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1.
Phytomedicine ; 66: 153135, 2019 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31790895

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Gut microbiota is increasingly recognized as the key participant in the pathogenesis of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) by translocation of its products, such as lipopolysaccharide (LPS), via the dysfunctional intestinal barrier. Qushi Huayu decoction (QHD), a traditional Chinese medicine, is developed specially for NAFLD and used in clinic in China for more than a decade and previously found to ameliorate non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) induced by high-fat diet (HFD) in mice accompanied with inhibited metabolic endotoxemia and hepatic LPS signalling. PURPOSE: To investigate the mechanism of LPS gut-leakage inhibition by QHD in NASH. METHODS: Effects of QHD on gut microbioa and intestinal barrier were evaluated in NASH induced by HFD in mice. 16S rRNA sequencing is employed to analyse the gut microbiota composition. To identify the potential signalling pathway responsible for tight junction regulation, the colonic phosphoprotein profile is screened via the Phospho Explorer Antibody Array and verified in NASH, intestinal barrier dysfunctional mouse and Caco-2 cells. RESULTS: QHD ameliorates NASH accompanied with regulating the gut microbiota composition, protecting intestinal tight junctions and inhibiting LPS gut-leakage without decreasing the abundance of identified Gram-negative bacteria. The validated data of phosphorylated proteins suggested that mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway is predominantly responsible for the colonic tight junction regulation by QHD. CONCLUSION: QHD inhibits LPS gut-leakage in NASH, which is associated with downregulation of intestinal MAPK pathway.

2.
Primates ; 2019 Dec 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31802294

RESUMO

Gibbons represent a highly successful radiation of four genera and 20 species of Asian apes that, in response to recent habitat fragmentation and deforestation, are threatened with extinction. China has six species of gibbons, each of which is critically endangered. We present new biogeographical information on the distribution of the black crested gibbon (Nomascus concolor). Four subspecies of N. concolor have been described: three of them are present east of the Mekong River (Nomascus concolor jingdongensis, N. c. concolor and N. c. lu); and another is found west of the Mekong River (N. c. furvogaster). In addition, there has been speculation that gibbons exist in the Biluo Snow Mountains, between the Mekong and Salween basins. To clarify the biogeography of this species, from April 2011 to January 2012 and from January 2016 to September 2018, we conducted interviews with local villagers, completed line transect surveys, monitored gibbon calls, and placed 30 camera traps in the forest canopy. On October 30, 2016, we recorded gibbon's calls. On July 5, 2016, our camera traps obtained one image of a male gibbon, and on February 1 and 8, 2017, we captured two independent images of an adult female gibbon on Zhiben Mountains. Based on the black crest on the head, clearly visible in the photographs, the gibbons are N. c. furvogaster. Evidence from interviews and survey records indicate that N. c. furvogaster once was present in the Zhiben Mountains, at an altitude of between 2000 and 2700 m. Between 1990 and 2000, some 6-7 groups still existed in Caojian, Laowo and adjacent areas. Unfortunately, in the absence of an effective conservation strategy, the population was extirpated by hunters. The remaining forest in the Zhiben Mountains is highly fragmented, and most of the suitable habitat for gibbons has been lost. Therefore, we expect that this newly found gibbon population is under extreme anthropogenic pressure. It is imperative that further investigations of this gibbon population be conducted immediately, and that the local and national governments implement effective conservation plans, including educating the local communities to protect this critically endangered primate population.

3.
World J Gastroenterol ; 25(44): 6571-6578, 2019 Nov 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31802836

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Most melanomas identified in the stomach are metastatic; primary gastric melanoma (PGM) is extremely rare, and the relevant studies are relatively scarce. PGM may be incorrectly diagnosed as other gastric malignant tumor types. CASE SUMMARY: We describe a rare case of PGM confirmed through long-term clinical observation and pathological diagnosis. A 67-year-old woman presented to our hospital with recurrent chest tightness and chest pain. Digital gastrointestinal radiography revealed a circular shadow in the gastric cardia. Computed tomography (CT) revealed a heterogeneous tumor with uneven enhancement. Enlarged lymph nodes were noted in the lesser curvature of the stomach. On magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), T1- and T2-weighted imaging revealed hyperintensity in and hypointensity in the tumor, respectively, both of which increased substantially after uneven enhancement. Near total gastrectomy was performed, and the tumor was pathologically confirmed to be a gastric melanoma. Because no other possible primary site of malignant melanoma was suspected, a clinical diagnosis of PGM was made. The patient was followed for nearly 5 years, during which she received CT reexamination, but no recurrence or metastasis was observed. CONCLUSION: Certain imaging characteristics could be revealed in PGM. Imaging examination can be of great value in preoperative diagnosis, differential diagnosis, and follow-up of patients with PGM.

