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1.
Crit Care Med ; 2020 Mar 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32187077

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To investigate the safety, feasibility, and possible adverse events of single-dose human umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells in patients with moderate-to-severe acute respiratory distress syndrome. DESIGN: Prospective phase I clinical trial. SETTING: Medical center in Kaohsiung, Taiwan. PATIENTS: Moderate-to-severe acute respiratory distress syndrome with a PaO2/FIO2 ratio less than 200. INTERVENTIONS: Scaling for doses was required by Taiwan Food and Drug Administration as follows: the first three patients received low-dose human umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells (1.0 × 10 cells/kg), the next three patients with intermediate dose (5.0 × 10 cells/kg), and the final three patients with high dose (1.0 × 10 cells/kg) between December 2017 and August 2019. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Nine consecutive patients were enrolled into the study. In-hospital mortality was 33.3% (3/9), including two with recurrent septic shock and one with ventilator-induced severe pneumomediastinum and subcutaneous emphysema. No serious prespecified cell infusion-associated or treatment-related adverse events was identified in any patient. Serial flow-cytometric analyses of circulating inflammatory biomarkers (CD14CD33/CD11b+CD16+/CD16+MPO+/CD11b+MPO+/CD14CD33+) and mesenchymal stem cell markers (CD26+CD45-/CD29+CD45-/CD34+CD45-/CD44+CD45-/CD73+CD45-/CD90+CD45-/CD105+CD45-/CD26+CD45-) were notably progressively reduced (p for trend < 0.001), whereas the immune cell markers (Helper-T-cell/Cytotoxity-T-cell/Regulatory-T-cell) were notably increased (p for trend < 0.001) after cell infusion. CONCLUSIONS: The result of this phase I clinical trial showed that a single-dose IV infusion of human umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells was safe with favorable outcome in nine acute respiratory distress syndrome patients.

2.
Oncologist ; 25(3): e545-e554, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32162827

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-mutant lung cancer remains an orphan of specific targeted therapy. The variable responses to anti-HER2 therapies in these patients prompt us to examine impact of HER2 variants and co-mutations on responses to anti-HER2 treatments in lung cancer. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients with stage IV/recurrent HER2-mutant lung cancers identified through next-generation sequencings were recruited from seven hospitals. The study comprised a cohort A to establish the patterns of HER2 variants and co-mutations in lung cancer and a cohort B to assess associations between HER2 variants, co-mutations, and clinical outcomes. RESULTS: The study included 118 patients (cohort A, n = 86; cohort B, n = 32). Thirty-one HER2 variants and 35 co-mutations were detected. Predominant variants were A775_G776insYVMA (49/118, 42%), G778_P780dup (11/118, 9%), and G776delinsVC (9/118, 8%). TP53 was the most common co-mutation (61/118, 52%). In cohort B, objective response rates with afatinib were 0% (0/14, 95% confidence interval [CI], 0%-26.8%), 40% (4/10, 14.7%-72.6%), and 13% (1/8, 0.7%-53.3%) in group 1 (A775_G776insYVMA, n = 14), group 2 (G778_P780dup, G776delinsVC, n = 10), and group 3 (missense mutation, n = 8), respectively (p = .018). Median progression-free survival in group 1 (1.2 months; 95% CI, 0-2.4) was shorter than those in group 2 (7.6 months, 4.9-10.4; hazard ratio [HR], 0.009; 95% CI, 0.001-0.079; p < .001) and group 3 (3.6 months, 2.6-4.5; HR, 0.184; 95% CI, 0.062-0.552; p = .003). TP53 co-mutations (6.317; 95% CI, 2.180-18.302; p = .001) and PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway activations (19.422; 95% CI, 4.098-92.039; p < .001) conferred additional resistance to afatinib. CONCLUSION: G778_P780dup and G776delinsVC derived the greatest benefits from afatinib among HER2 variants. Co-mutation patterns were additional response modifiers. Refining patient population based on patterns of HER2 variants and co-mutations may help improve the efficacy of anti-HER2 treatment in lung cancer. IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-mutant lung cancers are a group of heterogenous diseases with up to 31 different variants and 35 concomitant genomic aberrations. Different HER2 variants exhibit divergent sensitivities to anti-HER2 treatments. Certain variants, G778_P780dup and G776delinsVC, derive sustained clinical benefits from afatinib, whereas the predominant variant, A775_G776insYVMA, is resistant to most anti-HER2 treatments. TP53 is the most common co-mutation in HER2-mutant lung cancers. Co-mutations in TP53 and the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway confer additional resistance to anti-HER2 treatments in lung cancer. The present data suggest that different HER2 mutations in lung cancer, like its sibling epidermal growth factor receptor, should be analyzed independently in future studies.

