Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 87
Filtrar
1.
Int J Antimicrob Agents ; : 106491, 2021 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34871744

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Both cefoperazone-sulbactam (CFP-SUL) and piperacillin-tazobactam (PIP-TAZ) are ß-lactam/ß-lactamase inhibitor antibiotics and have a similar antimicrobial spectrum. However, comparative clinical efficacy and safety between CFP-SUL and PIP-TAZ for pneumonia treatment remain largely unknown, especially in the elderly population. METHODS: Based on a multicenter, registry database, patients aged ≥65, diagnosed with severe community-acquired pneumonia (SCAP), hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP), or ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP), and given empirical therapy with CFP-SUL or PIP-TAZ were included for analysis. The primary outcome of interest was the proportion of patients achieving clinical cure. Multivariate logistic regression was conducted to compare the odds ratios (OR) for the outcome between patients received CFP-SUL and PIP-TAZ. RESULTS: A total of 941 elderly patients, 624 with SCAP and 317 with either HAP or VAP, were included. The overall in-hospital mortality for the entire cohort was 19%. Clinical cure can be achieved in 81% and 83% of patients with SCAP and HAP/VAP, respectively. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed similar odds for clinical cure between patients receiving CFP-SUL and PIP-TAZ whether they had SCAP (adjusted OR, 1.10; 95% CI, 0.71-1.70) or HAP/VAP (adjusted OR, 0.72; 95% CI, 0.30-1.76). Regarding the safety issue, both CFP-SUL and PIP-TAZ were generally well tolerated with few reported adverse events, even in this aged population. CONCLUSIONS: Among the elderly patients with SCAP or HAP/VAP, empirical therapy with CFP-SUL is a viable alternative to PIP-TAZ, while considering antibiotic heterogeneity in antimicrobial stewardship.

2.
J Formos Med Assoc ; 2021 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34740489

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Both prone positioning and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) are used as rescue therapies for severe hypoxemia in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). This study compared outcomes between patients with severe influenza pneumonia-related ARDS who received prone positioning and those who received ECMO. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study included eight tertiary referral centers in Taiwan. All patients who were diagnosed as having influenza pneumonia-related severe ARDS were enrolled between January and March 2016. We collected their demographic data and prone positioning and ECMO outcomes from medical records. RESULTS: In total, 263 patients diagnosed as having ARDS were included, and 65 and 53 of them received prone positioning and ECMO, respectively. The baseline PaO2/FiO2 ratio, Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II score and Sequential Organ Failure Assessment score did not significantly differ between the two groups. The 60-day mortality rate was significantly higher in the ECMO group than in the prone positioning group (60% vs. 28%, p = 0.001). A significantly higher mortality rate was still observed in the ECMO group after propensity score matching (59% vs. 36%, p = 0.033). In the multivariate Cox regression analysis, usage of prone positioning or ECMO was the single independent predictor for 60-day mortality (hazard ratio: 2.177, p = 0.034). CONCLUSION: While the patients receiving prone positioning had better outcome, the causality between prone positioning and the prognosis is unknown. However, the current data suggested that patients with influenza-related ARDS may receive prone positioning before ECMO support.

3.
Acta Pharmacol Sin ; 2021 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34737420

RESUMO

Gefitinib has been available in the market for 20 years, but its pharmacokinetic mechanism of response is little known. In this study, we examined the pharmacokinetic and metabolomic profiles in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients with sensitive EGFR mutations. A total of 216 advanced NSCLC patients were enrolled, and administered gefitinib at the standard dosage of 250 mg/day, which was established in heterogeneous subjects with non-sensitive mutations. We identified and quantified three main metabolites (named as M1, M2 and M3) in the plasma of patients, the correlations between the concentration of gefitinib/metabolites and efficacy were analyzed. In exploratory and validation set, gefitinib concentration was not correlated with clinical effects. Considering the result that the therapeutic effects of 250 mg/2-day was better than that of 250 mg/day in a multiple center clinical trial, the standard dose might be higher than that for maximal efficacy according to the hypothetical dose-response curve. Among the three metabolites, the IC50 of M2 in HCC827 and PC9 cell lines was significantly lower, and Conc.brain/Conc.plasma of M2 in mice was significantly higher than those of gefitinib, suggesting its higher potential to penetrate blood-brain barrier and might be more effective in the treatment of brain metastatic tumor than gefitinib. Consistently and attractively, higher M2 plasma concentration was found to be correlated with better clinical outcome in patients with brain metastases (the median PFS of CM2 < 12 ng/mL and CM2 ≥ 12 ng/mL were 17.0 and 27.1 months, respectively, P = 0.038). The plasma concentration of M2 ≥ 12 ng/mL was a strong predictor of the PFS of NSCLC patients. In conclusion, for NSCLC patients with EGFR sensitive mutations, the standard dose is suspectable and could be decreased reasonably. M2 plays an important role in efficacy and may be more effective in the treatment of metastatic tumor than gefitinib.

