certain C2H2 zinc-finger family transcription factors, cell wall-degrading enzymes and chitin-binding proteins was suppressed in the AaBRE1 knockout cells. GO enrichment analysis showed that these proteins encoded by the set of genes differentially transcribed between the deletion mutant and wild type were enriched in the functional categories "macramolecular complex", "cellular metabolic process", etc. A major conclusion was that the AaBRE1 product, through its effect on histone 2B monoubiquitination and histone 3 lysine 4 trimethylation, makes an important contribution to the fungus's hyphal growth, conidial formation and pathogenicity.

2.
Plant Biotechnol J ; 2019 Dec 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31883436

RESUMO

For a flowering plant, the transition from vegetative stage to reproductive growth is probably the most critical developmental switch. In the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana, the product of BBX7, group II member of BBX family, acts to delay floral transition. In this study, a presumed chrysanthemum homolog of a second group gene AtBBX8, designated CmBBX8, had been isolated and characterized. The transcription of CmBBX8 followed a diurnal rhythm as the chrysanthemum floral transition regulator. Overexpression of CmBBX8 accelerated flowering, while its (artificial microRNAs) amiR-enabled knockdown delayed flowering in plants grown under both long- and short-day conditions. Global expression analysis revealed that genes associated with photoperiod were down-regulated in amiR-CmBBX8 lines compared with the wild type, which were verified to be up-regulated in overexpressing lines (OX-CmBBX8) by RT-PCR. A number of in vitro assays were used to show that CmBBX8 targets CmFTL1. Furthermore, the function of CmFTL1 as a floral inducer under long-day conditions was confirmed by the behaviour of engineered summer-flowering chrysanthemum plants. The conclusion is that the BBX8-FT regulatory module is an important determinant of reproductive development in summer-flowering chrysanthemum.

3.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(23)2019 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31766739

RESUMO

Chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum morifolium (Ramat.) Kitamura) plants have great ornamental value, but their flowers can also be a source of pollen contamination. Previously, morphological and cytological studies have shown that anthers of some chrysanthemum cultivars such as 'Qx-115' fail to dehisce, although the underlying mechanism is largely unknown. In this study, we investigated the molecular basis of anther indehiscence in chrysanthemum via transcriptome analysis of a dehiscent cultivar ('Qx-097') and an indehiscent cultivar ('Qx-115'). We also measured related physiological indicators during and preceding the period of anther dehiscence. Our results showed a difference in pectinase accumulation and activity between the two cultivars during dehiscence. Detection of de-esterified pectin and highly esterified pectin in anthers during the period preceding anther dehiscence using LM19 and LM20 monoclonal antibodies showed that both forms of pectin were absent in the stomium region of 'Qx-097' anthers but were abundant in that of 'Qx-115' anthers. Analysis of transcriptome data revealed a significant difference in the expression levels of two transcription factor-encoding genes, CmLOB27 and CmERF72, between 'Qx-097' and 'Qx-115' during anther development. Transient overexpression of CmLOB27 and CmERF72 separately in tobacco leaves promoted pectinase biosynthesis. We conclude that CmLOB27 and CmERF72 are involved in the synthesis of pectinase, which promotes the degradation of pectin. Our results lay a foundation for further investigation of the role of CmLOB27 and CmERF72 transcription factors in the process of anther dehiscence in chrysanthemum.

4.
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 144: 480-487, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31655346

RESUMO

Members of the B Box (BBX) family of proteins are known to be important for directing the growth and development of the Arabidopsis thaliana plant. Here, an analysis of a newly isolated chrysanthemum gene encoding a BBX family member implied that it was a likely ortholog of AtBBX13. The gene (designated CmBBX13) was most actively transcribed in the leaves and stem apex. CmBBX13 transcription was arrhythmic under either continuous darkness or continuous light, so the observed diurnal variation in its transcription appeared not to respond to the circadian clock. The outcome of transiently expressing CmBBX13 in onion epidermal cells suggested that the CmBBX13 protein localized to the nucleus. Both a yeast- and a protoplast-based assay showed that the protein has transactivational activity. When CmBBX13 was constitutively expressed in A. thaliana, flowering was delayed under both short and long day conditions. The presence of the transgene also down-regulated a number of genes known to promote flowering, including APETALA1 (AP1), SUPPRESSOR OF OVEREXPRESSION OF CO 1 (SOC1), FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) and FD, while simultaneously up-regulating the floral inhibitor-encoding genes FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC) and TARGET OF EAT 2 (TOE2). The data suggested that CmBBX13 regulates flowering time independently of the photoperiod pathway.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Chrysanthemum/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/genética , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Chrysanthemum/genética , Flores/genética , Flores/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética
5.
Hortic Res ; 6: 84, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31645945

