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1.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(23)2021 Jun 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34074794

RESUMO

The DNA-sensing enzyme cyclic guanosine monophosphate-adenosine monophosphate synthase (cGAS) regulates inflammation and immune defense against pathogens and malignant cells. Although cGAS has been shown to exert antitumor effects in several mouse models harboring transplanted tumor cell lines, its role in tumors arising from endogenous tissues remains unknown. Here, we show that deletion of cGAS in mice exacerbated chemical-induced colitis and colitis-associated colon cancer (CAC). Interestingly, mice lacking cGAS were more susceptible to CAC than those lacking stimulator of interferon genes (STING) or type I interferon receptor under the same conditions. cGAS but not STING is highly expressed in intestinal stem cells. cGAS deficiency led to intestinal stem cell loss and compromised intestinal barrier integrity upon dextran sodium sulfate-induced acute injury. Loss of cGAS exacerbated inflammation, led to activation of STAT3, and accelerated proliferation of intestinal epithelial cells during CAC development. Mice lacking cGAS also accumulated myeloid-derived suppressive cells within the tumor, displayed enhanced Th17 differentiation, but reduced interleukin (IL)-10 production. These results indicate that cGAS plays an important role in controlling CAC development by defending the integrity of the intestinal mucosa.

2.
Pharmacol Rep ; 2021 Jun 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34089513

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The strong inter-individual pharmacokinetic variability and the narrow therapeutic window of tacrolimus (TAC) have hampered the clinical application. Gene polymorphisms play an important role in TAC pharmacokinetics. Here, we investigate the influence of genotypes of IL-10, CYP3A5, CYP2C8, and ABCB1 on dose-adjusted trough blood concentrations (the C0/D ratio) of TAC to reveal unclear genetic factors that may affect TAC dose requirements for renal transplant recipients. METHODS: Genetic polymorphisms of IL-10, CYP3A5, CYP2C8, and ABCB1 in 188 renal transplant recipients were determined using Kompetitive Allele Specific PCR (KASP). Statistical analysis was applied to examine the effect of genetic variation on the TAC C0/D at 5, 10, 15, and 30 days after transplantation. RESULTS: Recipients carrying the IL-10 -819C > T TT genotype showed a significantly higher TAC C0/D than those with the TC/CC genotype (p < 0.05). Additionally, the TAC C0/D values of recipients with the capacity for low IL-10 activity (-819 TT) engrafted with CYP3A5 non-expressers were higher compared to the intermediate/high activity of IL-10 -819C > T TC or CC carrying CYP3A5 expressers, and the difference was statistically significant at different time points (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Genetic polymorphisms of IL-10 -819C > T and CYP3A5 6986A > G influence the TAC C0/D, which may contribute to variation in TAC dose requirements during the early post-transplantation period. Detecting IL-10 -819C > T and CYP3A5 6986A > G polymorphisms may allow determination of individualized tacrolimus dosage regimens for renal transplant recipients during the early post-transplantation period.

3.
Zhongguo Zhen Jiu ; 41(6): 691-8, 2021 Jun 12.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34085491

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To review systematically the effectiveness and safety of tuina (Chinese massage)in treatment of functional constipation. METHODS: The articles on functional constipation treated with tuina were collected by computer retrieval from 7 databases from the date of establishment to March 28, 2020, including Chinese biomedical literature database (SinoMed), China journal full-text database (CNKI), full-text database of Wanfang academic journals (Wanfang), VIP Chinese science and technology journal database(VIP), PubMed, Dutch medical literature database (EMbase) and the Cochrane Library. After data extraction and quality evaluation of the included articles, Meta analysis was conducted with RevMan5.3 software. RESULTS: A total of 16 articles were included, with 1424 cases involved. Meta analysis results showed: ①The total effective rate in the treatment group was higher than that in the control group (RR=1.28, 95%CI: 1.16-1.42, P<0.000 01). ②The effective rate for the symptoms of functional constipation in traditional Chinese medicine in the treatment group was higher than that in the control group (RR=1.38, 95%CI :1.25-1.52, Z=6.31, P<0.000 01). ③Adverse reactions in the treatment group in the treatment of functional constipation were less than those in the control group (RR=0.10, 95%CI: 0.02-0.49, Z=2.81, P=0.005).④The effective rate of functional constipation treated on the base of syndrome differentiation in the treatment group was higher than that of the control group (RR=1.50, 95%CI: 1.08-2.10, Z=2.39, P=0.02).⑤The improvements in fecal characteristics, defecation time and defecation frequency of the patients with functional constipation in the treatment group were better than those in the control group (P<0.05). CONCLUSION: Tuina therapy presents a certain advantages on its curative effect on functional constipation, has less adverse reactions and relieves the relevant symptoms of functional constipation. But more randomized controlled trials with high quality and large sample are required to provide further verification of its effect.