4.
Nutrients ; 13(11)2021 Oct 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34836017

RESUMO

Body mass index (BMI) influences the prognosis of patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), including both early-stage and late-stage NSCLC patients that are undergoing chemotherapies. However, earlier research on the relationship between BMI and survival in patients taking epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) yielded contradictory results. These publications either had a limited number of patients or were getting TKIs in various lines of therapy, which might explain why the outcomes were contradictory. As a result, we undertook retrospective study to examine the effect of BMI on survival outcomes in patients with advanced EGFR mutant NSCLC receiving first-line EGFR-TKIs. We also compared the findings to those with wild-type EGFR. Between November 2010 and March 2014, 513 patients with advanced NSCLC were enrolled in the study. According to the adjusted BMI cut-off point for Asia, 35 out of 513 (6.8%) patients were underweight (BMI < 18.5 kg/m2), whereas 197 (38.4%) were overweight (BMI > 24 kg/m2). Overweight patients with wild-type EGFR exhibited longer progression-free survival (4.6 vs. 2.1 months, p = 0.003) and overall survival (OS) (8.9 vs. 4.3 months, p = 0.003) than underweight patients. Overweight patients with EGFR mutations had a longer OS than normal-weight patients (23.0 vs. 20.2 months, p = 0.025). Bodyweight reduction was related to a shorter OS in both the mutant EGFR patients (17.1 vs. 30.5 months, p < 0.001) and the wild-type EGFR patients (7.8 vs. 18.7 months, p < 0.001). In conclusion, advanced stages NSCLC patients with a lower BMI and early weight loss had a worse outcome that was independent of EGFR mutation status.

5.
Cancer Commun (Lond) ; 41(11): 1195-1227, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34699681

RESUMO

Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is a malignant epithelial tumor originating in the nasopharynx and has a high incidence in Southeast Asia and North Africa. To develop these comprehensive guidelines for the diagnosis and management of NPC, the Chinese Society of Clinical Oncology (CSCO) arranged a multi-disciplinary team comprising of experts from all sub-specialties of NPC to write, discuss, and revise the guidelines. Based on the findings of evidence-based medicine in China and abroad, domestic experts have iteratively developed these guidelines to provide proper management of NPC. Overall, the guidelines describe the screening, clinical and pathological diagnosis, staging and risk assessment, therapies, and follow-up of NPC, which aim to improve the management of NPC.

6.
Diagnostics (Basel) ; 11(10)2021 Sep 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34679496

RESUMO

The effects of diabetes and glucose on the outcomes of patients with sepsis are somewhat conflicting. This retrospective study enrolled 1214 consecutive patients with sepsis, including a subpopulation of 148 patients with immune profiles. The septic patients were stratified according to their Diabetes mellitus (DM) status or peak glucose level (three-group tool; P1: ≤140 mg/dL, P2: 141-220 mg/dL, P3: >220 mg/dL) on day 1. Although the DM group had a lower hazard ratio (HR) for 90-day mortality compared to non-DM patients, the adjusted HRs were insignificant. The modified sequential organ failure assessment-glucose (mSOFA-g) score can predict 90-day survival in patients with and without diabetes (ß = 1.098, p < 0.001; ß = 1.202, p < 0.001). The goodness of fit of the mSOFA-g score was 5% higher than the SOFA score of the subgroup without diabetes. The SOFA score and human leukocyte antigen-D-related (HLA-DR) expression were comparable between the groups. The P3 group had lower HLA-DR expression on days 1 and 3 and a higher 90-day mortality. The three-group tool was useful for predicting 90-day mortality in patients with separate Kaplan-Meier survival curves and mortality HRs in the construction and validation cohorts. The peak glucose level, instead of diabetes status, can be used as an easy adjunctive tool for mortality risk stratification in critically ill septic patients.