RESUMO

MYB transcription factors are widely involved in the development of and physiological processes in plants. Here, we isolated the chrysanthemum R2R3-MYB family transcription factor CmMYB15, a homologous gene of AtMYB15. It was demonstrated that CmMYB15 expression was induced by aphids and that CmMYB15 could bind to AC elements, which usually exist in the promoter of lignin biosynthesis genes. Overexpression of CmMYB15 in chrysanthemum enhanced the resistance of aphids. Additionally, the content of lignin and the expression of several lignin biosynthesis genes increased. In summary, the results indicate that CmMYB15 regulates lignin biosynthesis genes that enhance the resistance of chrysanthemum to aphids.

6.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(19)2019 Sep 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31569563

RESUMO

Both the presence of, and the important contribution to growth and development made by TCP transcription factors, have been established in various plant species. Here, a TCP4 homolog isolated from Chrysanthemum nankingense was shown to be more strongly transcribed in the diploid than in the autotetraploid form of the species. CnTCP4 was shown to encode a member of the class II TCP family and to be transcribed most strongly in the leaf and ligulate flowers. Its transcription was found to be substantially inhibited by spraying the plant with the synthetic cytokinin 6-benzylaminopurine. The transient expression of CnTCP4 in onion epidermal cells showed that its product localized to the nucleus, and a yeast one hybrid assay suggested that its product had transcriptional activation ability. The constitutive expression of CnTCP4 in fission yeast suppressed cell proliferation, inducing the formation of longer and a higher frequency of multinuclated cells. Its constitutive expression in Arabidopsis thaliana reduced the size of the leaves. The presence of the transgene altered the transcription of a number of cell division-related genes. A yeast one hybrid assay identified a second TCP gene (CnTCP2) able to interact with the CnTCP4 promoter. A transient expression experiment in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves showed that CnTCP2 was able to activate the CnTCP4 promoter. Like CnTCP4, CnTCP2 was shown to encode a member of the class II TCP family, to be transcribed most strongly in the leaf and ligulate flowers, and to be suppressed by exogenous 6-benzylaminopurine treatment. The CnTCP2 protein also localized to the nucleus, but had no transcriptional activation ability. Its constitutive expression in A. thaliana had similar phenotypic consequences to those induced by CnTCP4.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis/genética , Divisão Celular/genética , Chrysanthemum/genética , Expressão Gênica , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Leveduras/genética , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Arabidopsis/classificação , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Fenótipo , Filogenia , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Transcriptoma , Leveduras/classificação , Leveduras/metabolismo
7.
J Pineal Res ; 67(2): e12582, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31012494

RESUMO

The transition from vegetative to reproductive growth is a key developmental event in a plant's life cycle. The process is mediated by a combination of phytohormones, including melatonin (MT) and strigolactone (SL). Here, the Arabidopsis mutants, d14-1 and max4-1, which are compromised with respect to either SL synthesis or signaling, were shown to flower earlier than wild types. The tissue MT content in both mutants was higher than in wild types, as a result of the up-regulation of various genes encoding enzymes involved in MT synthesis. The abundance in the mutants of transcripts derived from each of the genes SPLs, AP1, and SOC1 was reduced with exogenously supplied MT, while FLC was induced. Plants exposed to a high concentration of MT did not flower earlier than wild types. The tissue MT content of a mutant unable to synthesize caffeic acid O-methyltransferase was less than that of wild type and flowered earlier than did wild types. The suggestion is that the flowering time of Arabidopsis is altered if the tissue content of MT is either higher than ~ 8 ng/g F.W, or lower than ~ 0.9 ng/g. Within this range, SL acts to determine flowering time by its regulation of SPL genes. The application of exogenous SL reduces tissue MT content. The flowering time of the flc-3 mutant was unaffected by exogenously supplying either MT or/and SL. It is proposed that MT acts downstream of SL to activate FLC, inducing a delay to flowering if its concentration lies outside a certain range.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Flores/metabolismo , Lactonas/farmacologia , Melatonina/biossíntese , Arabidopsis/genética , Flores/genética , Regulação Enzimológica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Melatonina/genética , Metiltransferases/biossíntese , Metiltransferases/genética , Mutação , Proteínas de Plantas/biossíntese , Proteínas de Plantas/genética
8.
Hortic Res ; 6: 21, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30729011

