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1.
Indoor Air ; 2019 Dec 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31797459

RESUMO

Cooking is one of the main sources of indoor air pollution in China. Given emerging evidence of a link between air pollutants and neurodevelopmental delays, we examined whether maternal experiences with cooking during gestation might increase their child's hyperactivity at 3 years of age. The participants involved 45 518 mothers of children who were newly enrolled at kindergarten in the Longhua District of Shenzhen from 2015 to 2017. The results show that maternal exposure to cooking fumes during pregnancy was related to an increased risk of their offspring having hyperactivity behaviors at the age of 3 years. Compared with pregnant mothers who never cooked, pregnant mothers who cooked sometimes, often, or always had children who showed a significantly higher hyperactivity risk. Households using cooking fuels such as coal, gas during the mothers' pregnancy, exhibited more hyperactivity behaviors in the young child when compared to those using electricity for cooking. In addition, poor ventilation during cooking, while mothers were pregnant, was found to be a significant risk factor for clinical levels of the offspring's hyperactive behaviors. Furthermore, the positive association with maternal cooking during pregnancy and their offsprings' hyperactivity was relatively consistent across strata defined by social class, education, and other covariates.

2.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 2019 Dec 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31802738

RESUMO

Infection with Strongyloides stercoralis can cause life-threatening disease in immunocompromised patients. Strongyloidiasis is thought to be hyper-endemic in tropical Australia, but there are limited contemporary seroprevalence data to inform local elimination strategies. To define the temporospatial epidemiology of strongyloidiasis in Far North Queensland, tropical Australia, the serology results of 2,429 individuals tested for the infection between 2000 and 2018 were examined. The proportion of positive tests fell from 36/69 (52.2%) in 2000 to 18/222 (8.1%) in 2018 (P < 0.001). Indigenous patients were more likely to have a positive result (Odds Ratio [OR]: 3.9, 95% CI: 3.0-5.0); however, by the end of the study period, residence in a rural or remote location (OR 3.9 (95% CI: 1.2-13.0), P = 0.03) was a more important risk factor for seropositivity than Indigenous status (OR 1.1 (95% CI: 0.4-3.1) P = 0.91). Ivermectin prescription data were available for the period 2004-2018, with annual prescriptions increasing from 100 to 185 boxes (P = 0.01). The volume of ivermectin dispensed correlated negatively with seropositivity (Spearman's rho = -0.62, P = 0.02). An expanded environmental health program was implemented during the study period and likely contributed to the declining seroprevalence; however, the relative contributions of the individual components of this program are difficult to quantify. The seroprevalence of strongyloidiasis has declined markedly in this region of tropical Australia despite there being no targeted campaign to address the disease. Expanded prescription of ivermectin and public health interventions targeting the few remaining high-prevalence communities would be expected to expedite disease elimination.

3.
J Toxicol Environ Health A ; 82(19): 1045-1051, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31735125

RESUMO

Cerebral infarction occurs as a consequence of cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury (CIRI). Ginkgo biloba leaf extract (GbE) is composed predominantly of active ingredients such as flavonoids and terpene lactones and often used to treat cerebrovascular diseases. However, the mechanisms underlying the use of this herbal extract to treat cerebrovascular-mediated damage are not known. The aim of this study was to examine the effectiveness of administration GbE to ameliorate the observed consequences of CIRI. The following parameters were measured: (1) behavioral score (2) infarct area (3) the content of serum malondialdehyde (MDA) as well as activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and (4) interleukin 6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) expression levels in the infarcted brain tissue. Data demonstrated that treatment with GbE to CIRI rats resulted in significant reduction in cerebral-infarcted area associated with improvement in behavioral score. GbE was found to decrease serum MDA levels concomitant with elevated activity levels of SOD and GSH-PX. Immunohistochemistry and Western blot analysis showed that GbE significantly lowered the levels of IL-6 and TNF-α in the infarcted brain tissue. Data suggest that GbE may be therapeutically effective in improving behavioral score in CIRI rats through reduction of oxidative stress and anti-inflammation in the cerebral infarction region.