3.
Oncologist ; 2020 Mar 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32134163

RESUMO

LESSONS LEARNED: Results of the KEYNOTE-032 study showed that the safety and pharmacokinetic profiles of pembrolizumab in Chinese patients were comparable with those observed in international studies, and antitumor activity was encouraging. These data support further evaluation of pembrolizumab to improve clinical outcomes in Chinese patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer. BACKGROUND: The KEYNOTE-032 study evaluated pembrolizumab pharmacokinetics and clinical outcomes in Chinese patients with locally advanced and/or metastatic non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and prior treatment failure and/or ineligibility for standard therapy. METHODS: Patients were randomized 1:1:1 to pembrolizumab 2 mg/kg, 10 mg/kg, or 200 mg every 3 weeks (up to 35 cycles). Safety and pharmacokinetics were primary endpoints; antitumor activity was a secondary endpoint. RESULTS: A total of 42 of 44 randomized patients received pembrolizumab treatment (2 mg/kg, n = 14; 10 mg/kg, n = 13; 200 mg, n = 15). Treatment-related adverse events (AEs) occurred in 29 of 42 (69%) patients (grade 3-4, 4/42 [10%]); 5 (12%) had immune-mediated AEs and infusion reactions. Pembrolizumab single dose half-life following 2 mg/kg, 10 mg/kg, and 200 mg was 15.1, 15.8, and 12.3 days, respectively. Serum exposure at the doses studied (range, 2-10 mg/kg) was approximately linear; steady-state area under the curve0-21 days (95% confidence interval [CI]) was 730.9 (627.4-851.6), 2,819.2 (2,009.4-3,955.4), and 931.0 (724.4-1,196.6) µg•day/mL, respectively. After 7.9 (range, 0.7-13.1) months median follow-up overall, objective response rate was 14.3% (95% CI, 5.4%-28.5%); median progression-free survival was 2.1 (95% CI, 2.1-4.2) months, and median overall survival was not reached (95% CI, 6.6 months-not reached). CONCLUSION: Pembrolizumab had manageable toxicity, linear serum exposure, and encouraging antitumor activity in Chinese patients with advanced NSCLC.

4.
J Thorac Oncol ; 2020 Feb 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32036069

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: HER2 exon 20 insertion (ex20ins) is one of the most intractable problems in lung cancer. Most ex20ins are resistant to available EGFR or pan-HER tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs), with the exception of a few mutants. However, the mechanism for TKI response and resistance of HER2 ex20ins remains poorly understood. METHODS: Next-generation sequencing-based genomic profiling data of 4139 patients with lung cancer were interrogated for HER2 ex20ins. Structural modeling and molecular dynamics simulations of common HER2 ex20ins were carried out to provide insights into the mechanism of activation and response heterogeneity of ex20ins. Molecular docking was performed to predict affinity to TKIs. Therapeutic decisions for patients were made on the basis of the results of genomic profiling. RESULTS: From 155 HER2-mutant lung cancer cases, Y772_A775dup and G778_P780dup were identified in 74 (47.7%) and 18 (11.6%) cases, respectively. Molecular dynamics simulations revealed that HER2 ex20ins led to ligand-independent kinase activation by changing the conformational landscape of HER2 kinase and restricting kinase conformation in the active state. G778_P780dup had a three-amino acid extension in the αC-ß4 loop and retained the HER2-characteristic G776 and G778. Compared with Y772_A775dup, it had less restriction on kinase conformational sampling and higher affinity to afatinib, dacomitinib, pyrotinib, and poziotinib. Treating lung adenocarcinomas carrying G778_P780dup with these inhibitors led to sustained tumor responses in six of the 10 patients. CONCLUSIONS: The kinase conformational landscape dictated by the length of the αC-ß4 loop and residues at HER2 776 and 778 position explains TKI sensitivity in ex20ins. This finding could guide therapeutic decisions with currently available therapies and future drug development strategies.