RESUMO

Chrysanthemums are sensitive to waterlogging stress, and the development of screening methods for tolerant germplasms or genes and the breeding of tolerant new varieties are of great importance in chrysanthemum breeding. To understand the genetic basis of waterlogging tolerance (WT) in chrysanthemums, we performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) using 92,811 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in a panel of 88 chrysanthemum accessions, including 64 spray cut and 24 disbud chrysanthemums. The results showed that the average MFVW (membership function value of waterlogging) of the disbud type (0.65) was significantly higher than that of the spray type (0.55) at P < 0.05, and the MFVW of the Asian accessions (0.65) was significantly higher than that of the European accessions (0.48) at P < 0.01. The GWAS performed using the general linear model (GLM) and mixed linear model (MLM) identified 137 and 14 SNP loci related to WT, respectively, and 11 associations were commonly predicted. By calculating the phenotypic effect values for 11 common SNP loci, six highly favorable SNP alleles that explained 12.85-21.85% of the phenotypic variations were identified. Furthermore, the dosage-pyramiding effects of the favorable alleles and the significant linear correlations between the numbers of highly favorable alleles and phenotypic values were identified (r 2 = 0.45; P < 0.01). A major SNP locus (Marker6619-75) was converted into a derived cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence (dCAPS) marker that cosegregated with WT with an average efficiency of 78.9%. Finally, four putative candidate genes in the WT were identified via quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). The results presented in this study provide insights for further research on WT mechanisms and the application of molecular marker-assisted selection (MAS) in chrysanthemum WT breeding programs.

9.
Plant Mol Biol ; 99(4-5): 407-420, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30701353

RESUMO

KEY MESSAGE: 81 SNPs were identified for three inflorescence-related traits, in which 15 were highly favorable. Two dCAPS markers were developed for future MAS breeding, and six candidate genes were predicted. Chrysanthemum is a leading ornamental species worldwide and demonstrates a wealth of morphological variation. Knowledge about the genetic basis of its phenotypic variation for key horticultural traits can contribute to its effective management and genetic improvement. In this study, we conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) based on two years of phenotype data and a set of 92,617 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) using a panel of 107 diverse cut chrysanthemums to dissect the genetic control of three inflorescence-related traits. A total of 81 SNPs were significantly associated with the three inflorescence-related traits (capitulum diameter, number of ray florets and flowering time) in at least one environment, with an individual allele explaining 22.72-38.67% of the phenotypic variation. Fifteen highly favorable alleles were identified for the three target traits by computing the phenotypic effect values for the stable associations detected in 2 year-long trials at each locus. Dosage pyramiding effects of the highly favorable SNP alleles and significant linear correlations between highly favorable allele numbers and corresponding phenotypic performance were observed. Two highly favorable SNP alleles correlating to flowering time and capitulum diameter were converted to derived cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence (dCAPS) markers to facilitate future breeding. Finally, six putative candidate genes were identified that contribute to flowering time and capitulum diameter. These results serve as a foundation for analyzing the genetic mechanisms underlying important horticultural traits and provide valuable insights into molecular marker-assisted selection (MAS) in chrysanthemum breeding programs.