5.
Theriogenology ; 2019 Oct 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31711688

RESUMO

Genetic modification provides a means to enhancing disease resistance in animals. In this study, the first generation of genetically modified (GM) sheep overexpressing TLR4 was produced by microinjection for better disease resistance. To compare semen characteristics including sperm quality, seminal plasma biochemical index, sperm DNA methylation and pregnancy rate of three-year old transgenic sheep with TLR4 overexpressed (toll like receptor 4, TLR4) and non-transgenic ram. Sixteen transgenic ram of F0 generation were produced by microinjection of the TLR4 plasmid into the pronucleus of fertilized ova. Seven transgenic sheep of F1 generation was produced by breeding F0 transgenic founders with non-transgenic sheep of the same breed. There were no significant differences between transgenic and control rams for all semen quality parameters, including semen volume, sperm concentration, sperm viability, and percentages of sperm with an intact plasma membrane, acrosomal integrity, and viable sperm with high mitochondrial membrane potential in both F0 and F1 generation. Furthermore, no significant differences were found for seminal plasma concentrations of zinc, neutral alpha-glucosidase, acid phosphatase or fructose, nor for levels of H19 and IGF2R methylation in sperm DNA. In addition, pregnancy rate was also similar between these two groups. In conclusion, there was no evidence that TLR4 overexpression altered the sperm quality, seminal plasma or sperm DNA of transgenic sheep.

6.
Brain Behav ; : e01473, 2019 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31743612

RESUMO

AIMS: Idiopathic congenital nystagmus (ICN) is an oculomotor disorder caused by the defects in the ocular motor control regions of the brain. Mutations in FRMD7, a member of the FERM family of proteins, associated with cytoskeletal dynamics, are the most frequent causes of X-linked ICN. Previous studies illustrated that FRMD7 is involved in the elongation of neurites during neuronal development; however, almost all the studies were performed on mice cell models. The complexity in the human neuronal network might suggest a unique vulnerability of human neurons to FRMD7 mutations. METHODS: Herein, we successfully established human neuronal cell models with FRMD7 mutations, from fibroblasts-reprogrammed neurons (iNs). In these neurons, the complexity of the neuronal processes was measured by the induced ratio, total neurite length, the number of terminals, and the number of maturation neurons. RESULTS: The complexity of the neuronal processes was greatly reduced during various reprogramming stages in the presence of FRMD7 mutations. Consistently, the expression of the three main Rho GTPases was significantly increased by FRMD7 mutations. Interestingly, a slightly diverse phenotype is observed in different derived neurons. CONCLUSION: We established ideal human neuron models and confirmed that the mutation in FRMD7 influences the maturation and complexities of neuronal processes, which might be involved with the Rho GTPase signaling.

7.
EMBO Mol Med ; : e9386, 2019 Nov 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31782617

RESUMO

Human caspase-4 and its mouse homolog caspase-11 are receptors for cytoplasmic lipopolysaccharide. Activation of the caspase-4/11-dependent NLRP3 inflammasome is required for innate defense and endotoxic shock, but how caspase-4/11 is modulated remains unclear. Here, we show that mice lacking the oxidative stress sensor glutathione peroxidase 8 (GPx8) are more susceptible to colitis and endotoxic shock, and exhibit reduced richness and diversity of the gut microbiome. C57BL/6 mice that underwent adoptive cell transfer of GPx8-deficient macrophages displayed a similar phenotype of enhanced colitis, indicating a critical role of GPx8 in macrophages. GPx8 binds covalently to caspase-4/11 via disulfide bonding between cysteine 79 of GPx8 and cysteine 118 of caspase-4 and thus restrains caspase-4/11 activation, while GPx8 deficiency leads to caspase-4/11-induced inflammation during colitis and septic shock. Inhibition of caspase-4/11 activation with small molecules reduces the severity of colitis in GPx8-deficient mice. Notably, colonic tissues from patients with ulcerative colitis display low levels of Gpx8 and high caspase-4 expression. In conclusion, these results suggest that GPx8 protects against colitis by negatively regulating caspase-4/11 activity.