4.
J Toxicol Environ Health A ; 82(19): 1036-1044, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31736438

RESUMO

An extract of Dracocephalum moldevica (DML) was found to exert protective effects on cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury (CIRI); however, the mechanisms underlying the observed actions of this plant-derived mixture remain to be determined. Thus, the aim of this study was to examine the influence of DML on CIRI rat model induced by middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). The following parameters were measured: (1) viable neurons in the infarcted area using Nissl staining; and (2) immunohistochemistry and Western blot were employed to determine protein expression levels of p53, bcl-2 associated X protein (bax) and B-cell lymphoma-2 (bcl-2), three biomarkers of apoptosis. MCAO significantly decreased the number of viable cortical pyramidal neurons in the infarcted area, while treatment with DML extract significantly elevated the number of viable neurons. MCAO was found to significantly elevate in gene expression levels of p53 and protein expression levels bax accompanied by diminished protein expression levels of bcl-2. Prior administration of DML extract produced marked reduction in gene expression levels of p53 and protein expression levels bax but increased in protein expression levels of bcl-2. Data suggested apoptosis was initiated in MCAO and that DML was effective in treating CIRI via an anti-apoptotic action as evidenced by inhibition of gene expression levels of p53 and protein expression levels of bax with concomitant elevation in protein expression levels of bcl-2. Our findings suggest that extract of DML may prove beneficial in treatment of cerebrovascular disorders.

5.
J Toxicol Environ Health A ; : 1-8, 2019 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31746286

RESUMO

It is well known that synaptic plasticity is associated with cognitive performance in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Testosterone (T) is known to exert protective effects on cognitive deficits in AD, but the underlying mechanisms of androgenic action on synaptic plasticity remain unclear. Thus, the aim of this study was to examine the protective mechanism attributed to T on synaptic plasticity in an AD senescence accelerated mouse prone 8 (SAMP8) model. The following parameters were measured: (1) number of intact pyramidal cells in hippocampal CA1 region (2) phosphorylated N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor-1 (p-NMDAR1) and (3) phosphorylated calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (p-CaMKII). In addition, the content of whole brain malondialdehyde (MDA) as well as activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) were determined. Treatment with T significantly elevated the number of intact pyramidal cells in hippocampal CA1 region and markedly increased hippocampal protein and mRNA expression levels of p-NMDAR1 and p-CaMK II. Further, T significantly decreased whole brain MDA levels accompanied by elevated activities of SOD and GSH-Px. Data suggest that the protective effects of T on synaptic plasticity in a mouse AD model may be associated with reduction of oxidant stress.

6.
Brain Res ; : 146511, 2019 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31672472

RESUMO

Isoflurane anesthesia is reported to induce insulin resistance (IR) in the peripheral tissues. However, researches on the impact of isoflurane on insulin-related metabolism in the central nervous system, especially in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), are scarce. This study sought to explore whether isoflurane anesthesia had a negative effect on insulin sensitivity both in peripheral and central tissues. Moreover, the possible role of isoflurane anesthesia in T2DM mice with pre-existing IR was analyzed. T2DM model in C57BL/6J mice was established by high fat diet (HFD) and single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (STZ, 60 mg/kg). Both HFD/STZ-induced T2DM mice and normal mice received 6 h isoflurane exposure. Blood glucose level and serum insulin concentration were detected and the homeostasis model assessment of IR (HOMA-IR) index was calculated to estimate peripheral IR. Relative levels of genes and proteins in the insulin-dependent signaling pathway in mouse prefrontal cortex and hippocampus were determined to measure central IR. Results indicated that 6 h isoflurane exposure induced hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia and raised HOMA-IR index. Meanwhile, phosphorylated insulin receptor substrate-1 (pIRS1) (Ser639) and phosphorylated insulin receptor substrate-2 (pIRS2) (Ser731) were upregulated, while phosphorylated protein kinase B (pAKT) (Ser473) and phosphorylated glycogen synthase kinase-3 beta (pGSK3ß) (Ser9) were downregulated in the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus of anesthetized mice. Notably, isoflurane anesthesia significantly aggravated the degree of central IR in the aspects of gene transcriptions and protein expressions in HFD/STZ-induced T2DM mice with pre-existing IR. This study suggested that isoflurane anesthesia induced peripheral and central IR and aggravated pre-existing insulin resistance in T2DM mice.