Assuntos
Constipação Intestinal , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa , China , Constipação Intestinal/terapia , Humanos , Massagem
4.
Hemodial Int ; 2021 Jun 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34121321

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Many studies have shown that compared with those who use other dialysis modalities, patients using home hemodialysis (HHD) have an increased rate of survival and better quality of life. It was noted in 2006 that there was opportunity for significant expansion of the use of HHD in many countries. China covers a vast area and has a large amount of end-stage renal failure patients. But in mainland China, all dialysis treatments are in-center, and the number of HHD patients is zero. In 2018, our hospital received the permission of the Shanghai government to carry out HHD. CASE PRESENTATION: We initiated four incident hemodialysis patients on an HHD regimen, one patient has been dialyzed in the home safely for 8 months. The biochemical parameters of the first patient remained stable on the regimen and he achieved standard Kt/V urea targets. Treatment-related adverse events were not reported during the follow-up. We combined HHD with intelligent "Internet Plus" real-time remote monitoring and introduced the Internet, especially visualization software, to replace traditional telephone and home visit methods. It is more intuitive and quicker to assist patients in performing home hemodialysis and improve the safety of treatment. CONCLUSIONS: HHD can be performed by selected trained patients in mainland China. Combined with the internet, visualization software, and traditional telephone and home visits, it is intuitive and quick to assist patients in carrying out HHD and improve the safety of treatment. HHD broadens the choices for uremia patients in China.

5.
BMJ Open ; 11(5): e041219, 2021 05 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33952533

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: There are multiple instruments for measuring multimorbidity. The main objective of this systematic review was to provide a list of instruments that are suitable for use in studies aiming to measure the association of a specific outcome with different levels of multimorbidity as the main independent variable in community-dwelling individuals. The secondary objective was to provide details of the requirements, strengths and limitations of these instruments, and the chosen outcomes. METHODS: We conducted the review according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines (PROSPERO registration number: CRD42018105297). We searched MEDLINE, Embase and CINAHL electronic databases published in English and manually searched the Journal of Comorbidity between 1 January 2010 and 23 October 2020 inclusive. Studies also had to select adult patients from primary care or general population and had at least one specified outcome variable. Two authors screened the titles, abstracts and full texts independently. Disagreements were resolved with a third author. The modified Newcastle-Ottawa Scale was used for quality assessment. RESULTS: Ninety-six studies were identified, with 69 of them rated to have a low risk of bias. In total, 33 unique instruments were described. Disease Count and weighted indices like Charlson Comorbidity Index were commonly used. Other approaches included pharmaceutical-based instruments. Disease Count was the common instrument used for measuring all three essential core outcomes of multimorbidity research: mortality, mental health and quality of life. There was a rise in the development of novel weighted indices by using prognostic models. The data obtained for measuring multimorbidity were from sources including medical records, patient self-reports and large administrative databases. CONCLUSIONS: We listed the details of 33 instruments for measuring the level of multimorbidity as a resource for investigators interested in the measurement of multimorbidity for its association with or prediction of a specific outcome.


Assuntos
Multimorbidade , Qualidade de Vida , Adulto , Comorbidade , Atenção à Saúde , Humanos , Atenção Primária à Saúde
6.
Nanoscale ; 2021 May 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33982732

RESUMO

Correction for 'High performance blue quantum light-emitting diodes by attaching diffraction wrinkle patterns' by Hui Qi et al., Nanoscale, 2021, DOI: 10.1039/D1NR00082A.