Assuntos
Alelos , Chrysanthemum/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Inflorescência/genética , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Genes de Plantas/genética , Marcadores Genéticos , Genética Populacional , Técnicas de Genotipagem , Melhoramento Vegetal , Locos de Características Quantitativas
10.
Plant Cell Rep ; 38(1): 15-24, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30238422

RESUMO

KEY MESSAGE: CmBBX22, a transcription factor of chrysanthemum, was verified to confer drought tolerance in Arabidopsis thaliana. The BBX proteins are known to operate as regulators of plant growth and development, but as yet their contribution to the abiotic stress response has not been well defined. Here, the chrysanthemum BBX family member CmBBX22, an ortholog of AtBBX22, was found to be transcribed throughout the plant, although at varying intensity, and was induced by imposing moisture deficiency via exposure to polyethylene glycol. The heterologous, constitutive expression of this gene in Arabidopsis thaliana compromised germination and seedling growth, but enhanced the plants' ability to tolerate drought stress. In transgenic plants challenged with abscisic acid, leaf senescence was delayed and the senescence-associated genes and chlorophyll catabolic genes SAG29, NYE1, NYE2 and NYC1 were down-regulated. We speculated that CmBBX22 may serves as a regulator in mediating drought stress tolerance and delaying leaf senescence.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Clorofila/metabolismo , Ácido Abscísico/farmacologia , Arabidopsis/genética , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Secas , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/genética , Germinação/efeitos dos fármacos , Polietilenoglicóis/farmacologia
11.
Mol Biotechnol ; 61(1): 20-31, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30448907

RESUMO

AP2/ERF transcription factors (TFs) represent valuable targets for the genetic manipulation of crop plants, as they participate in the control of metabolism, growth and development, as well as in the plants' response to environmental stimuli. Here, an ERF TF encoded by the chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum morifolium) genome, designated CmERF110, was cloned and functionally characterized. The predicted CmERF110 polypeptide included a conserved DNA-binding AP2/ERF domain. A transient expression experiment revealed that the protein was deposited in the nucleus, and a transactivation experiment in yeast suggested that it had no transcriptional activity. The gene was transcribed in the chrysanthemum root, stem and leaf, with its transcript level following a circadian rhythm under both long and short days. The effect of constitutively expressing the gene in Arabidopsis thaliana was to accelerate flowering. Transcriptional profiling implied that its effect on floral initiation operated through the photoperiod pathway.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Chrysanthemum/genética , Flores/fisiologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/genética , Arabidopsis/fisiologia , Flores/genética , Filogenia , Proteínas de Plantas/análise , Proteínas de Plantas/química , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/genética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/metabolismo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/fisiologia , Fatores de Transcrição/análise , Fatores de Transcrição/química , Fatores de Transcrição/genética
12.
Plant Mol Biol ; 98(3): 233-247, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30203234

RESUMO

KEY MESSAGE: Microspore degeneration at the tetrad stage is associated with tapetum degeneration retardation. Some genes and proteins related to cell senescence and death are the key factors for pollen abortion. Chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum morifolium) is a major floriculture crop in the world, but pollen contamination is an urgent problem to be solved in chrysanthemum production. C. morifolium 'Kingfisher' is a chrysanthemum cultivar that does not contain any pollen in mature anthers, thus it is a very important material for developing chrysanthemum without pollen contamination. However, the mechanism of its pollen abortion remains unclear. In this study, the cellular and molecular mechanisms of 'Kingfisher' pollen abortion were investigated using transmission electron microscopy, RNA sequencing, isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation, and bioinformatics. It was found that the meiosis of microspore mother cells was normal before the tetrad stage, the microspores began to degenerate at the tetrad stage, and no microspores were observed in the anthers after the tetrad stage. In addition, transcriptomic and proteomic analyses showed that some genes and proteins related to cell senescence and death were identified to be implicated in chrysanthemum pollen abortion. These results indicated that the tetrad stage was the main period of pollen abortion, and the genes and proteins related to cell senescence and death contributed to pollen abortion. These add to our understanding of chrysanthemum pollen abortion and will be helpful for development of flowers without pollen contamination in the future.