7.
Biomed J ; 2021 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34482015

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sepsis-associated acute kidney injury (AKI) often worsens with the deterioration of a patient's condition. Therefore, we hypothesized that monitoring AKI dynamically from day1 to day 3 was potential to predict hospital mortality. Specifically, we explored whether monitoring AKI dynamically in the intensive care unit (ICU) could be a sepsis phenotype predictive of mortality. A new classification was established based on the change in the AKI stage from admission day 1 and day 3. We compared the hospital mortality, cytokines, and immune response pattern between each group. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We retrospectively enrolled 523 patients with sepsis, and we calculated the AKI stages on day 1 and day 3 admission to ICUs. Among these 523 people, 388 of them were assigned to normal, improved, and deteriorated groups according to the changes in the AKI stages. 263 of which did not develop AKI on day1 and day 3 (normal group). The AKI stage improved in 68 patients (improved group) and worsened in 57 (deteriorated group). We compared the mortality rates between the groups, and identified the relationship between the dynamic AKI status, immune response patterns, and cytokine levels. RESULTS: The hospital mortality rate in the deteriorated group was higher than that in the non-deteriorated group (combination of normal and improved group) (p = 0.004). Additionally, according to the Kaplan-Meier analysis, the non-deteriorated group had a distinct hospital survival curve (p = 0.004). Furthermore, both the overexpression of tumor necrosis factor-α and decreased monocyte expression of human leukocyte antigen-DR were present in the deteriorated group. CONCLUSIONS: The deteriorated group was associated with a higher hospital mortality rate, potentially resulting from an abnormal inflammatory response. Worsening AKI in the first 3 days of ICU admission may be a sepsis phenotype predictive of hospital mortality.

8.
J Pers Med ; 11(9)2021 Sep 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34575690

RESUMO

We investigated the best timing for using the National Early Warning Score 2 (NEWS2) for predicting sepsis outcomes and whether combining the NEWS2 and the Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) was applicable for mortality risk stratification in intensive care unit (ICU) patients with severe sepsis. All adult patients who met the Third International Consensus Definitions for Sepsis and Septic Shock criteria between August 2013 and January 2017 with complete clinical parameters and laboratory data were enrolled as a derivation cohort. The primary outcomes were the 7-, 14-, 21-, and 28-day mortalities. Furthermore, another group of patients under the same setting between January 2020 and March 2020 were also enrolled as a validation cohort. In the derivation cohort, we included 699 consecutive adult patients. The 72 h NEWS2 had good discrimination for predicting 7-, 14-, 21-, and 28-day mortalities (AUC: 0.780, 0.724, 0.700, and 0.667, respectively) and was not inferior to the SOFA (AUC: 0.740, 0.680, 0.684, and 0.677, respectively). With the new combined NESO tool, the hazard ratio was 1.854 (1.203-2.950) for the intermediate-risk group and 6.810 (3.927-11.811) for the high-risk group relative to the low-risk group. This finding was confirmed in the validation cohort using a separated survival curve for 28-day mortality. The 72 h NEWS2 alone was non-inferior to the admission SOFA or day 3 SOFA for predicting sepsis outcomes. The NESO tool was found to be useful for 7-, 14-, 21-, and 28-day mortality risk stratification in patients with severe sepsis.

9.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 57(6)2021 Jun 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34198847