7.
Behav Brain Res ; : 112320, 2019 Oct 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31669345

RESUMO

There is a serious need for fast-acting drugs to treat post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Our previous studies revealed that YL-IPA08, a novel small-molecule TSPO agonist, exerted significant anti-PTSD effects in various animal models. However, the onset time of YL-IPA08 and its underlying mechanisms remain unclear. In the present study, we first investigated the time course of YL-IPA08 compared to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) in the well-known time-dependent sensitization model of PTSD. YL-IPA08 required only 2-4 days of treatment to take effect in behavioural models of PTSD, whereas sertraline required 7-8 days. Furthermore, the mechanism study revealed that YL-IPA08 elicited anti-PTSD-like effects associated with increased GABA levels and allopregnanolone efflux in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex and increased corticosterone levels in the serum after only 5 days of treatment, whereas sertraline required 9 days. Our results demonstrate that YL-IPA08 can exert fast-onset anti-PTSD-like effects, and its mechanisms may be related to the increased GABA levels, allopregnanolone efflux and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis function.

8.
Small ; : e1905903, 2019 Nov 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31769588

RESUMO

Metal anodes, such as zinc and bismuth have been regarded as ideal materials for aqueous batteries due to high gravimetrical capacity, high abundance, low toxicity, and intrinsic safety. However, their translation into practical applications are hindered by the low mass loading (≈1 mg cm-2 ) of active materials. Here, the multiscale integrated structural engineering of 3D scaffold and active material, i.e., bismuth is in situ intercalated in reduced graphene oxide (rGO) wall of network, are reported. Tailoring the rapid charge transport on rGO 3D network and facile access to nano- and microscale bismuth, the rGO/Bi hybrid anode shows high utilization efficiency of 91.4% at effective high load density of ≈40 mg cm-2 , high areal capacity of 3.51 mAh cm-2 at the current density of 2 mA cm-2 and high reversibility of >10 000 cycles. The resulting Ni-Bi full battery exhibits high areal capacity of 3.13 mAh cm-2 at the current density of 2 mA cm-2 , far outperforming the other counterpart batteries. It represents a general and efficient strategy in enhancing the battery performance by designing hierarchically networked structure.

9.
J Asian Nat Prod Res ; : 1-12, 2019 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31755304

RESUMO

As part of our continuing efforts to discover structurally interesting bioactive phthalide derivatives, 23 of them with a structure incorporating thiophen or halogens were designed and synthesized, 17 of which are previously unreported. In vitro antiplatelet aggregation activity screening showed that 14b could significantly inhibit platelet aggregation induced by arachidonic acid, compared with edaravone (p < 0.01). Meanwhile, oxidative damage models using SH-SY5Y and PC12 cells induced by H2O2 were built to evaluate the antioxidant activity of the phthalide derivatives. In SH-SY5Y cells, compared with aspirin, 1a significantly increased the relative cell survival rate (p < 0.05). Compared with edaravone, 1a (p < 0.01) and 15b (p < 0.05) significantly increased the relative cell survival rate. In PC12 cells, 1a (p < 0.01), 15b (p < 0.01), and 12a (p < 0.05) remarkably increased the cell survival rate compared with edaravone. The present study identified lead structures to develop potential anti-ischemic stroke agents.

10.
J Diabetes Complications ; : 107468, 2019 Nov 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31761418

RESUMO

AIMS: To investigate the effect of multifactorial intervention on the urinary albumin to creatinine ratio (UACR) and the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) in short-duration type 2 diabetes. METHODS: A total of 150 type 2 diabetes patients, with disease duration <1 year and with no evidence of atherosclerosis were randomized to either the intensive intervention group (IG, n = 75), or the conventional group (CG, n = 75) for 7 years. The predefined endpoint of microvascular complications was the progression of renal impairments (the development of albuminuria and the change of eGFR). RESULTS: The incidence of progression to albuminuria (UACR ≥30 mg/g) was 12% in IG and 28% in CG (HR 0.37, 95% CI: 0.19-0.70, P = .0025). eGFR was significantly lower in IG than that in CG in the year 2 (P = .043) and 3 (P = .032) follow-up. Sex, fasting plasma glucose (FPG), HbA1c, and systolic blood pressure (SBP) were independently associated with the UACR (ß = -5.112, P = .015; ß = 0.908, P = .045; ß = 2.087, P = .038; and ß = 2.787, P = .002, respectively); aging was independently associated with eGFR (ß = -0.447, P = .000). CONCLUSIONS: Intensive multifactorial intervention delayed the progression to albuminuria, and reduced eGFR rapidly in early stage of intervention in short-duration type 2 diabetes. FPG, HbA1c, and SBP were risk factors for UACR increase; aging was a risk factor for eGFR decline.