Assuntos
Chrysanthemum/fisiologia , Pólen/fisiologia , Flores/anatomia & histologia , Flores/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/fisiologia , Infertilidade das Plantas/genética , Pólen/citologia
13.
BMC Plant Biol ; 18(1): 178, 2018 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30180804

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chrysanthemum is among the top ten traditional flowers in China, and one of the four major cut flowers in the world, but the growth of chrysanthemum is severely restricted by high temperatures which retard growth and cause defects in flowers. DREB (dehydration-responsive element-binding) transcription factors play important roles in the response to abiotic and biotic stresses. However, whether the DREB A-6 subgroup is involved in heat tolerance has not been reported conclusively. RESULT: In the present study, CmDREB6 was cloned from chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum morifolium) 'Jinba'. CmDREB6, containing a typical AP2/ERF domain, was classed into the DREB A-6 subgroup and shared highest homology with Cichorium intybus L. CiDREB6 (73%). CmDREB6 was expressed at its highest levels in the leaf. The CmDREB6 protein localized to the nucleus. Based on the yeast one hybrid assay, CmDREB6 showed transcription activation activity in yeast, and the transcriptional activation domain was located in the 3 'end ranging from 230 to 289 amino acids residues. CmDREB6 overexpression enhanced the tolerance of chrysanthemum to heat. The survival rate of two transgenic lines was as high as 85%, 50%, respectively, in contrast to 3.8% of wild-type (WT). Over-expression of CmDREB6 promoted the expression of CmHsfA4, CmHSP90, and the active oxygen scavenging genes CmSOD and CmCAT. CONCLUSION: In this study, DREB A-6 subgroup gene CmDREB6 was cloned from chrysanthemum 'Jinba'. Overexpression of CmDREB6 enhanced heat tolerance of chrysanthemum by regulating genes involved in the heat shock response and ROS homeogenesis.


Assuntos
Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/fisiologia , Temperatura Alta , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Estresse Fisiológico/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Chrysanthemum , Filogenia , Proteínas de Plantas/química , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Alinhamento de Sequência , Fatores de Transcrição/química , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
14.
Hortic Res ; 5: 37, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29977573

RESUMO

The enzyme RNAPII CTD phosphatase-like 1 is known as a transcriptional regulator of the plant response to various abiotic stresses. Here, the isolation of CmCPL1, a chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum morifolium) gene encoding this enzyme is described. Its predicted 955 residue gene product includes the FCPH catalytic domain, two double-stranded RNA binding motifs, and a nuclear localization signal. A sub-cellular localization assay confirmed that CmCPL1 was expressed in the nucleus. CmCPL1 transcription was shown to be significantly inducible by heat stress. The over-expression and knockdown of CmCPL1, respectively, increased and diminished the tolerance of chrysanthemum to heat stress, which maybe dependent on the regulation of CmCPL1 and on the expression of downstream heat stress-responsive genes.

15.
Gene ; 674: 161-169, 2018 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29944951

RESUMO

RNA-Seq was applied to capture the transcriptome of the leaf and root of non-treated and salinity-treated chrysanthemum cv. 'Jinba' plants. A total of 206,868 unigenes of mean length 849 nt and of N50 length 1363 nt was identified; of these about 64% (> 132,000) could be functionally assigned. Depending on the severity of the salinity stress, differential transcription was observed for genes encoding proteins involved in osmotic adjustment, in ion transport, in reactive oxygen species scavenging and in the regulation of abscisic acid (ABA) signaling. The root stress response was dominated by the up-regulation of genes involved in ion transport, while that of the leaf reflected the plant's effort to make osmotic adjustments and to regulate Ca2+ transport. An array of known transcription factors (WRKY, AP2/ERF, MYB, bHLH and NAC) were differentially transcribed.