RESUMO

Background and Objectives: Bronchiectasis and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) often coexist, although the causality is not currently clear. Currently, the clinical influence of COPD on patients with major bronchiectasis over time has not yet been investigated. Material and Methods: This retrospective study recruited consecutive patients with bronchiectasis from outpatient clinic between January 2006 and December 2007. Under the setting of quantification with HRCT, patients who should undergo multiple pulmonary function and exercise tests with regularclinic follow-up were included. The final analysis consisted of 66 eligible patients who were evaluated for clinical status, treatment, and sputum culture from up to 10-year electronic medical records. Results: Of these 66 patients, 45 (68%) had bronchiectasis without COPD and 21 (32%) had COPD. Patients with COPD group had a higher bronchiectasis extent score (32.21 ± 13.09 points vs. 21.89 ± 10.08 points, p = 0.001). Sputum production was reported more frequently by patients with COPD; however, no significant difference was observed after 3 years of follow-up (82.4% vs. 81.6%, p = 0.945). Bronchiectasis extent score correlated with positive sputum culture with Pseudomonas without a synergistic effect from COPD (odds ratio: 1.06, confidence interval: 1.00-1.12, p = 0.031). Regardless of COPD, after 10 years, the proportion of patients using inhaled corticosteroids and/or long-acting ß2-agonist between the two groups was not significantly different. Conclusion: COPD aggravated bronchiectasis extension, which was correlated with chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa colonisation. Moreover, COPD would affect the medium-term (in 3-5 years) bronchiectasis treatment. Therefore, the COPD phenotype of bronchiectasis could be a clinical predictor of the course of treatment.


Assuntos
Bronquiectasia , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica , Humanos , Pulmão , Fenótipo , Estudos Retrospectivos
10.
Nutrients ; 13(6)2021 05 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34070883

RESUMO

Nutritional status affects the survival of patients with sepsis. This retrospective study analyzed the impact of body mass index (BMI) and modified nutrition risk in critically ill (mNUTRIC) scores on survival of these patients. Data of 1291 patients with sepsis admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) were extracted. The outcomes were mortality, duration of stay, ICU stay, and survival curve for 90-day mortality. Logistic regression analysis was performed to examine the risk factors for mortality. Cytokine and biomarker levels were analyzed in 165 patients. The 90-day survival of underweight patients with low mNUTRIC scores was significantly better than that of normal-weight patients with low mNUTRIC scores (70.8% vs. 58.3%, respectively; p = 0.048). Regression model analysis revealed that underweight patients with low mNUTRIC scores had a lower risk of mortality (odds ratio = 0.557; p = 0.082). Moreover, normal-weight patients with low mNUTRIC scores had the lowest human leukocyte antigen DR (HLA-DR) level on days 1 (underweight vs. normal weight vs. overweight: 94.3 vs. 82.1 vs. 94.3, respectively; p = 0.007) and 3 (91.8 vs. 91.0 vs. 93.2, respectively; p = 0.047). Thus, being underweight may not always be harmful if patients have optimal clinical nutritional status. Additionally, HLA-DR levels were the lowest in patients with low survival.


Assuntos
Índice de Massa Corporal , Desnutrição/mortalidade , Estado Nutricional , Sepse/mortalidade , Idoso , Comorbidade , Feminino , Humanos , Tempo de Internação/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Análise de Sobrevida , Taiwan/epidemiologia
11.
Infect Drug Resist ; 14: 2251-2258, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34168466

RESUMO

Objective: The aim of this study was to compare the usefulness of cefoperazone-sulbactam and that of piperacillin-tazobactam in the treatment of hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP) and ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP). Methods: This retrospective study included the adult patients receiving cefoperazone-sulbactam or piperacillin-tazobactam against HAP/VAP in nine hospitals in Taiwan from March 1, 2018 to May 30, 2019. Primary outcome was clinical cure rate. Results: A total of 410 patients were enrolled. Among them, 209 patients received cefoperazone-sulbactam and 201 patients received piperacillin-tazobactam. Overall, cefoperazone-sulbactam group had similar distribution of age, sex, or SOFA scores as piperacillin-tazobactam group. However, cefoperazone-sulbactam had higher comorbidity score and disease severity than piperacillin-tazobactam group (Charlson score: 6.5 ± 2.9 vs 5.7 ± 2.7, p < 0.001; APACHE II score: 21.4 ± 6.2 vs 19.3 ± 6.0, p = 0.002). Regarding clinical outcomes, no significant difference in clinical cure and failure rates was observed between cefoperazone-sulbactam and piperacillin-tazobactam group (clinical cure rate: 80.9% vs 80.1% and clinical failure rate: 17.2% vs 18.4%, p = 0.943). Moreover, no significant difference in clinical effectiveness and ineffectiveness rates was observed between cefoperazone-sulbactam and piperacillin-tazobactam group (clinical effective rate: 80.9% vs 80.6% and clinical ineffective rate: 17.7% vs 18.9%, p = 0.711). The all-cause mortality rates of the cefoperazone-sulbactam and piperacillin-tazobactam groups were similar (23.9% vs 20.9%, p = 0.48). After adjustment of Charlson score and APACHE II score, the similarities in these clinical outcomes did not change in overall patients and patients with HAP or VAP. Conclusion: For treating adult patients with nosocomial pneumonia, cefoperazone-sulbactam was as effective as piperacillin-tazobactam.