11.
Neurochem Int ; 131: 104567, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31586590

RESUMO

P2Y purinergic receptors expressed in neurons and satellite glial cells (SGCs) of the trigeminal ganglion (TG) contribute to inflammatory and neuropathic pain. P2Y14 receptor expression is reported in the spinal cord, dorsal root ganglion (DRG), and TG. In present study, the role of P2Y14 receptor in the TG in inflammatory orofacial pain of Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats was investigated. Peripheral injection of complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) induced mechanical hyperalgesia with the rapid upregulation of P2Y14 receptor, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), interleukin-1ß (IL-1ß), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), C-C chemokine CCL2, phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (p-ERK1/2), and phosphorylated p38 (p-p38) proteins in the TG. Furthermore, immunofluorescence staining confirmed the CFA-induced upregulation of P2Y14 receptor. Double immunostaining showed that P2Y14 receptor colocalized with glutamine synthetase (GS) and neuronal nuclei (NeuN). Finally, trigeminal injection of a selective antagonist (PPTN) of P2Y14 receptor attenuated CFA-induced mechanical hyperalgesia. PPTN also decreased the upregulation of the GFAP, IL-1ß, TNF-α, CCL2, p-ERK1/2, and p-p38 proteins. Our findings showed that P2Y14 receptor in TG may contribute to orofacial inflammatory pain via regulating SGCs activation, releasing cytokines (IL-1ß, TNF-α, and CCL2), and phosphorylating ERK1/2 and p38.

12.
J Med Chem ; 62(20): 9161-9174, 2019 Oct 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31580660

RESUMO

Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 1 (IDO1), which catalyzes the initial and rate-limiting step of the kynurenine pathway of tryptophan catabolism, has emerged as a key target in cancer immunotherapy because of its role in enabling cancers to evade the immune system. Tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase (TDO) and indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 2 (IDO2) catalyze the same reaction and play a potential role in cancer immunotherapy. Starting from our previously discovered tryptanthrin IDO1 inhibitor scaffold, we synthesized novel N-benzyl/aryl substituted tryptanthrin derivatives and evaluated their inhibitory efficacy on IDO1, TDO, and IDO2. Most compounds showed similar high inhibitory activities on both IDO1 and TDO, which were significantly superior over that of IDO2 with magnitude difference. We showed that N-benzyl/aryl substituted tryptanthrin directly interacted with IDO1, TDO, and IDO2, significantly augmented the proliferation of T cells in vitro, blocked the kynurenine pathway, and suppressed tumor growth when administered to LLC and H22 tumor-bearing mice.

13.
Tob Control ; 2019 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31645377

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To measure the association of raising the minimum legal age of tobacco sales to 21 years (T21) statewide with monthly sales of cigarette packs in California and Hawaii, the first two states to implement T21 statewide. METHODS: State monthly cigarette tax revenues from state departments of taxation were analysed for 11 states from January 2014 through December 2018 (n=660). Monthly cigarette packs sold were constructed using cigarette tax revenue and cigarette tax rate in each state. A difference-in-differences regression method was used to estimate the association of statewide T21 policies with monthly cigarette packs sold in California and Hawaii, separately, compared to the western states that did not implement such policies. Both models were controlled for year-month fixed effects, cigarette tax rates, smoke-free air laws, Medicaid coverage of smoking cessation, minimum legal sales ages for e-cigarettes and state marijuana laws, in addition to state demographic characteristics (sex, age, education, race/ethnicity and population size). FINDINGS: Implementation of T21 statewide was associated with a reduction of 9.41 (95% CI=-15.52 to -3.30) million monthly packs sold in California and 0.57 (95% CI=-0.83 to -0.30) million monthly packs sold in Hawaii, compared to regional states. These translate to a reduction of 13.1%-18.2%, respectively, in monthly packs sold relative to mean values before the implementation of T21. CONCLUSIONS: Raising the minimum legal age for tobacco sales to 21 years could reduce cigarette sales as part of a comprehensive tobacco control strategy that complements and builds on proven approaches to achieve this goal.