8.
Cell Rep ; 29(8): 2134-2143.e7, 2019 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31747588

RESUMO

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), the most common motor neuron disease, usually occurs in middle-aged people. However, the molecular basis of age-related cumulative stress in ALS pathogenesis remains elusive. Here, we found that mice deficient in NPGPx (GPx7), an oxidative stress sensor, develop ALS-like phenotypes, including paralysis, muscle denervation, and motor neurons loss. Unlike normal spinal motor neurons that exhibit elevated O-GlcNAcylation against age-dependent oxidative stress, NPGPx-deficient spinal motor neurons fail to boost O-GlcNAcylation and exacerbate ROS accumulation, leading to cell death. Mechanistically, stress-activated NPGPx inhibits O-GlcNAcase (OGA) through disulfide bonding to fine-tune global O-GlcNAcylation. Pharmacological inhibition of OGA rescues spinal motor neuron loss in aged NPGPx-deficient mice. Furthermore, expression of NPGPx in ALS patients is significantly lower than in unaffected adults. These results suggest that NPGPx modulates O-GlcNAcylation by inhibiting OGA to cope with age-dependent oxidative stress and protect motor neurons from degeneration, providing a potential therapeutic axis for ALS.

9.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 17131, 2019 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31748592

RESUMO

In this study, we developed a portable smartphone-based diffusometry for analyzing the C-reactive protein (CRP) concentration. An optimized fluorescence microscopic add-on system for a smartphone was used to image the 300 nm fluorescent beads. Sequential nanobead images were recorded for a period and the image data were used for fluorescence correlation spectrometric (FCS) analysis. Through the analysis, the nanobeads' diffusion coefficient was obtained. Further, the diffusion coefficients of the anti-CRP-coated nanobeads, which were suspended in the samples with various CRP concentrations, were estimated using smartphone-based diffusometry. After 10 min of reaction, the anti-CRP-coated nanobeads in a higher CRP concentration solution led to a lower diffusion coefficient. Based on the experiments, a linear sensing range of 1~8 µg/mL was found.

10.
Brain Behav Immun ; 2019 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31751618

RESUMO

Neuroinflammation is a common pathological feature of many brain diseases and is a key mediator of blood-brain barrier (BBB) breakdown and neuropathogenesis. Adenosine is an endogenous immunomodulator, whose brain extracellular level is tightly controlled by equilibrative nucleoside transporters-1 (ENT1) and ENT2. This study was aimed to investigate the role of ENTs in the modulation of neuroinflammation and BBB function. The results showed that mRNA level of Ent2 was significantly more abundant than that of Ent1 in the brain (hippocampus, cerebral cortex, striatum, midbrain, and cerebellum) of wild-type (WT) mice. Ent2-/- mice displayed higher extracellular adenosine level in the hippocampus than their littermate controls. Repeated lipopolysaccharide (LPS) treatment induced microglia activation, astrogliosis and upregulation of proinflammatory cytokines, along with aberrant BBB phenotypes (including reduced tight junction protein expression, pericyte loss, and immunoglobulin G extravasation) and neuronal apoptosis in the hippocampus of WT mice. Notably, Ent2-/- mice displayed significant resistance to LPS-induced neuroinflammation, BBB breakdown, and neurotoxicity. These findings suggest that Ent2 is critical for the modulation of brain adenosine tone and deletion of Ent2 confers protection against LPS-induced neuroinflammation and neurovascular-associated injury.