12.
J Asthma Allergy ; 14: 371-380, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33888995

RESUMO

Purpose: Circadian clock is synchronized to the 24-hour day by the daily light-dark cycle and proper function of circadian rhythm is essential for many physiological processes. Disruption of circadian rhythm can affect disease processes and influence disease severity, treatment responses, and even survivorship. In this retrospective case-controlled study, we tried to explore whether expression of circadian clock genes was disturbed in patients with bronchial asthma. Patients and Methods: We performed real-time quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reactions to examine the expression of the nine core circadian clock genes (BMAL1, CK1ε, CLOCK, CRY1, CRY2, PER1, PER2, PER3, and TIM) in total leukocytes of peripheral blood collected at chest clinics from 120 patients with asthma and 60 health individuals. Results: Expression levels of the nine circadian clock genes were significantly different between patients and healthy individuals, but not associated with the asthma control status. We also noted the difference of PER3 expression in asthmatic patients with and without nocturnal symptoms. In well-controlled asthmatics, expression of BMAL1, CK1ε, CLOCK, CRY1, CRY2, and PER1 was significantly lower in patients with nocturnal symptoms than those without nocturnal symptoms. However, in not well-controlled asthmatics, expression of only BMAL1, CK1ε, PER1, and PER2 was significantly different between patients with and without nocturnal symptoms. Binary logistic regression analysis selected BMAL1, CKIε, PER3, and TIM as independent factors for bronchial asthma and ROC curves showed the combined expression of these four genes enhanced the capability of predicting asthma (AUC=0.924; 95% CI=0.875-0.958; P<0.001). Conclusion: Our results showed altered expression of circadian clock genes in patients with bronchial asthma and down-regulated PER3 in patients with nocturnal symptoms. Altered expression of circadian clock genes was also observed in asthmatics with or without nocturnal symptoms in well- or not well-controlled subgroups. Combined expression of BMAL1, CKIε, PER3, and TIM could be a potential predictor for bronchial asthma.

13.
J Clin Med ; 10(9)2021 Apr 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33922592

RESUMO

Acute kidney injury (AKI) requiring renal replacement therapy (RRT) increases the mortality of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) patients. The aim of this study was to investigate the outcomes and predictors of RRT in patients with influenza pneumonia-related ARDS. This retrospective cohort study includes patients from eight tertiary referral centers in Taiwan between January and March 2016, and all 282 patients with influenza pneumonia-related ARDS were enrolled. Thirty-four patients suffered from AKI requiring RRT, while 16 patients had underlying end stage renal disease (ESRD). The 30- and 60-day mortality rates were significantly higher in patients with AKI requiring RRT compared with those not requiring RRT (50.0% vs. 19.8%, p value < 0.001; 58.8% vs. 27.2%, p value = 0.001, respectively), but the patients with ESRD had no significant difference in mortality (12.5% vs. 19.8%, p value = 0.744; 31.3% vs. 27.2%, p value = 0.773, respectively). The predictors for AKI requiring RRT included underlying chronic liver disease and C-reactive protein. The mortality predictors for patients with AKI requiring RRT included the pneumonia severity index, tidal volume, and continuous renal replacement therapy. In this study, patients with influenza pneumonia-related ARDS with AKI requiring RRT had significantly higher mortality compared with other patients.