14.
Biotechnol Prog ; : e2923, 2019 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31587515

RESUMO

Ultrafiltration and diafiltration (UF/DF) processes by tangential flow filtration (TFF) are frequently used for removal of solvents and small molecule impurities and for buffer exchange for biopharmaceutical products. Antibody-drug conjugates (ADCs) as an important class of biological therapeutics, carry unique solvents and small molecule impurities into the final UF/DF step as compared to standard antibody preparation. The production process of ADCs involves multiple chemical steps, for example, reduction and conjugation. The clearance of these solvents and small molecules by UF/DF, specifically the DF step, has been assessed and described herein. The rates of clearance for all the impurities in this study are close to the ideal clearance with no apparent interaction with either the protein or the TFF membrane and system. The effect of process variables during DF, such as pH, temperature, membrane loading, transmembrane pressure, and cross flow rate, has also been evaluated and found to have minimal impact on the clearance rate. These results demonstrate efficient clearance of solvents and small molecule impurities related to the ADC process by the DF process and provide a general data package to facilitate risk assessments based on the sieving factors and program specific needs.

16.
Microbiology ; 2019 Oct 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31625833

RESUMO

The ability of Escherichia coli to tolerate acid stress is important for its survival and colonization in the human digestive tract. Here, we performed adaptive laboratory evolution of the laboratory strain E. coli K-12 MG1655 at pH 5.5 in glucose minimal medium. After 800 generations, six independent populations under evolution had reached 18.0 % higher growth rates than their starting strain at pH 5.5, while maintaining comparable growth rates to the starting strain at pH 7. We characterized the evolved strains and found that: (1) whole genome sequencing of isolated clones from each evolved population revealed mutations in rpoC appearing in five of six sequenced clones; and (2) gene expression profiles revealed different strategies to mitigate acid stress, which are related to amino acid metabolism and energy production and conversion. Thus, a combination of adaptive laboratory evolution, genome resequencing and expression profiling revealed, on a genome scale, the strategies that E. coli uses to mitigate acid stress.

17.
Rev Sci Instrum ; 90(7): 074101, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31370446

RESUMO

Because of its simple principle and high adaptability to severe operational conditions, the capillary-tube viscometer has been widely used for viscosity measurement. However, difficulties in accurately correcting the end effect induced measurement deviation will result in great uncertainty for measurement results. In order to solve this problem, in this work, we studied factors affecting the end effect by conducting the high pressure nitrogen viscosity measurement at low flow velocity with an improved capillary-tube viscometer. The experimental results indicated that the influence of the end effect became less significant with the decrease in flow velocity (v) and tube inner diameter (d) and varied inversely with the length of tube (L). We defined the ratio of measured viscosity to standard viscosity obtained from the NIST database as the viscosity deviation coefficient (Ce). From the Ce vs v, Ce vs d, and Ce vs L curves, we have observed that there existed a threshold velocity (vthreshold), a threshold diameter (dthreshold), and a threshold length (Lthreshold) at which Ce got closer to 1.0. It suggested that under certain experimental conditions, the influence of the end effect on gas viscosity measurement became negligible. Based on that, we established end effect free capillary-tube viscometry and compared the nitrogen viscosity results measured by this method with the data provided by the NIST database. The results presented a good match with error within 1.2%. These insights will contribute to improving the accuracy of a capillary-tube viscometer especially under high pressure.