11.
BMC Nephrol ; 20(1): 427, 2019 Nov 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31752748

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The commonly used recommended criteria for renal recovery are not unequivocal. This study compared five different definitions of renal recovery in order to evaluate long-term outcomes of cardiac surgery associated acute kidney injury (CSA-AKI). METHODS: Patients who underwent cardiac surgery between April 2009 and April 2013 were enrolled and divided into acute kidney injury (AKI) and non-AKI groups. The primary endpoint was 3-year major adverse events (MAEs) including death, new dialysis and progressive chronic kidney disease (CKD). We compared five criteria for complete renal recovery: Acute Renal Failure Trial Network (ATN): serum creatinine (SCr) at discharge returned to within baseline SCr + 0.5 mg/dL; Acute Dialysis Quality Initiative (ADQI): returned to within 50% above baseline SCr; Pannu: returned to within 25% above baseline SCr; Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO): eGFR at discharge ≥60 mL/min/1.73 m2; Bucaloiu: returned to ≥90% baseline estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). Multivariate regression analysis was used to compare risk factors for 3-year MAEs. RESULTS: The rate of complete recovery for ATN, ADQI, Pannu, KDIGO and Bucaloiu were 84.60% (n = 1242), 82.49% (n = 1211), 60.49% (n = 888), 68.60% (n = 1007) and 46.32% (n = 680). After adjusting for confounding factors, AKI with complete renal recovery was a risk factor for 3-year MAEs (OR: 1.69, 95% CI: 1.20-2.38, P <  0.05; OR: 1.45, 95% CI: 1.03-2.04, P <  0.05) according to ATN and ADQI criteria, but not for KDIGO, Pannu and Bucaloiu criteria. We found that relative to patients who recovered to within 0% baseline SCr or recovered to ≥100% baseline eGFR, the threshold values at which significant differences in 3-year MAEs were observed were > 30% or > 0.4 mg/dL above baseline SCr or < 70% of baseline eGFR. CONCLUSIONS: ADQI or ATN-equivalent criteria may overestimate the extent of renal recovery, while KDIGO, Pannu and Bucaloiu equivalent criteria may be more appropriate for clinical use. Our analyses revealed that SCr at discharge > 30% or > 0.4 mg/dL of baseline, or eGFR < 70% of baseline led to significant 3-year MAE incidence differences, which may serve as hints for new definitions of renal recovery.

12.
CNS Neurosci Ther ; 2019 Nov 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31755235

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate potential genetic overlap between essential tremor and Parkinson's disease in a cohort of 825 subjects from an Eastern Chinese population. METHODS: A total of 441 Parkinson's disease patients and 384 healthy controls were recruited. The MassARRAY System was used to detect three essential tremor-related single nucleotide polymorphisms. Odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidential interval (CI) were calculated to assess the relationship between polymorphisms and Parkinson's disease susceptibility. RESULTS: Our results demonstrated that the odds ratios of rs3794087 of SLC1A2, rs9652490 of LINGO1, and rs17590046 of PPARGC1A were 0.71 (95% CI = 0.55-0.91), 0.99 (95% CI = 0.78-1.26), and 0.88 (95% CI = 0.62-1.25), respectively. CONCLUSION: An essential tremor SNP (rs3794087 of SLC1A2) is associated with a decreased risk of PD in the Eastern Han Chinese population, while rs9652490 (LINGO1) and rs17590046 (PPARGC1A) do not show an association.

13.
World Neurosurg ; 2019 Nov 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31760185

RESUMO

OBJECT: Endovascular embolization with transvenous sinus preservation using balloon is at present the preferred modality for DAVFs involving venous sinuses (sagittal, transvers and sigmoid) with potential drainage function. The aim of the study was to evaluate the necessity and medium-term efficacy of this technique. METHODS: Patients with DAVFs involving large sinuses, who underwent vascular embolization with transvenous balloon protection technique at our center from December 2012 to July 2017 were retrospectively reviewed. The clinical symptoms, post-operative and mid-term follow-up imaging results, perioperative complications and follow-up clinical outcomes were analyzed. RESULTS: Eighteen patients (8 females and 10 males) with mean age 49 years were included in this study. Complete (16/18) or near-complete (1/18) occlusion of original fistula was achieved in 17 patients (94.4%). Recurrence of original fistula (1/18) or de novo fistula (3/18) occurred in 4 patients (22.2%). The patency rate of balloon-protected sinus was 72.2% (13/18) during the follow-up, and the involved sinuses were eventually occluded in 5 patients (27.8%). The frequency of de novo fistulas was higher in patients with sinus occlusion (p<0.05). Stenosis of the involved sinus was more likely related to balloon-protected sinus occlusion (p<0.05). After a mean follow-up of 17.6 months, seventeen patients (94.4%) achieved remission of the original symptoms. CONCLUSION: Transvenous balloon protection technique maintains sinus patency in most cases, and pre-operative stenosis increases the probability of sinus occlusion. De novo fistula is related to sinus occlusion during the follow-up.