7.
ESMO Open ; 5(1)2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32054633

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with a history of prior cancer are frequently excluded from cancer trials. Previous studies indicated that prior cancer does not adversely impact clinical outcomes for patients with lung cancer older than 65 years. However, it remains unknown whether these results are applicable to patients with lung cancer aged younger than 65 years old. The study aimed to investigate the impact of prior cancer history on younger patients with lung cancer. METHODS: We identified younger patients with lung cancer (<65 years) diagnosed between 2004 and 2009 in the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database. Propensity score matching was performed to balance differences in baseline characteristics between groups. Kaplan-Meier method and the Cox proportional hazards model were used to evaluate the impact of prior cancer on overall survival (OS). RESULTS: Among 103 370 eligible patients with lung cancer, 15.18% had a history of prior cancer. Lung and bronchus (25.83%), breast (14.13%), prostate (8.85%) and cervix uteri (4.74%) were the most common prior cancer types. Of prior cancers, 61.56% are localised and regional stages. More than 67.98% of prior cancers were diagnosed within 5 years of the index lung cancer diagnosis. The median times of diagnosis for prior cancers were 38 months. Patients with prior cancer had the same/non-inferior OS as that of patients without a prior cancer diagnosis (propensity score-adjusted HR=1.01, 95% CI=0.99 to 1.04, p=0.324). Subgroup analyses stratified by timing of prior cancer displayed almost the same tendency (p>0.05). Interestingly, early-stage patients with a history of prior cancer had adverse survival curves (p<0.05). Advanced-stage patients with prior cancer had non-inferior survival (p>0.05). CONCLUSIONS: A prior cancer diagnosis has a heterogeneous effect on the survival of patients with lung cancer aged <65 years across different stages, but further prospective studies are still warranted.

8.
BMJ Open ; 10(2): e033898, 2020 Feb 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32102816

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Current mortality prediction models used in the intensive care unit (ICU) have a limited role for specific diseases such as influenza, and we aimed to establish an explainable machine learning (ML) model for predicting mortality in critically ill influenza patients using a real-world severe influenza data set. STUDY DESIGN: A cross-sectional retrospective multicentre study in Taiwan SETTING: Eight medical centres in Taiwan. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 336 patients requiring ICU-admission for virology-proven influenza at eight hospitals during an influenza epidemic between October 2015 and March 2016. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: We employed extreme gradient boosting (XGBoost) to establish the prediction model, compared the performance with logistic regression (LR) and random forest (RF), demonstrated the feature importance categorised by clinical domains, and used SHapley Additive exPlanations (SHAP) for visualised interpretation. RESULTS: The data set contained 76 features of the 336 patients with severe influenza. The severity was apparently high, as shown by the high Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II score (22, 17 to 29) and pneumonia severity index score (118, 88 to 151). XGBoost model (area under the curve (AUC): 0.842; 95% CI 0.749 to 0.928) outperformed RF (AUC: 0.809; 95% CI 0.629 to 0.891) and LR (AUC: 0.701; 95% CI 0.573 to 0.825) for predicting 30-day mortality. To give clinicians an intuitive understanding of feature exploitation, we stratified features by the clinical domain. The cumulative feature importance in the fluid balance domain, ventilation domain, laboratory data domain, demographic and symptom domain, management domain and severity score domain was 0.253, 0.113, 0.177, 0.140, 0.152 and 0.165, respectively. We further used SHAP plots to illustrate associations between features and 30-day mortality in critically ill influenza patients. CONCLUSIONS: We used a real-world data set and applied an ML approach, mainly XGBoost, to establish a practical and explainable mortality prediction model in critically ill influenza patients.