14.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 5022, 2021 03 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33658578

RESUMO

We hypothesized that epigenetics is a link between smoking/allergen exposures and the development of Asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (ACO). A total of 75 of 228 COPD patients were identified as ACO, which was independently associated with increased exacerbations. Microarray analysis identified 404 differentially methylated loci (DML) in ACO patients, and 6575 DML in those with rapid lung function decline in a discovery cohort. In the validation cohort, ACO patients had hypermethylated PDE9A (+ 30,088)/ZNF323 (- 296), and hypomethylated SEPT8 (- 47) genes as compared with either pure COPD patients or healthy non-smokers. Hypermethylated TIGIT (- 173) gene and hypomethylated CYSLTR1 (+ 348)/CCDC88C (+ 125,722)/ADORA2B (+ 1339) were associated with severe airflow limitation, while hypomethylated IFRD1 (- 515) gene with frequent exacerbation in all the COPD patients. Hypermethylated ZNF323 (- 296) / MPV17L (+ 194) and hypomethylated PTPRN2 (+ 10,000) genes were associated with rapid lung function decline. In vitro cigarette smoke extract and ovalbumin concurrent exposure resulted in specific DNA methylation changes of the MPV17L / ZNF323 genes, while 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine treatment reversed promoter hypermethylation-mediated MPV17L under-expression accompanied with reduced apoptosis and decreased generation of reactive oxygen species. Aberrant DNA methylations may constitute a determinant for ACO, and provide a biomarker of airflow limitation, exacerbation, and lung function decline.

15.
Nutrients ; 14(1)2021 Dec 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35011073

RESUMO

Nutritional status could affect clinical outcomes in critical patients. We aimed to determine the prognostic accuracy of the modified Nutrition Risk in Critically Ill (mNUTRIC) score for hospital mortality and treatment outcomes in patients with severe community-acquired pneumonia (SCAP) compared to other clinical prediction rules. We enrolled SCAP patients in a multi-center setting retrospectively. The mNUTRIC score and clinical prediction rules for pneumonia, as well as clinical factors, were calculated and recorded. Clinical outcomes, including mortality status and treatment outcome, were assessed after the patient was discharged. We used the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve method and multivariate logistic regression analysis to determine the prognostic accuracy of the mNUTRIC score for predicting clinical outcomes compared to clinical prediction rules, while 815 SCAP patients were enrolled. ROC curve analysis showed that the mNUTRIC score was the most effective at predicting each clinical outcome and had the highest area under the ROC curve value. The cut-off value for predicting clinical outcomes was 5.5. By multivariate logistic regression analysis, the mNUTRIC score was also an independent predictor of both clinical outcomes in SCAP patients. We concluded that the mNUTRIC score is a better prognostic factor for predicting clinical outcomes in SCAP patients compared to other clinical prediction rules.


Assuntos
Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas/epidemiologia , Estado Terminal , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Estado Nutricional , Pneumonia/epidemiologia , Resultado do Tratamento , APACHE , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas/mortalidade , Feminino , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Avaliação Nutricional , Pneumonia/mortalidade , Curva ROC , Estudos Retrospectivos , Risco
16.
Int J Infect Dis ; 101: 210-219, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32971238

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study aims to explore the role of M2a polarization and formyl peptide receptor (FPR) regulation in the reactivation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infection. METHODS: M1/M2a monocyte percentage and FPR1/2/3 protein expression of blood immune cells were measured in 38 patients with sputum culture (+) active pulmonary TB disease, 18 subjects with latent TB infection (LTBI), and 28 noninfected healthy subjects (NIHS) using flow cytometry method. RESULTS: M1 percentage was decreased in active TB versus either NIHS or LTBI group, while M2a percentage and M2a/M1 percentage ratio were increased. FPR1 expression on M1/M2a, FPR2 expression on M1, and FPR3 expression of M1 were all decreased in active TB versus LTBI group, while FPR1 over FPR2 expression ratio on NK T cell was increased in active TB versus either NIHS or LTBI group. In 11 patients with active TB disease, M1 percentage became normal again after anti-TB treatment. In vitro Mtb-specific antigen stimulation of monocytic THP-1 cells resulted in M2a polarization in association with increased FPR2 expression on M2a. CONCLUSIONS: Increased M2a and decreased M1 phenotypes of blood monocyte may serve as a marker for active TB disease, while decreased FPR1 on blood monocyte may indicate LTBI status.