7.
Health Qual Life Outcomes ; 19(1): 119, 2021 Apr 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33849558

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The 24-item Recovery Assessment Scale (RAS) is the most widely-used and well-validated tool for measuring recovery for people with mental illness. The current study aims to assess the reliability and validity of an 8-item short form of RAS (RAS-8) among a Chinese sample of people living with schizophrenia. METHODS: A sample of 400 people living with schizophrenia were recruited for scale validation. Internal consistency was tested by calculating Cronbach's α. Test-retest reliability was calculated using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) for the total score and weighted kappa for each item. Factor structure was tested with confirmatory factor analysis, and concurrent validity was examined by investigating the correlation of the RAS-8 with patient symptoms, disability, depression, anxiety, patient functioning, quality of life and general health. RESULTS: The RAS-8 full scale and subscales showed good internal consistency with Cronbach's alpha ranging from 0.87 to 0.92. ICC of 0.99 and weighted kappa ranged from 0.62 to 0.88, which generally indicates good test-retest reliability. The findings supported an a priori two-factor structure, χ2/df = 2.93, CFI = 0.98, TLI = 0.98, RMSEA = 0.07, SRMR = 0.035. Concurrent validity of the RAS-8 was further supported by its significant negative correlations with patient symptoms (r = -0.24, p < 0.01), disability (r = -0.30, p < 0.01), depression (r = -0.16, p < 0.05), and anxiety (r = -0.14, p < 0.05), and its significant positive relationships with patient functioning (r = 0.26, p < 0.01), quality of life (r = 0.39, p < 0.01) and general health (r = 0.34, p < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: This study confirmed the reliability and validity of an 8-item short-form RAS for people living with schizophrenia in Chinese communities. The validation of the RAS-8 allows for its use as an alternative for the full RAS as a rapid assessment tool in clinical and research settings. The findings are discussed for their implications for application and validation with other populations and in other countries.


Assuntos
Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica , Esquizofrenia/terapia , Inquéritos e Questionários/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários/normas , Avaliação de Sintomas/estatística & dados numéricos , Avaliação de Sintomas/normas , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/psicologia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/estatística & dados numéricos , China , Análise Fatorial , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Psicometria , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Adulto Jovem
8.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 32(4): 1327-1336, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33899401

RESUMO

Both reasonable soil tillage and fertilization management play critical roles in improving the yield and water use efficiency (WUE) of forage maize in the semi-arid area of Loess Plateau. A field experiment was conducted at Dingxi experimental station of Gansu Academy of Agricultural Sciences between 2017 and 2019. We explored the effects of tillage method and fertilization type on yields and WUE of forage maize, as well as the economic benefits. There were four treatments in the experiment, including traditional rotary tillage + organic-inorganic fertilization (TOF), deep rotary tillage + organic-inorganic fertilization (DOF), and vertical rotary subsoiling + organic-inorganic fertilization (VROF), and the traditional rotary tillage + inorganic fertilization as the control (TF). Our results showed that, compared with DOF, TOF, TF, and VROF all decreased soil water storage in 0-300 cm soil layer at flowering stage, ranging from 16.9 mm to 79.9 mm, but they all increased soil water consumption by 9.7-22.4 mm during vegetative growing stages, 11.0-19.8 mm during reproductive stage in the dry years. Due to significant improvement in water absorption, VROF increased dry matter weight at maturity by 3.9%-13.4% compared to other treatments. Similarly, plant height, ear length, grain number per ear, 100-grain weight, and double ear rate under VROF were significantly increased, while bald head length was decreased significantly, when compared with other treatments. As a result, over the three experimental seasons, VROF increased the grain and biological yield by 4.3%-51.5% and 4.3%-25.7% compared to other treatments, respectively. Accordingly, WUE calculated by grain and biomass yields were increased by 2.7%-36.9% and 3.6%-13.5% under VROF, compared to other treatments. VROF increased the unit gross total output value and the net income by 5.1%-32.9% and 6.9%-80.5% respectively, compared to other treatments. These results demonstrated that VROF is a drought-resistant and yield-increasing farming technology for sustainable forage maize production in the semi-arid area of the Loess Plateau, Northwest China.