9.
Cancer Med ; 9(5): 1721-1732, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31955525

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Platinum-based chemotherapy is the standard of care as first-line treatment for recurrent or metastatic nasopharyngeal carcinoma (RM-NPC); however, the prognosis of patients with RM-NPC remains poor. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of anti-epidermal growth factor receptor (anti-EGFR) antibody plus chemotherapy for RM-NPC. METHODS: RM-NPC patients who received first-line chemotherapy plus an anti-EGFR antibody were recruited from Sun Yat-Sen University Cancer Center between July 2007 and November 2017. Survival analyses were performed using the Kaplan-Meier method with a log-rank test. A Cox proportional hazards model was used for the multivariate analyses. RESULTS: A total of 203 patients were enrolled in the present study. The median follow-up time was 34.3 months (interquartile range: 19.7-66.5 months). The median progression-free survival (PFS) was 8.9 months (95% CI: 7.7-10.0 months) and the median overall survival (OS) was 29.1 months (95% CI: 23.5-34.6 months). The 1-, 3-, and 5-year PFS and OS rates were 35.5% and 79.6%, 15.2% and 42.5%, and 11.6% and 23.6%, respectively. The objective response rate (ORR) was 67.5% and the disease control rate (DCR) was 91.1%. The multivariate analysis identified the following prognostic factors for PFS: anti-EGFR agent (P = .010), recurrence/metastasis sequence (P = .016), KPS (P = .017), and combined chemotherapy regimen (P = .015). Independent risk factors for OS included age >43 years (P = .002), Karnofsky performance score ≤80 (P < .001), and higher level of baseline Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) DNA (P = .008). Leukopenia was the most common adverse event (AE) in this cohort (any grade, 84.2%; grades 3-4, 43.4%). CONCLUSIONS: Anti-EGFR antibody plus chemotherapy achieved promising antitumor activity with a tolerable toxicity profile in RM-NPC. Thus, randomized clinical trials are warranted to compare the efficacy of chemotherapy with or without anti-EGFR antibody in these patients.

10.
Crit Care Med ; 2020 Jan 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31923030

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the number of adult critical care beds in Asian countries and regions in relation to population size. DESIGN: Cross-sectional observational study. SETTING: Twenty-three Asian countries and regions, covering 92.1% of the continent's population. PARTICIPANTS: Ten low-income and lower-middle-income economies, five upper-middle-income economies, and eight high-income economies according to the World Bank classification. INTERVENTIONS: Data closest to 2017 on critical care beds, including ICU and intermediate care unit beds, were obtained through multiple means, including government sources, national critical care societies, colleges, or registries, personal contacts, and extrapolation of data. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Cumulatively, there were 3.6 critical care beds per 100,000 population. The median number of critical care beds per 100,000 population per country and region was significantly lower in low- and lower-middle-income economies (2.3; interquartile range, 1.4-2.7) than in upper-middle-income economies (4.6; interquartile range, 3.5-15.9) and high-income economies (12.3; interquartile range, 8.1-20.8) (p = 0.001), with a large variation even across countries and regions of the same World Bank income classification. This number was independently predicted by the World Bank income classification on multivariable analysis, and significantly correlated with the number of acute hospital beds per 100,000 population (r = 0.19; p = 0.047), the universal health coverage service coverage index (r = 0.35; p = 0.003), and the Human Development Index (r = 0.40; p = 0.001) on univariable analysis. CONCLUSIONS: Critical care bed capacity varies widely across Asia and is significantly lower in low- and lower-middle-income than in upper-middle-income and high-income countries and regions.