18.
Front Immunol ; 10: 1733, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31417546

RESUMO

Intestinal homeostasis underpins the development of type 1 diabetes (T1D), and dietary manipulations to enhance intestinal homeostasis have been proposed to prevent T1D. The current study aimed to investigate the efficacy of supplementing a novel specific low-methoxyl pectin (LMP) dietary fiber in preventing T1D development. Female NOD mice were weaned onto control or 5% (wt/wt) LMP supplemented diets for up to 40 weeks of age, overt diabetes incidence and blood glucose were monitored. Then broad-spectrum antibiotics (ABX) treatment per os for 7 days followed by gut microbiota transfer was performed to demonstrate gut microbiota-dependent effects. Next-generation sequencing was used for analyzing the composition of microbiota in caecum. Concentration of short chain fatty acids were determined by GC-MS. The barrier reinforcing tight junction proteins zonula occludens-2 (ZO-2), claudin-1 and NOD like receptor protein 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome activation were determined by Western blot. The proportion of CD25+Foxp3+CD4+ regulatory T cell (Foxp3+ Treg) in the pancreas, pancreatic and mesenteric lymph nodes was analyzed by flow cytometry. We found that LMP supplementation ameliorated T1D development in non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice, as evidenced by decreasing diabetes incidence and fasting glucose levels in LMP fed NOD mice. Further microbiota analysis revealed that LMP supplementation prevented T1D-associated caecal dysbiosis and selectively enriched caecal bacterial species to produce more SCFAs. The LMP-mediated microbial balance further enhanced caecal barrier function and shaped gut-pancreatic immune environment, as characterized by higher expression of tight junction proteins claudin-1, ZO-2 in caecum, increased Foxp3+ Treg population and decreased NLRP3 inflammasome activation in both caecum and pancreas. The microbiota-dependent beneficial effect of LMP on T1D was further proven by the fact that aberration of caecal microbiota by ABX treatment worsened T1D autoimmunity and could be restored with transfer of feces of LMP-fed NOD mice. These data demonstrate that this novel LMP limits T1D development by inducing caecal homeostasis to shape pancreatic immune environment. This finding opens a realistic option for gut microbiota manipulation and prevention of T1D in humans.

19.
Plant Cell Physiol ; 2019 Aug 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31418777

RESUMO

As sessile and autotrophic organisms, plants have evolved sophisticated pathways to produce a rich array of specialized metabolites, many of which are biologically active and function as defense substances in protecting plants from herbivores and pathogens. Upon stimuli, these structurally diverse small molecules may be synthesized or constitutively accumulated. Jasmonates (JAs) are the major defense phytohormone involved in transducing external signals (such as wounding) to activate defense reactions, including, in particular, the reprogramming of metabolic pathways that initiate and enhance the production of defense compounds against insect herbivores and pathogens. In this review, we summarize the progress of recent research on the control of specialized metabolic pathways in plants by JA signaling, with an emphasis on the molecular regulation of terpene and alkaloid biosynthesis. We also discuss the interplay between JA signaling and various signaling pathways during plant defense responses. These studies provide valuable data for breeding insect-proof crops and pave the way to engineering the production of valuable metabolites in future.

20.
Environ Res ; 177: 108612, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31398562

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prenatal exposure to air pollutants has been suggested as a possible etiologic factor for the occurrence of ADHD or ADHD-like behaviors. But we still lack a comprehensive assessment of household air pollutants exposure on the development of ADHD-like behaviors during childhood. OBJECT: We aimed to assess whether prenatal household inhalants exposure is associated with preschoolers' ADHD-like behaviors in a nonclinical population. METHODS: This study used the baseline data of the Longhua Child Cohort Study. During 2015-2017, we recruited 42,983 mothers and their kindergarten-aged children who enrolled at kindergarten in the Longhua district of Shenzhen, to obtain the demographic data and relevant exposure information through self-administrated questionnaire survey. The source of prenatal household inhalants exposure include cooking fumes, environmental tobacco smoke, mosqutio coils, home renovated and indoor burning incense. Logistic and censored least absolute deviations (CLAD) models were used to reveal the association between prenatal exposure to household air pollutants and hyperactive behaviors in child. RESULTS: We found that exposure to five types of household inhalants during pregnancy were independently associated with an increased risk of child hyperactive behaviors. Moreover, we observed a significant interaction between exposure to environmental tobacco smoke and cooking fumes during gestation on child hyperactive behaviors in CLAD models. We also found a significant joint effect between burning mosquito coils and incense during gestation for child hyperactive behaviors risk both in CLAD and Logistic models. Furthermore, a household inhalants exposure index was used to demonstrate a dose-response relationship between the cumulative effect of exposure to the five household air pollutants and child hyperactivity. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that prenatal exposure to different household inhalants might increase the risk of children's hyperactive behaviors at around 3 years of age with the presence of interaction effects between some inhalants.

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