14.
J Leukoc Biol ; 2019 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31729784

RESUMO

Bortezomib suppressing NF-κB activity is an effective therapy for patients with myeloma or lymphoma. However, this drug can cause adverse effects, neutropenia, and recurrent infections of herpes viruses. Among herpes viruses, HSV-1 can reactivate to induce mortality. The important issues regarding how bortezomib diminishes neutrophils, whether bortezomib can induce HSV-1 reactivation, and how bortezomib exacerbates HSV-1 infection, need investigation. Using the murine model, we found that bortezomib induced HSV-1 reactivation. Bortezomib diminished neutrophil numbers in organs of uninfected and HSV-1-infected mice and turned a nonlethal infection to lethal with elevated tissue viral loads. In vitro results showed that bortezomib and HSV-1 collaborated to enhance the death and apoptosis of mouse neutrophils. The leukocyte deficiency induced by chemotherapies is generally believed to be the cause for aggravating virus infections. Here we show the potential of pathogen to exacerbate chemotherapy-induced leukocyte deficiency.

15.
Anal Chem ; 2019 Nov 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31729866

RESUMO

The direct qualitative identification of pure liquids in laboratories and in security checks is generally performed by the detection of the refractive index or the permittivity. However, refractive indices are strongly influenced by temperature, while the permittivities of some organics are difficult to differentiate. On the other hand, the quantitative monitoring of samples with high concentration in plating baths and in chemical production lines are generally performed via a "Sampling-Dilution-Analysis" approach because of significant deviations from the linear range at high concentration, which makes the real-time monitoring of concentrated samples difficult. Here, we propose a self-reference analysis (SRA) method to directly analyze pure liquids and concentrated samples based on temperature difference absorption spectra (TDAS) without the need for dilution. This method was performed by simultaneously scanning the spectra of the reference and the sample, which are both obtained from the same analyte for detection but are at different temperatures. Compared to conventional absorption spectra with a blank reference, the red-shifted peak wavelengths of TDAS enable the detection of many far UV absorptive compounds in the near-ultraviolet region (λ > 190 nm). More importantly, organic compounds with similar structures can be easily distinguished. In addition, TDAS can also be used for the quantitative detection of concentrated analytes. The proposed SRA-TDAS method is a rapid and effective method; this approach does not require dilution and utilizes a self-reference, implying the wide potential applicability in security checks, and the real-time monitoring of concentrated compounds in chemical production lines.

16.
Asian J Psychiatr ; 47: 101843, 2019 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31731143

RESUMO

AIMS & OBJECTIVES: Age differences exist in many aspects in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). The present study aims to examine the effect of age on treatment outcomes in first-episode MDD. METHODOLOGY: A total of 982 first-episode major depressive patients, who were above 18 years old and admitted in both psychiatric hospitals and units of general hospitals were recruited for the present study. These patients were newly treated and responded to 8-12 weeks of antidepressant treatment. Depressive symptoms, psychosocial functioning and quality of life were measured using standardized instruments. The study population was divided into three age groups: early adult (18-44 years old), middle adult (45-59 years old), and late adult (60-85 years old). RESULTS: Earlier age was associated with greater symptom severity, severer depressive symptoms in hypersomnia, concentration/decision making, negative view of the self, suicide ideation and restlessness, more impaired function, poorer satisfaction in social relationship and economic status, when compared to late adults with MDD (all P < 0.05). In the multivariable analyses, among the other variables, early age remained as an independent correlation of residual depressive severity (middle age vs. early age: OR = 0.631, 95%CI[0.462, 0.862]; old age vs. early age: OR = 0.521, 95%CI[0.348, 0.780]) and functional impairment. Comorbidity of physical illness had a negative contribution to all treatment outcomes. CONCLUSION: In first major depressive episode, early age was strongly associated with depressive severity and functional impairment after responding to antidepressant treatment. Early-life depression may be an indicator of MDD for poor clinical outcomes and high clinical burden.

17.
Immunotherapy ; 11(15): 1325-1335, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31578914

RESUMO

Aim: The long-term efficacy of cytokine-induced killer cellular therapy for hepatocellular carcinoma patients after curative treatments remains controversial. Methods: A meta-analysis was conducted, and the outcomes were the recurrence rate and overall survival. Results: Eight randomized clinical trials with 1038 participants were included. Compared with the control group, cytokine-induced killer cellular therapy group could reduce 1-year, 3-year recurrence rates, as well as improve 1-5 years overall survival for hepatocellular carcinoma patients (p < 0.05). However, it failed to affect the 5-year recurrence rate and 6-year overall survival (p > 0.05). Conclusion: Cytokine-induced killer cellular adjuvant therapy exerted a favorable role in improving early and long-term efficacy for hepatocellular carcinoma patients.