11.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 19756, 2019 Dec 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31875017

RESUMO

The association between sepsis and segmented neutrophil-to-monocyte (SeMo) ratio is unclear. We postulated that an increase in dynamic SeMo ratio measurement can be applied in risk stratification. This retrospective study included 727 consecutive sepsis patients in medical intensive care units (ICUs), including a subpopulation of 153 patients. According to the leukocyte (white blood cell, WBC) count on day 3 (normal range, between 4,000/µL and 12,000/µL) and delta SeMo (value of SeMo ratio on day 3 minus value of SeMo ratio on day 1; normal delta SeMo, <7), patients were grouped into 3 (delta SeMo & WBC tool). The survival lines separated significantly with hazard ratios of 1.854 (1.342-2.560) for the delta SeMo or WBC abnormal group and 2.860 (1.849-4.439) for the delta SeMo and WBC abnormal group compared to the delta SeMo and WBC normal group. Delta SeMo & WBC tool and delta sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA) tool performed better than the other tools (delta SeMo, delta WBC, day 3 WBC, and day 1 WBC). Severity in delta SeMo & WBC tool and delta SeMo tool reflected the immune dysfunction score, cytokine expression, and human leukocyte antigen D-related monocyte expression on day 1 and day 3. There was correspondence between delta SOFA and delta WBC and between delta SeMo and delta cytokine expression. Incorporation of dynamic SeMo ratio with WBC count provides risk stratification for sepsis patients admitted in the ICU.

12.
Ann Transl Med ; 7(18): 439, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31700875

RESUMO

Background: With the improvement of survival for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), research focused on second primary malignancy (SPM) in NSCLC survivors is becoming urgent. This study aimed to estimate the risk of SPM in NSCLC patients. Methods: We retrospectively analysed NSCLC patients diagnosed between 2004 and 2010 in SEER database. We firstly evaluated the crude and cumulative incidence of SPM. SPM incidence in NSCLC survivors compared to that in the reference population was calculated as standardized incidence ratio (SIR). A competing risk nomogram was also built, to predict the incidence of SPM. Results: The crude and 10-year cumulative incidences of SPM were 4.04% and 5.05%, respectively, while the SIR was 1.62. The nomogram was well calibrated and had good discriminative ability, with c-index of 0.80. It showed a significantly wide interval of SPM cumulative incidence between the first and tenth-decile according to the risk model (1.04% vs. 16.70%, P<0.05). The decision curve analysis indicated that the clinical net benefit of risk model was larger than that in other scenarios (all-screening or no-screening) in a range of threshold probabilities (1% to 20%). Conclusions: Our study firstly performed a systematic estimation of the incidence of SPM in NSCLC, which implied the necessity of a risk predicting model. We developed the first competing risk nomogram to predict the risk of SPM, which performed well in the evaluation and might be helpful for individualized SPM screening.