Assuntos
Chrysanthemum/genética , Salinidade , Transcriptoma , Chrysanthemum/metabolismo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Análise de Sequência de RNA , Estresse Fisiológico/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/biossíntese , Fatores de Transcrição/genética
16.
3 Biotech ; 8(5): 226, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29713582

RESUMO

Understanding the genetic architecture is a prerequisite for crop improvement. The current research aimed to characterize the extent of genetic variation of drought tolerance harbored in a global collection of 159 chrysanthemum cultivars over 2 years. An average subordinate function value (ASFV), integrating the wilting index, the fresh weight retention rate, and the survival rate after re-watering under two drought-stressed trials, was used to quantify the level of drought tolerance. The performance of ASFV was generally correlated between the 2 years; and a high magnitude (0.95) of broad-sense heritability, coupled with the moderate genetic advance, was estimated for the ASFV. By applying MLM model with both population structure and kinship matrix as covariates association mapping identified 16 markers linked to drought tolerance, with the proportion of the phenotypic variation explained by an individual marker ranging from 4.4 to 7.6%. Of the eight markers predictive across the 2 years, four (E11M24-9, E3M2-8, E1M5-5, and EST-SSR34-3) were identified as favorable alleles for drought tolerance. Several cultivars that carry at least three of the four favorable alleles were identified as potential donor parents for future improvement of the drought tolerance. The findings provide an insight into the genetic basis of the drought tolerance in chrysanthemum and will, therefore, aid in developing new cultivars with enhanced tolerance against drought stress.

17.
Int J Mol Sci ; 19(3)2018 Mar 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29533976

RESUMO

Most chrysanthemum cultivars are self-incompatible, so it is very difficult to create pure lines that are important in chrysanthemum breeding and theoretical studies. In our previous study, we obtained a self-compatible chrysanthemum cultivar and its self-pollinated seed set was 56.50%. It was interesting that the seed set of its ten progenies ranged from 0% to 37.23%. Examination of the factors causing the differences in the seed set will lead to an improved understanding of chrysanthemum self-incompatibility, and provide valuable information for creating pure lines. Pollen morphology, pollen germination percentage, pistil receptivity and embryo development were investigated using the in vitro culture method, the paraffin section technique, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Moreover, RNA sequencing and bioinformatics were applied to analyzing the transcriptomic profiles of mature stigmas and anthers. It was found that the self-pollinated seed set of "Q10-33-1①","Q10-33-1③","Q10-33-1④" and "Q10-33-1⑩" were 37.23%, 26.77%, 7.97% and 0%, respectively. The differences in fertility among four progenies were mainly attributable to differences in pollen germination percentage and pistil receptivity. Failure of the seed set in "Q10-33-1⑩" was possibly due to self-incompatibility. In the transcriptomic files, 22 potential stigma S genes and 8 potential pollen S genes were found out.


Assuntos
Chrysanthemum/genética , Infertilidade das Plantas/genética , Polinização/genética , Autoincompatibilidade em Angiospermas/genética , Chrysanthemum/fisiologia , Pólen/genética , Pólen/ultraestrutura , Transcriptoma
18.
Molecules ; 23(1)2018 Jan 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29346294

RESUMO

The green organs, especially the leaves, of many Compositae plants possess characteristic aromas. To exploit the utility value of these germplasm resources, the constituents, mainly volatile compounds, in the leaves of 14 scented plant materials were qualitatively and quantitatively compared via gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). A total of 213 constituents were detected and tentatively identified in the leaf extracts, and terpenoids (especially monoterpene and sesquiterpene derivatives), accounting for 40.45-90.38% of the total compounds, were the main components. The quantitative results revealed diverse concentrations and compositions of the chemical constituents between species. Principal component analysis (PCA) showed that different groups of these Compositae plants were characterized by main components of α-thujone, germacrene D, eucalyptol, ß-caryophyllene, and camphor, for example. On the other hand, cluster memberships corresponding to the molecular phylogenetic framework, were found by hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) based on the terpenoid composition of the tested species. These results provide a phytochemical foundation for the use of these scented Compositae plants, and for the further study of the chemotaxonomy and differential metabolism of Compositae species.