18.
Biomed Res Int ; 2019: 5953619, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31662984

RESUMO

The use of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) has been proven benefits, but it also has adverse events in colorectal cancer (CRC) chemotherapy. In this study, we explored the mechanism of 5-FU resistance by bioinformatics analysis of the NCBI public dataset series GSE81005. Fifteen hub genes were screened out of 582 different expressed genes. Modules of the hub genes in protein-protein interaction networks gathered to TOP2α showed a decrease in HCT-8 cells but an increase in 5-FU-resistant HCT-8/5-FU cells with 5-FU exposure. Downregulation of TOP2α with siRNA or miR-494 transfection resulted in an increase of cytotoxicity and decrease of cell colonies to 5-FU for HCT-8/5-FU cells. Moreover, we found that an ethanol extract of Spica Prunellae (EESP), which is a traditional Chinese medicine with clinically beneficial effects in various cancers, was able to enhance the sensitivity of 5-FU in HCT-8/5-FU cells and partly reverse the 5-FU resistance effect. It significantly helped suppress cell growth and induced cell apoptosis in HCT-8/5-FU cells with the expression of TOP2α being significantly suppressed, which increased by 5-FU. Consistently, miR-494, which reportedly regulates TOP2α, exhibited reverse trends in EESP/5-FU combination treatment. These results suggested that Spica Prunellae may be beneficial in the treatment of 5-FU-resistant CRC patients.

19.
Int J Pharm ; 570: 118663, 2019 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31493497

RESUMO

Nanoformulations with advantages in drug delivery, safety and pharmacodynamics have been booming as a promising strategy for cancer therapy. However, the traditional nanocarrier still suffers from the low drug loading capacity, potential systematic toxicity, unclear metabolism, and other uncertainties. To overcome these issues, carrier-free nanodrugs with desirable bioactivity were developed rapidly and drawn considerable attention. Meanwhile, the multifunctional self-delivery nanoarcheticture fabricated by a simple and "green" method, has significant advantages in synergistic cancer therapy and inhibition of multidrug resistant (MDR). Till now, carrier-free nanoparticles for tumor theranostics, phototherapy, chemotherapy, diagnose and synergistic therapy, have made outstanding progress. In this review, we make an integrated and exhaustive overview of lately reports on carrier-free nanodrug delivery systems formed by several active agents. We summarize the self-assembly and modified strategies, with emphasis on application superiority of carrier-free nanocrystal, and give new insight into the establishment of ideal nanosystems for cancer treatment.

20.
World Neurosurg ; 2019 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31493611

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate outcomes and prognostic factors of ruptured middle cerebral artery (MCA) aneurysms, treated via endovascular approach, with improving treatment materials and techniques. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 185 consecutive patients, admitted with acutely ruptured MCA aneurysms and treated by endovascular methods between 2006 and 2016, were retrospectively reviewed. Their baseline characteristics, procedure-related complications, and angiographic and clinical outcomes were collected. Univariate analysis and logistic regression analysis were completed to identify any association between procedure-related complications or clinical outcomes and potential risk factors. RESULTS: Procedure-related complications occurred in 28 patients (15.1%), including aneurysm rebleeding in 7 (3.8%), hematoma expansion in 10 (5.4%), and ischemia in 13 (7.0%) (concurrent hemorrhage and ischemia in 2 patients), which resulted in morbidity/mortality of 7% and 1.4%. Final evaluations indicated that 153 patients (82.7%, 153/185) had a good outcome (modified Rankin Scale score 0-2). Among 120 (69.4%) who underwent angiographic follow-up, 89 (74.2%) were completely occluded and 20/120 (16.7%) were recanalized. Multivariate analysis of clinical outcome indicated that a high preoperative Hunt and Hess grade (IV-V), intrasylvian/intracerebral hematoma, and early period treatment (2006-2013) were associated with unfavorable outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: Endovascular treatment for patients with ruptured middle cerebral artery aneurysms may offer favorable clinical and angiographic outcomes. With the evolution of treatment materials and updated techniques, treatment complications have become less common than previously reported in literature, and clinical outcomes have been improved in recent years.

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