13.
Ann Transl Med ; 7(18): 452, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31700888

RESUMO

Background: Four multi-targeted tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) including apatinib, anlotinib, fruquintinib and lenvatinib are currently available as third-line regimen for advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients who failed at least two lines of systemic therapy. Limited evidence was provided to demonstrate the general efficacy and safety profile of these drugs as third-line treatment approach for NSCLC. Methods: Eligible literature was searched from electronic database. Data of objective response rate (ORR), disease control rate (DCR), progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS), treatment related adverse event (TRAE), treatment related adverse event grade 3-5 (TRAE3-5), hypertension, proteinuria, hand-foot skin reaction (HFSR), elevated ALT/AST, nausea and vomiting, diarrhea were synthetically extracted. Multiple-treatments comparisons (MTCs) based on a Bayesian consistency model integrated the efficacy and toxicity outcomes. Rank probabilities of each regimen were assessed and clustered by the surface under the cumulative ranking curve. Results: Five phase II/III randomized trials involving 915 advanced NSCLC patients were enrolled. MTCs showed that four multi-targeted TKIs shared equivalent efficacy in terms of outcome measures, of which anlotinib stood out in ORR (OR =39.26; 95% CI: 2.36-2,748.06), DCR (OR =8.69; 95% CI: 1.70-50.18) and PFS (HR =0.27; 95% CI: 0.10-0.78) when compared with placebo plus BSC. No significantly differences were observed among these TKIs and placebo with respect to OS, TRAE and TRAE 3-5. Fruquintinib and lenvatinib may relate to high rate of HFSR while anlotinib may relate to hypertension. Conclusions: Multi-targeted TKIs (apatinib, anlotinib, fruquintinib and lenvatinib) with acceptable efficacy and safety profile were options for advanced NSCLC in third-line setting.

14.
J Immunother Cancer ; 7(1): 322, 2019 Nov 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31753012

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) reactivation is a serious complication in patients with cancers and HBV infection undergoing immunosuppressant treatment or chemotherapy. However, the safety of anti-programmed cell death (PD) -1 and anti-programmed cell death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) therapy in these patients is unknown because they were excluded from clinical trials of immunotherapy. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study involved consecutive hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) -positive cancer patients who were referred to Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center and received an anti-PD-1/PD-L1 antibody between January 1, 2015 and July 31, 2018. The primary end point was the rate of the occurrence of HBV reactivation. RESULTS: In total, 114 eligible patients were included, among whom 90 (79%) were male, and the median (range) age was 46 (16-76) years. Six patients (5.3%) developed HBV reactivation, occurring at a median of 18 weeks (range, 3-35 weeks) from the commencement of immunotherapy. Among these patients, all of them had undetectable baseline HBV DNA; one had prophylactic antiviral therapy while five did not; four were positive for Hepatitis B e antigen while the other two were negative. At reactivation, the median HBV DNA level was 3.89 × 104 IU/mL (range, 1.80 × 103-6.00 × 107 IU/mL); five had HBV-related hepatitis and one exhibited increasing HBV DNA level without alanine transaminase elevation. No HBV-related fatal events occurred. The lack of antiviral prophylaxis was the only significant risk factor for HBV reactivation (odds ratio, 17.50 [95% CI, 1.95-157.07], P = .004). CONCLUSIONS: HBV reactivation occurs in a subset of HBsAg-positive cancer patients undergoing anti-PD-1 or anti-PD-L1 immunotherapy. Regular monitoring of HBV DNA and antiviral prophylaxis are advised to prevent this potentially fatal complication.