Assuntos
Água , Zea mays , Agricultura , China , Fertilização , Solo
9.
Ren Fail ; 43(1): 766-773, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33913373

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to explore the effectiveness of thiamin and folic acid supplementation on the improvement of the cognitive function in patients with maintenance hemodialysis. METHOD: In the present study, we randomly assigned patients undergoing hemodialysis who had the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) score lower than 26 to treatment group (n = 25, thiamin 90 mg/day combined with folic acid 30 mg/day) or control group (n = 25, nonintervention). All subjects were followed up for 96 weeks. The primary outcome was the improvement of the MoCA score. The secondary outcomes included homocysteine level, survival and safety. RESULTS: Patients in treatment group had an increase of the MoCA score from 21.95 ± 3.81 at baseline to 25.68 ± 1.96 at week 96 (p < 0.001, primary outcome), as compared with the MoCA score from 20.69 ± 3.40 to 19.62 ± 3.58 in control group. Thiamin combined with folic acid treatment also resulted in lower level of serum homocysteine in treatment group compare with control group at week 96 (p < 0.05, secondary outcome). 3 patients and 9 patients died during follow-up period in treatment and control group respectively (p = 0.048). The proportion of adverse events in treatment group was significantly lower than that in control group. CONCLUSION: Hemodialysis patients with cognitive impairment treated with thiamin and folic acid had a significant improvement in MoCA score.

10.
Nanoscale ; 2021 Apr 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33899873

RESUMO

Highly efficient blue quantum-dot light-emitting diodes (QLEDs) are still challenging to use in displays and solid-state lighting. Enhancing light outcoupling is one of the most effective methods to improve the performance of blue QLEDs. Here, a strategy for a spectrally independent boost in light outcoupling of blue QLEDs is demonstrated by quasi-periodic wrinkles, which are successfully used as a diffraction grating for extracting trapped light at the substrate/air interface. The quasi-periodic wrinkles can be adjusted from nano-scale to micron-scale under the condition of a constant aspect ratio, and the optimized wrinkle device shows a maximum luminance of 11 769 cd m-2 and a peak EQE of 15.41%. The enhancement of EQE is 49.5% higher compared to that of the reference device. Furthermore, simulation and calculation also indicate that external micron-scattering wrinkle patterns are an attractive option for boosting the performances of blue QLEDs.

11.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 46(2): 272-280, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33645112

RESUMO

In this study, 23 germplasm resources of Chrysanthemum morifolium used in medicine and tea were collected from Dabie Mountains and its surrounding producing areas, and the contents of 13 mineral elements were determined and compared. The thermal maps of correlation analysis, principal component analysis and cluster analysis were used for comprehensive evaluation. The results showed that the average content of each element in Ch. morifolium of different germplasm resources was: K>N>P>Mg>Ca>Fe>Mn>Zn>Cu>Ni>Cr>Pb>Cd, and the leaves were: K>N>Ca>Mg>P>Fe>Mn>Zn>Cr>Cu>Ni>Pb>Cd. There are rich contents of N, P, K, Ca, Mg and Fe in Ch. morifolium flowers and their leaves, among them, K element has the largest change range, while N, Ca, Fe, Mg and Zn elements have a larger change range. The absorption and accumulation of each element in the leaves of different germplasm resources varied greatly. The correlation analysis shows that there is a strong positive correlation between Ca element, Mg, Mn and Cd element.Principal component analysis in Ch. morifolium flowers characteristic elements for Mn, Cr, Cu, P, K, can be used as a Ch. morifolium resources to identify the characteristics of the elements, choose top five principal component(F1-F5) comprehensive evalua-tion of medicinal Ch. morifolium, scored in the top five varieties for Hangiu-Fuhuangju, Hangju-Xiaoyangju, Hangju-Sheyangju, Hangju-Dayanghua, Hangju-Subeiju,indicates that in terms of mineral elements, the five medicinal Ch. morifolium resources quality is better. The PCA score chart can divide 23 Ch. morifolium resources into 4 groups, and the cluster analysis heat map divides 23 Ch. morifolium resources into 5 groups. All the Ch. morifolium resources of the same type can be well clustered together, indicating that the difference in mineral element content of Ch. morifolium germplasm resources is closely related to genetic factors.