Assuntos
Polaridade Celular , Tuberculose Latente/fisiopatologia , Monócitos/citologia , Receptores de Formil Peptídeo/sangue , Tuberculose Pulmonar/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Tuberculose Latente/sangue , Tuberculose Latente/microbiologia , Tuberculose Latente/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/fisiologia , Tuberculose Pulmonar/sangue , Tuberculose Pulmonar/microbiologia , Tuberculose Pulmonar/patologia
17.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 12702, 2020 07 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32728165

RESUMO

We hypothesized that Ventilator-Associated Event (VAE) within 28 days upon admission to medical intensive care units (ICUs) can be a predictor for poor outcomes in sepsis patients. We aimed to determine the risk factors and associated outcomes of VAE. A total of 453 consecutive mechanically ventilated (MV) sepsis patients were enrolled. Of them, 136 patients had immune profile study. Early VAE (< 7-day MV, n = 33) was associated with a higher mortality (90 days: 81.8% vs. 23.0% [non-VAE], P < 0.01), while late VAE (developed between 7 and 28 days, n = 85) was associated with longer MV day (43.8 days vs. 23.3 days [non-VAE], P < 0.05). The 90-day Kaplan-Meier survival curves showed three lines that separate the groups (non-VAE, early VAE, and late VAE). Cox regression models with time-varying coefficient covariates (adjusted for the number of days from intubation to VAE development) confirmed that VAE which occurred within 28 days upon admission to the medical ICUs can be associated with higher 90-day mortality. The risk factors for VAE development include impaired immune response (lower human leukocyte antigen D-related expression, higher interleukin-10 expression) and sepsis progression with elevated SOFA score (especially in coagulation sub-score).


Assuntos
Antígenos HLA-D/metabolismo , Interleucina-10/metabolismo , Respiração Artificial/instrumentação , Sepse/terapia , Ventiladores Mecânicos/efeitos adversos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Tempo de Internação , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Sepse/imunologia , Análise de Sobrevida
18.
Ther Adv Respir Dis ; 14: 1753466620942417, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32718277

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with severe influenza-related acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) have high morbidity and mortality. Moreover, nosocomial lower respiratory tract infection (NLRTI) complicates their clinical management and possibly worsens their outcomes. This study aimed to explore the clinical features and impact of NLRTI in patients with severe influenza-related ARDS. METHODS: This was an institutional review board approved, retrospective, observational study conducted in eight medical centers in Taiwan. From January 1 to March 31 in 2016, subjects were enrolled from intensive care units (ICUs) with virology-proven influenza pneumonia, while all of those patients with ARDS requiring invasive mechanical ventilation and without bacterial community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) were analyzed. Baseline characteristics, critical-illness data and clinical outcomes were recorded. RESULTS: Among the 316 screened patients with severe influenza pneumonia, 250 with acute respiratory failure requiring intubation met the criteria of ARDS, without having bacterial CAP. Among them, 72 patients developed NLRTI. The independent risk factors for NLRTI included immunosuppressant use before influenza infection [odds ratio (OR), 5.669; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.770-18.154], extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) use after ARDS (OR, 2.440; 95% CI, 1.214-4.904) and larger corticosteroid dosage after ARDS (OR, 1.209; 95% CI, 1.038-1.407). Patients with NLRTI had higher in-hospital mortality and longer ICU stay, hospitalization and duration on mechanical ventilation. CONCLUSION: We found that immunosuppressant use before influenza infection, ECMO use, and larger steroid dosage after ARDS independently predict NLRTI in influenza-related ARDS. Moreover, NLRTI results in poorer outcomes in patients with severe influenza.The reviews of this paper are available via the supplemental material section.


Assuntos
Coinfecção , Infecção Hospitalar/microbiologia , Influenza Humana/virologia , Pneumonia Bacteriana/microbiologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório/virologia , Adulto , Idoso , Infecção Hospitalar/diagnóstico , Infecção Hospitalar/mortalidade , Infecção Hospitalar/terapia , Oxigenação por Membrana Extracorpórea/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Imunossupressores/efeitos adversos , Influenza Humana/diagnóstico , Influenza Humana/mortalidade , Influenza Humana/terapia , Intubação Intratraqueal/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pneumonia Bacteriana/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Bacteriana/mortalidade , Pneumonia Bacteriana/terapia , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Respiração Artificial/efeitos adversos , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório/diagnóstico , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório/mortalidade , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório/terapia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Esteroides/efeitos adversos , Taiwan , Fatores de Tempo
19.
Crit Care Med ; 48(5): e391-e399, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32187077