17.
Oncologist ; 2019 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31748336

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-mutant lung cancer remains an orphan of specific targeted therapy. The variable responses to anti-HER2 therapies in these patients prompt us to examine impact of HER2 variants and co-mutations on responses to anti-HER2 treatments in lung cancer. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients with stage IV/recurrent HER2-mutant lung cancers identified through next-generation sequencings were recruited from seven hospitals. The study comprised a cohort A to establish the patterns of HER2 variants and co-mutations in lung cancer and a cohort B to assess associations between HER2 variants, co-mutations, and clinical outcomes. RESULTS: The study included 118 patients (cohort A, n = 86; cohort B, n = 32). Thirty-one HER2 variants and 35 co-mutations were detected. Predominant variants were A775_G776insYVMA (49/118, 42%), G778_P780dup (11/118, 9%), and G776delinsVC (9/118, 8%). TP53 was the most common co-mutation (61/118, 52%). In cohort B, objective response rates with afatinib were 0% (0/14, 95% confidence interval [CI], 0%-26.8%), 40% (4/10, 14.7%-72.6%), and 13% (1/8, 0.7%-53.3%) in group 1 (A775_G776insYVMA, n = 14), group 2 (G778_P780dup, G776delinsVC, n = 10), and group 3 (missense mutation, n = 8), respectively (p = .018). Median progression-free survival in group 1 (1.2 months; 95% CI, 0-2.4) was shorter than those in group 2 (7.6 months, 4.9-10.4; hazard ratio [HR], 0.009; 95% CI, 0.001-0.079; p < .001) and group 3 (3.6 months, 2.6-4.5; HR, 0.184; 95% CI, 0.062-0.552; p = .003). TP53 co-mutations (6.317; 95% CI, 2.180-18.302; p = .001) and PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway activations (19.422; 95% CI, 4.098-92.039; p < .001) conferred additional resistance to afatinib. CONCLUSION: G778_P780dup and G776delinsVC derived the greatest benefits from afatinib among HER2 variants. Co-mutation patterns were additional response modifiers. Refining patient population based on patterns of HER2 variants and co-mutations may help improve the efficacy of anti-HER2 treatment in lung cancer. IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-mutant lung cancers are a group of heterogenous diseases with up to 31 different variants and 35 concomitant genomic aberrations. Different HER2 variants exhibit divergent sensitivities to anti-HER2 treatments. Certain variants, G778_P780dup and G776delinsVC, derive sustained clinical benefits from afatinib, whereas the predominant variant, A775_G776insYVMA, is resistant to most anti-HER2 treatments. TP53 is the most common co-mutation in HER2-mutant lung cancers. Co-mutations in TP53 and the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway confer additional resistance to anti-HER2 treatments in lung cancer. The present data suggest that different HER2 mutations in lung cancer, like its sibling epidermal growth factor receptor, should be analyzed independently in future studies.

18.
Cancer Commun (Lond) ; 39(1): 69, 2019 11 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31699150

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Gefitinib, as the first epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKI) approved for the treatment of advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), has been proved to significantly improve the progression-free survival (PFS) in the first-line setting but suffers from resistance 7-10 months after treatment initiation. Apatinib (YN968D1), a potent vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR) 2-TKI, specifically binds to VEGFR2 and leads to anti-angiogenetic and anti-neoplastic effect. Concurrent inhibition of VEGFR and EGFR pathways represents a rational approach to improve treatment responses and delay the onset of treatment resistance in EGFR-mutant NSCLC. This ACTIVE study aims to assess the combination of apatinib and gefitinib as a new treatment approach for EGFR-mutant NSCLC as a first-line setting. METHODS: This multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase III study (NCT02824458) has been designed to assess the efficacy and safety of apatinib or placebo combined with gefitinib as a first-line treatment for patients with EGFR-mutant advanced NSCLC. A total of 310 patients with EGFR-mutation (19del or 21L858R), pathological stage IIIB to IV non-squamous NSCLC were to be enrolled. The primary endpoint is investigator assessment of PFS, and the secondary endpoints include independent radiological central (IRC)-confirmed PFS, overall survival (OS), objective response rate (ORR), disease control rate (DCR), time to progressive disease (TTPD), duration of response (DoR), quality of life (QoL) and safety. The patients are randomized in a 1:1 ratio to receive gefitinib (250 mg, p.o. q.d.) plus apatinib (500 mg, p.o. q.d.) or gefitinib plus placebo, given until disease progression or intolerable adverse events. Exploratory biomarker analysis will be performed. This study is being conducted across China and comprises of 30 participating centers. Enrollment commenced in August 2017 and finished in December 2018, most of the patients are in the follow-up period. ANTICIPATED OUTCOMES AND SIGNIFICANCE: The present study will be the first to evaluate the efficacy and safety profile of the combination of apatinib plus gefitinib as a first-line therapy for patients with EGFR-positive advanced non-squamous NSCLC. Importantly, this trial will provide comprehensive evidence on the treatment of EGFR-TKIs combined with antiangiogenic therapy. Trial registration Clinicaltrials.gov NCT02824458. Registered 23 June 2016.

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