Assuntos
Chrysanthemum , Chrysanthemum/genética , Flores/genética , Minerais , Folhas de Planta , Chá
12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33786715

RESUMO

Besides the normal hearing pathway known as air conduction (AC), sound can also transmit to the cochlea through the skull, known as bone conduction (BC). During BC stimulation, the cochlear walls demonstrate rigid body motion (RBM) and compressional motion (CPM), both inducing the basilar membrane traveling wave (TW). Despite numerous measuring and modeling efforts for the TW phenomenon, the mechanism remains unclear, especially in the case of BC. This paper proposes a 3D finite element cochlea model mimicking the TW under BC. The model uses a traditional "box model" form, but in a spiral shape, with two fluid chambers separated by the long and flexible BM. The cochlear fluid was enclosed by bony walls, the oval and round window membranes. Contingent boundary conditions and stimulations are introduced according to the physical basis of AC and BC. Particularly for BC, both RBM and CPM of the cochlea walls are simulated. Harmonic numerical solutions are obtained at multiple frequencies among the hearing range. The BM vibration amplitude ([Formula: see text]) and its relation with volume displacement difference between the oval and round windows [Formula: see text], as well as the pressure difference at the base of the cochlea ([Formula: see text]), are analyzed. The simulated BM response at 12 mm from the base is peaked at about 3 k Hz, which is consistent with published experimental data. The TW properties under AC and BC are the same and have a common mechanism. (1) [Formula: see text] is proportional to [Formula: see text] at low frequencies. (2) [Formula: see text] is also proportional to [Formula: see text], within 5 dB error at high frequencies such as 16 k Hz. This study partly reveals the common quantitative relations between the TW and related factors under AC and BC hearing.

13.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(14)2021 Apr 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33785602

RESUMO

The induction of type I interferons through the transcription factor interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3) is considered a major outcome of stimulator of interferon genes (STING) activation that drives immune responses against DNA viruses and tumors. However, STING activation can also trigger other downstream pathways such as nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) signaling and autophagy, and the roles of interferon (IFN)-independent functions of STING in infectious diseases or cancer are not well understood. Here, we generated a STING mouse strain with a mutation (S365A) that disrupts IRF3 binding and therefore type I interferon induction but not NF-κB activation or autophagy induction. We also generated STING mice with mutations that disrupt the recruitment of TANK-binding kinase 1 (TBK1), which is important for both IRF3 and NF-κB activation but not autophagy induction (L373A or ∆CTT, which lacks the C-terminal tail). The STING-S365A mutant mice, but not L373A or ∆CTT mice, were still resistant to herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) infections and mounted an antitumor response after cyclic guanosine monophosphate-adenosine monophosphate (cGAMP) treatment despite the absence of STING-induced interferons. These results demonstrate that STING can function independently of type I interferons and autophagy, and that TBK1 recruitment to STING is essential for antiviral and antitumor immunity.

14.
Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao ; 37(2): 541-560, 2021 Feb 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33645154

RESUMO

Nano-metallic materials are playing an important role in the application of medicine, catalysis, antibacterial and anti-toxin due to their obvious advantages, including nanocrystalline strengthening effect, high photo-absorptivity, high surface energy and single magnetic region performance. In recent years, with the increasing consumption of global petrochemical resources and the aggravation of environmental pollution, nanomaterials based on bio-based molecules have aroused great concern. Bio-based molecules refer to small molecules and macromolecules directly or indirectly derived from biomass. They usually have good biocompatibility, low toxicity, degradability, wide source and low price. Besides, most bio-based molecules have unique physical, chemical properties and physiological activity, such as optical activity, acid/alkali amphoteric property, hydrophilic property and easy coordination with metal ions. Thus, the corresponding nano-materials based on bio-based molecules also have unique functions, such as anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, anti-oxidation, antiviral fall blood sugar and blood fat etc. In this paper, we give a comprehensive overview of the preparation and application of nano-metallic materials based on bio-based molecules in recent years.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos , Nanoestruturas , Catálise , Metais
15.
Nitric Oxide ; 109-110: 26-32, 2021 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33667622