Assuntos
Asteraceae/química , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Folhas de Planta/química , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/química , Análise por Conglomerados , Compostos Fitoquímicos/análise , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Extratos Vegetais/análise , Extratos Vegetais/química , Terpenos/análise , Terpenos/química , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/classificação
19.
Planta ; 247(4): 899-924, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29273861

RESUMO

MAIN CONCLUSION: 37 unconditional QTLs, 51 conditional QTLs and considerable epistatic QTLs were detected for waterlogging tolerance, and six favourable combinations were selected accelerating the possible application of MAS in chrysanthemum breeding. Chrysanthemum is seriously impacted by soil waterlogging. To determine the genetic characteristics of waterlogging tolerance (WAT) in chrysanthemum, a population of 162 F1 lines was used to construct a genetic map to identify the dynamic and epistatic quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for four WAT traits: wilting index (WI), dead leaf ratio (DLR), chlorosis score (Score) and membership function value of waterlogging (MFVW). The h B2 for the WAT traits ranged from 0.49 to 0.64, and transgressive segregation was observed in both directions. A total of 37 unconditional consensus QTLs with 5.81-18.21% phenotypic variation explanation (PVE) and 51 conditional consensus QTLs with 5.90-24.56% PVE were detected. Interestingly, three unconditional consensus QTLs were consistently identified across different stages, whereas no conditional consensus QTLs were consistently expressed. In addition, considerable epistatic QTLs, all with PVE values ranging from 0.01 to 8.87%, were detected by a joint analysis of WAT phenotypes. These results illustrated that the QTLs (genes) controlling WAT were environmentally dependent and selectively expressed at different times and indicated that both additive and epistatic effects underlie the inheritance of WAT in chrysanthemum. The findings of the current study provide insights into the complex genetic architecture of WAT, and the identification of favourable alleles represents an important step towards the application of molecular marker-assisted selection (MAS) and QTL pyramiding in chrysanthemum WAT breeding programmes.


Assuntos
Chrysanthemum/genética , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Chrysanthemum/fisiologia , DNA de Plantas/genética , Epistasia Genética , Marcadores Genéticos , Genótipo , Fenótipo , Estresse Fisiológico/genética , Água
20.
Pak J Pharm Sci ; 30(5(Special)): 1857-1866, 2017 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29084658

RESUMO

Caveolin-1 plays a very important role in the process of tumor cell transformation. In this paper, we studied the relationship between Cav-1 and other multi drug resistance associated proteins. Moreover, the author compares outcomes according to the extent of lymphadenectomy in patients with upper and middle thoracic esophageal squamous cell carcinoma without clinical cervical metastasis. The short-term and long-term data of 842 consecutive patients who underwent esophagectomy with two-field lymphadenectomy (2FL) or three-field lymphadenectomy (3FL) between February 2005 and July 2013 were retrospectively reviewed. If postoperative infection occurred, according to susceptibility test results, patients were given sensitive antibiotics. The yield of lymph nodes harvested was higher in the 3FL group than in 2FL (P=0.000). There was less blood loss (P =0.000), shorter operative time (P=0.000) less post-operative analgesia needed (P=0.000) and earlier hospital discharge (P =0.000) in 2FL than in 3FL.Overall morbidity was similar in the two groups. However, the rate of major complications was higher after 3FL versus 2FL (P=0.015). There was no 30-day mortality in 2FL and 3FL. The 5-year survival (2FL 35% vs 3FL 38%; P=0.297) and disease-free 5-year survival (2FL 26% vs 3FL 21%; P=0.106) were comparable between the two groups. In univariate analyses, extent of lymphadenectomy was not related to overall 5-year survival. Current results indicated that 2FL may be the preferred lymphadenectomy for upper and middle thoracic esophageal squamous cell carcinoma without clinical cervical metastasis.


Assuntos
Caveolina 1/biossíntese , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas do Esôfago/metabolismo , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas do Esôfago/mortalidade , Excisão de Linfonodo/métodos , Subfamília B de Transportador de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/biossíntese , Fatores Etários , Fator Neurotrófico Derivado do Encéfalo/biossíntese , Resistência a Múltiplos Medicamentos , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas do Esôfago/cirurgia , Esofagectomia , Feminino , Humanos , Excisão de Linfonodo/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Proteínas Associadas à Resistência a Múltiplos Medicamentos/biossíntese , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores Sexuais , Análise de Sobrevida , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/biossíntese , beta Catenina/biossíntese
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