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To investigate the safety, feasibility, and possible adverse events of single-dose human umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells in patients with moderate-to-severe acute respiratory distress syndrome. DESIGN: Prospective phase I clinical trial. SETTING: Medical center in Kaohsiung, Taiwan. PATIENTS: Moderate-to-severe acute respiratory distress syndrome with a PaO2/FIO2 ratio less than 200. INTERVENTIONS: Scaling for doses was required by Taiwan Food and Drug Administration as follows: the first three patients received low-dose human umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells (1.0 × 10 cells/kg), the next three patients with intermediate dose (5.0 × 10 cells/kg), and the final three patients with high dose (1.0 × 10 cells/kg) between December 2017 and August 2019. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Nine consecutive patients were enrolled into the study. In-hospital mortality was 33.3% (3/9), including two with recurrent septic shock and one with ventilator-induced severe pneumomediastinum and subcutaneous emphysema. No serious prespecified cell infusion-associated or treatment-related adverse events was identified in any patient. Serial flow-cytometric analyses of circulating inflammatory biomarkers (CD14CD33/CD11b+CD16+/CD16+MPO+/CD11b+MPO+/CD14CD33+) and mesenchymal stem cell markers (CD26+CD45-/CD29+CD45-/CD34+CD45-/CD44+CD45-/CD73+CD45-/CD90+CD45-/CD105+CD45-/CD26+CD45-) were notably progressively reduced (p for trend < 0.001), whereas the immune cell markers (Helper-T-cell/Cytotoxity-T-cell/Regulatory-T-cell) were notably increased (p for trend < 0.001) after cell infusion. CONCLUSIONS: The result of this phase I clinical trial showed that a single-dose IV infusion of human umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells was safe with favorable outcome in nine acute respiratory distress syndrome patients.


Assuntos
Transplante de Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/métodos , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/fisiologia , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório/terapia , Cordão Umbilical/fisiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Cálculos da Dosagem de Medicamento , Feminino , Mortalidade Hospitalar/tendências , Humanos , Masculino , Transplante de Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/efeitos adversos , Transplante de Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/mortalidade , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/classificação , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório/mortalidade , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
20.
BMJ Open ; 10(2): e033898, 2020 02 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32102816

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Current mortality prediction models used in the intensive care unit (ICU) have a limited role for specific diseases such as influenza, and we aimed to establish an explainable machine learning (ML) model for predicting mortality in critically ill influenza patients using a real-world severe influenza data set. STUDY DESIGN: A cross-sectional retrospective multicentre study in Taiwan SETTING: Eight medical centres in Taiwan. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 336 patients requiring ICU-admission for virology-proven influenza at eight hospitals during an influenza epidemic between October 2015 and March 2016. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: We employed extreme gradient boosting (XGBoost) to establish the prediction model, compared the performance with logistic regression (LR) and random forest (RF), demonstrated the feature importance categorised by clinical domains, and used SHapley Additive exPlanations (SHAP) for visualised interpretation. RESULTS: The data set contained 76 features of the 336 patients with severe influenza. The severity was apparently high, as shown by the high Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II score (22, 17 to 29) and pneumonia severity index score (118, 88 to 151). XGBoost model (area under the curve (AUC): 0.842; 95% CI 0.749 to 0.928) outperformed RF (AUC: 0.809; 95% CI 0.629 to 0.891) and LR (AUC: 0.701; 95% CI 0.573 to 0.825) for predicting 30-day mortality. To give clinicians an intuitive understanding of feature exploitation, we stratified features by the clinical domain. The cumulative feature importance in the fluid balance domain, ventilation domain, laboratory data domain, demographic and symptom domain, management domain and severity score domain was 0.253, 0.113, 0.177, 0.140, 0.152 and 0.165, respectively. We further used SHAP plots to illustrate associations between features and 30-day mortality in critically ill influenza patients. CONCLUSIONS: We used a real-world data set and applied an ML approach, mainly XGBoost, to establish a practical and explainable mortality prediction model in critically ill influenza patients.


Assuntos
Estado Terminal/mortalidade , Influenza Humana/mortalidade , Aprendizado de Máquina , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Teóricos , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Estudos Retrospectivos , Taiwan
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...