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To assess the relationship between the intrapulmonary shunt and PaO2/FiO2 in severe hypoxemic patients after acute type A aortic dissection (ATAAD) surgery and to evaluate the effect of inhaled nitric oxide (iNO) on intrapulmonary shunt. METHODS: Postoperative ATAAD patients with PaO2/FiO2 ≤ 150 mmHg were enrolled. Intrapulmonary shunt was calculated from oxygen content of different sites (artery [CaO2], mixed venous [CvO2], and alveolar capillary [CcO2]) using the Fick equation, where intrapulmonary shunt = (CcO2-CaO2)/(CcO2-CvO2). Related variables were measured at baseline (positive end expiratory pressure [PEEP] 5 cm H2O), 30 min after increasing PEEP (PEEP 10 cm H2O), 30 min after 5 ppm iNO therapy (PEEP 10 cm H2O + iNO), and 30 min after decreasing PEEP (PEEP 5 cm H2O + iNO). RESULTS: A total of 20 patients were enrolled between April 2019 and December 2019. Intrapulmonary shunt and PaO2/FiO2 were correlated in severe hypoxemic, postoperative ATAAD patients (adjusted R2 = 0.467, p < 0.001). A mixed model for repeated measures revealed that iNO, rather than increasing PEEP, significantly decreased the intrapulmonary shunt (by 15% at a PEEP of 5 cm H2O and 16% at a PEEP of 10 cm H2O, p < 0.001 each) and increased PaO2/FiO2 (by 63% at a PEEP of 5 cm H2O and 65% at a PEEP of 10 cm H2O, p < 0.001 each). After iNO therapy, the decrement of intrapulmonary shunt and the increment of PaO2/FiO2 were also correlated (adjusted R2 = 0.375, p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: This study showed that intrapulmonary shunt and PaO2/FiO2 were correlated in severe hypoxemic, postoperative ATAAD patients. Furthermore, iNO, rather than increasing PEEP, significantly decreased the intrapulmonary shunt to improve severe hypoxemic conditions.

16.
Fitoterapia ; 151: 104879, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33689876

RESUMO

Swertia mileensis, known as Qing-Ye-Dan (QYD), has been documented in Chinese Pharmacopoeia to cure hepatitis. Interestingly, its announced main active component, swertiamarin, could not be detected in the decoction, which indicated that the efficacy of QYD might be attributed to heat-transformed products of swertiamarin (HTPS). Further investigation on HTPS led to the isolation of sweritranslactone D (1), a novel secoiridoid dimer possessing a tetracyclic lactone skeleton, with better hepatoprotective activity than N-acetyl-L-cysteine in vitro.

17.
J Obstet Gynaecol Res ; 47(5): 1675-1685, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33611816

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Missed abortion is a peculiar form of spontaneous abortion before 20 weeks' gestation. The definite etiology and pathogenesis are not fully understood. Recent studies have demonstrated that p53/Mdm2-mediated ubiquitination of the IGF-1R may be closely related to G-protein-coupled receptor kinases (GRK)/ß-arrestin1 system. Our previous studies have confirmed that the elevated expression of p53 and Mdm2 may be responsible for apoptosis during missed abortion. However, there was no information surrounding ß-arrestin1 in missed abortion. METHODS: The mRNA levels of ß-arrestin1 in villous samples of 30 missed abortion patients and 31 healthy controls were determined by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Immunohistochemistry was used to explore the expression and location of ß-arrestin1, p53, Mdm2, VEGF and HIF-lα in trophoblasts. Transwell assays were performed to examine the influences of ß-arrestin1 expression on cell invasion. Furthermore, we tested the effect of ß-arrestin1 on the expression of p53, Mdm2, ERK, AKT and NF-κB. RESULTS: The expression of ß-arrestin1 in the villous samples of missed abortion group was dramatically lower than control group by quantitative real-time-PCR and immunohistochemistry. Furthermore, the patients with missed abortion showed significantly higher levels of p53, Mdm2, HIF-lα and lower level of VEGF than healthy controls by immunohistochemistry. Functional studies showed that suppression of ß-arrestin1 in HTR-8 cells inhibited cell invasion. The protein expressions of ERK and AKT in HTR-8 cells were significantly downregulated by reducing the expression of ß-arrestin1, while the expressions of p53, Mdm2, NF-κB were enhanced. Overexpression of ß-arrestin1 exhibited the adverse effect. CONCLUSION: Our data indicated that ß-arrestin1 play an important role in maintaining the maternal-fetal tolerance, the decreased expression of ß-arrestin1 in the villous samples may be related with the development of missed abortion.


Assuntos
Aborto Retido , Apoptose , Feminino , Humanos , NF-kappa B , Gravidez , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-mdm2 , Transdução de Sinais , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/genética
18.
PLoS One ; 16(2): e0245494, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33556109

RESUMO

Winter turnip rape (Brassica rapa L.) is an important overwintering oil crop that is widely planted in northwestern China. It considered to be a good genetic resource for cold-tolerant research because its roots can survive harsh winter conditions. Here, we performed comparative transcriptomics analysis of the roots of two winter turnip rape varieties, Longyou7 (L7, strong cold tolerance) and Tianyou2 (T2, low cold tolerance), under normal condition (CK) and cold stress (CT) condition. A total of 8,366 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were detected between the two L7 root groups (L7CK_VS_L7CT), and 8,106 DEGs were detected for T2CK_VS_T2CT. Among the DEGs, two ω-3 fatty acid desaturase (FAD3), two delta-9 acyl-lipid desaturase 2 (ADS2), one diacylglycerol kinase (DGK), and one 3-ketoacyl-CoA synthase 2 (KCS2) were differentially expressed in the two varieties and identified to be related to fatty acid synthesis. Four glutamine synthetase cytosolic isozymes (GLN), serine acetyltransferase 1 (SAT1), and serine acetyltransferase 3 (SAT3) were down-regulated under cold stress, while S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase proenzyme 1 (AMD1) had an up-regulation tendency in response to cold stress in the two samples. Moreover, the delta-1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthase (P5CS), δ-ornithine aminotransferase (δ-OAT), alanine-glyoxylate transaminase (AGXT), branched-chain-amino-acid transaminase (ilvE), alpha-aminoadipic semialdehyde synthase (AASS), Tyrosine aminotransferase (TAT) and arginine decarboxylase related to amino acid metabolism were identified in two cultivars variously expressed under cold stress. The above DEGs related to amino acid metabolism were suspected to the reason for amino acids content change. The RNA-seq data were validated by real-time quantitative RT-PCR of 19 randomly selected genes. The findings of our study provide the gene expression profile between two varieties of winter turnip rape, which lay the foundation for a deeper understanding of the highly complex regulatory mechanisms in plants during cold treatment.

19.
J Invertebr Pathol ; 183: 107556, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33596435

RESUMO

Infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV) is one of the major viral pathogens of penaeid shrimp and it has spread worldwide. IHHNV causes substantial economic loss to the shrimp farming industry and has been listed as a notifiable crustacean disease pathogen by the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE). In this paper, we reviewed studies on the hosts and carriers, prevalence, genotypes and virulence of IHHNV. The pathogenesis mechanisms of IHHNV and the viral interference between IHHNV and white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) were also discussed. The mechanism of IHHNV infection and its virulence difference in different hosts and different developmental stages have not been fully studied yet. The mechanisms underlying viral interference between IHHNV and WSSV are not yet fully understood. Further studies are needed to elucidate the precise molecular mechanisms underlying IHHNV infection and to apply the insights gained from such studies for the effective control and prevention of IHHNV disease.

20.
Int Immunopharmacol ; 92: 107335, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33429332

RESUMO

Microglia/macrophages play a dual role in brain injury and repair following cerebral ischemia/reperfusion. Promoting microglia/macrophage polarization from pro-inflammatory M1 to anti-inflammatory M2 phenotype has been considered as a potential treatment for ischemic stroke. Astragaloside IV (AS-IV) is a primary active ingredient of Chinese herb Radix Astragali, which protects against acute cerebral ischemic/reperfusion injury through its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-apoptotic properties. However, it remains unknown whether AS-IV improves ischemic brain tissue repair and its underlying mechanism. A transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO) rat model was used in this study. The results showed that AS-IV significantly improved long-term brain injury, reduced the expression of M1 microglia/macrophage markers and increased the expression of M2 microglia/macrophage markers 14 days after cerebral ischemia/reperfusion. AS-IV also increased peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) mRNA and protein expression. Moreover, AS-IV promoted neurogenesis and angiogenesis, and increased the protein expression of brain-derived growth factor (BDNF), insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). However, these beneficial effects were greatly blocked by PPARγ antagonist T0070907. These results together suggest that AS-IV could enhance neurogenesis, angiogenesis and neurological functional recovery, which may be partially through transforming microglia/macrophage from M1 to M2 phenotype in a PPARγ-dependent manner after cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury. Therefore, AS-IV can be considered as a promising therapeutic agent for ischemic stroke.

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